Familial prostate cancer.
Familial prostate cancer is commonly defined as a family in which there are two first-degree relatives or one first-degree and at least two second-degree relatives with prostate cancer. Data on the familial component of prostate cancer and evidence to support a role of genetic susceptibility in this disease are reviewed in the article. The document presents data from case-control, cohort, cross-sectional, and twin studies, which provide consistent evidence for an inherited form of prostate cancer. Studies noted the role of inherited genes in the development of prostate cancer and suggested that this effect is independent of environmental factors. As such, segregation analyses were undertaken to characterize the genetic models that may explain the familial/hereditary pattern of prostate cancer incidence. Moreover, six prostate cancer susceptibility loci have been identified: 1q24-25, 1q42, 1q27-28, Xq27-28, 1p36, and 20q13 and 17p. The study implies that the identification of men prone to develop prostate cancer based on their genetic background may be used to target prevention programs.