Factors Affecting Continued Use of Subcutaneous Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA-SC): A Secondary Analysis of a 1-Year Randomized Trial in Malawi.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the supply- and demand-side factors influencing continued use of the injectable contraceptive subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC). METHODS: We conducted a 12-month randomized controlled trial in Malawi to measure DMPA-SC continuation rates. A total of 731 women presenting to clinic-based providers (CBPs) at 6 Ministry of Health clinics or to community health workers (CHWs) in rural communities were randomized to receive DMPA-SC administered by a provider or be trained to self-inject DMPA-SC. Data collectors contacted women after the reinjection window at 3, 6, and 9 months to collect data on discontinuation and women's experiences. Twelve months after enrollment or at early discontinuation, women had their final interview, including pregnancy testing. We compared continuation, pregnancy, and safety by whether DMPA-SC or self-injection training was provided by CHWs versus CBPs. We also conducted an exploratory analysis assessing the association between women's sociodemographic factors and the risk for discontinuation using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. FINDINGS: The type of provider did not seem to influence continuation, pregnancy, or safety. As reported previously, women in the self-injection group were significantly less likely to discontinue the method compared with women in the provider-administered group (hazard ratio, 0.43; P<.001). The risk for discontinuation was also different among health facility catchment sites (P<.001). No other assessed sociodemographic factors were found to significantly influence the risk for discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Public-sector CHWs can safely and effectively provide DMPA-SC and train women to self-inject DMPA-SC in low-resource settings. DMPA-SC continuation did not seem to be influenced by the type of provider, whether CBP or CHW, or women's sociodemographic characteristics. (c) Burke et al.