State policies and migration: studies in Latin America and the Caribbean
This book consists of analyses of various rural reform and industrial strategies in 8 Latin American and Caribbean countries: Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Cuba, and Guyana. Although many governments have expressed their concern over high rates of rural-urban migration and their determination to curb it, their policies have substantially contributed to that migration. Rural-urban migration has been linked with the transformation of traditional rural production impeding the growth of agricultural output and urban industrial employment. In order to change that pattern, it will be neccessary to make corresponding changes in the broader strategy of economic growth. The longterm analysis of agrarian change and migration in Chile has shown that the following have influenced migration: 1) the dependent insertion of the Chilean socioeconomic formation within the world capitalist system, 2) the pattern of internal capital accumulation, 3) state policies, 4) the land tenure structure, and 5) the way in which capitalism has developed within the rural sector. The 4 phases in the development of rural capitalism in Chile are discussed. After 10 years of implementation, the agrarian reform plan in Peru has proved a failure due to the overall economic policy. In addition, Mexican industrialization in the last 40 years has led to high levels of urbanization yet the population movement has failed due to poor economic policy and poor government structure. Also discussed are agrarian change in Ecuador, colonization in Brazil, and migration in Guyana and Cuba.