International population policies, strategies and programmes.
A review of international population policies, strategies, programmes, and assistance. The development of national policies addressing population size, growth, distribution, and demographic factors is traced. The World Population Plan of Action, adopted by 135 states at the World Population Conference in Bucharest in 1974, is identified as the most important international population strategy. The general principles on which the plan is based, and its objectives and targets are presented and discussed. Other relevant strategies identified and discussed include the International Development Strategy for the 3rd Development Decade (expected to be adopted by the UN General Assembly) and the WHO-UNICEF declaration of health for all mankind by the year 2000. The increase in population assistance from 125 million in 1970 to 500 million dollars in 1980 is discussed. Over 80 governments have contributed to international population assistance, but most aid comes from less than a dozen countries and is channelled through multilateral organizations such as the UN Fund for Population Activities and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. 121 developing countries receive population assistance. Definite effects of this aid cannot be demonstrated, but a significant accomplishment in promoting awareness of population issues is recognized. Traditionally, donors have stressed fertility control as the major objective of their assistance, but recently some donors have revised their policies to emphasize such problems as migration, urbanization, refugees and aging. Priorities for resource allocation for population assistance are discussed.