Gender, urban development and housing.
This UN Development Program Report for Habitat II is a preparatory report for the planned June 1996 Habitat II UN Conference on Human Settlements. The guide provides a review of past urban development policies, a selection of the best practices for replication, and a discussion of issues relating to the preparation of national urban action plans. This book reveals the variety of experiences of low-income women and urban housing in developing countries. Some key housing problems are identified. Poor women's housing is affected by the nature of national and local development, state housing services for the urban poor, norms of family and household organization, and gendered access to resources such as land, labor, and income. Case studies and research are presented from a range of countries over a recent 15 year period. The first chapter deals with the issues of gendered urban development: gendered urban migration, women's rural production activities, demand for female labor in towns, and imbalances in the sex ratio. Chapter two argues that female household members are disadvantaged and women's welfare is mediated by household characteristics. Chapter three discusses the link between work and shelter and the extent to which housing needs are met for hygiene, comfort, physical safety, tenure security, and flexibility of household form. The final chapter explores the implications of mainstreaming gender in urban planning.