Maternal near-miss and death among women with postpartum haemorrhage: a secondary analysis of the Nigeria Near-miss and Maternal Death Survey.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the burden and health service events surrounding severe maternal outcomes (SMO) related to life-threatening postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in Nigerian public tertiary hospitals. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional study. SETTING: Forty-two tertiary hospitals. POPULATION: Women admitted for pregnancy, childbirth or puerperal complications. METHODS: All cases of SMO [maternal near miss (MNM) or maternal death (MD)] due to PPH were prospectively identified using WHO criteria over a 1-year period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of SMO, health service events, case fatality rate (CFR) and mortality index (MI: % of death/SMO). RESULTS: Postpartum haemorrhage occurred in 2087 (2.2%) of the 94 835 deliveries recorded during the study period. A total of 354 (0.3%) women had an SMO (103 MD; 251 MNM). It was the most frequent obstetric haemorrhagic complication across hospitals. PPH had the highest maternal mortality ratio (112/100 000 live births) and the recorded MI (29.1%) and CFR (4.9%) were second only to that of ruptured uterus. About 83% of women with SMO were admitted in a critical condition with over 50% being referred. MD was more likely when PPH led to neurological (80.8%), renal (73.5%) or respiratory (58.7%) organ dysfunction. Although the timing of life-saving interventions was not statistically different between the cases of MD and MNM, close to one-quarter of women who died received critical intervention at least 4 hours after diagnosis of life-threatening PPH. CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum haemorrhage was a significant contributor to obstetric haemorrhage and SMO in Nigerian hospitals. Emergency obstetric services should be enhanced at the lower levels of healthcare delivery to reduce avoidable deaths from PPH. FUNDING: The original research that generated the data for this secondary analysis, and the publication of this secondary analysis, was funded by the UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), a cosponsored programme executed by the World Health Organization. We have no other funding issue to declare for our study. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: One hundred and three maternal deaths and 251 near-misses resulted from PPH in 42 Nigerian tertiary facilities in 1 year. (c) 2019 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.