Labor force participation and development.

Standing G
Geneva, International Labour Office, 1978. 267 p.

This monograph is a discussion of levels of and trends in labor force participation. The discussion focuses on the economic determinants of labor force participation, in both industrialized and industrializing countries. In each chapter concerned with individual, household, or labor market factors influencing the extent and/or pattern of participation, the neoclassical economic model is examined in light of available evidence and theoretical considerations. It is only as societies change from primitive, peasant economies to commercialized, urbanized economies that labor force participation is influenced by greater socioeconomic factors, e.g., the structure of the labor market, the relative opportunity wages, and the level of aggregate demand for labor. Low level participation is transferred intergenerationally in the low income classes. It is unclear what effect a rise in the level of female labor force participation would have on the class distribution of income. The greater male educational opportunities relative to female, the greater the chance for sexual dualism in the labor market place. A decline in fertility levels would increase female participation in the labor force and, in the long run, lower the competition for positions from entering young people. Increased education means increased labor force participation.

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