Sterilization procedures and related operations.
A biref review in nontechnical language of the various methods of surgical sterilization is presented. It covers: vasectomy, both by tying the vas deferens with silk ligatures and using clips and intravas devices; tubal ligation by the Pomeroy, Madlener, and Irving techniques; and laparoscopic and culdoscopic tubal ligation. The Irving technique is the most reliable but incurs more bleeding. Both laparoscopy and culdoscopy require special instruments but can be done through small incisions. Hysterectomy and oophorectomy are major gynecological procedures used for pathological conditions. Transvaginal chemical sterilization is no longer being used because of adverse reactions from the sclerosing agent.