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  1. 1

    Assessment of the reimbursement mechanism and a cost analysis of voluntary surgical contraception services in Indonesia: final report.

    Gani A; Rustamadji H; Vogel R; Richardson P; Harvey R

    Bethesda, Maryland, University Research Corporation [URC], 1989 May. iii, 107 p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3030-C-00-5043-00)

    The National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) has a reimbursement policy to assist service units in providing voluntary sterilization (VS). The purpose of this reimbursement policy is to provide service units subsidies to partially cover their VS procedure costs. This policy ensures that VS is an affordable procedure for all potential clients. At present little is known about the reimbursement mechanism in the field. Therefore, this project was designed to 1) clarify the reimbursement system with an emphasis on identifying implementation obstacles, and 2) determine the unit cost of the VS procedure. The study involved a qualitative analysis of the reimbursement process and a quantitative analysis of service costs for VS. The purpose of this assessment component was to understand the allocation and use of VS cost reimbursement funds from the national to the VS service unit levels. Information was collected regarding local policies and regulations concerning VS reimbursement funds,provincial and district use, and flow to and within the VS service units. Two costs have been calculated: an investment cost and an operational cost. The investment cost in a service facility is based on an annual fixed cost of the building, operating facilities and training, divided by the number of VSs performed in one year. Per case operational costs were estimated by operating room personnel, and based on time spent performing the procedure, drugs and supplies. The data for this study were collected through sites visits in East Java and North Sumatra. Additional data were collected from a questionnaire that was mailed to PKMI Branches in 21 provinces. The VS providers have been utilizing reimbursement funds for different purposes. For example, in some government facilities, the fund is directly used for medicines, supplies, and staff honorariums. In other government facilities, the fund is given to the local government. In private VS facilities, the reimbursement fund is 1) viewed as hospital or clinic revenue, and 2) used to directly cover medicine, supplies and staff honorariums. Where the reimbursement amount is not enough to cover all operational costs, some additional amount is paid by the acceptor. The rapid increase in demand now exceeds the number of VS procedures that can be covered by the fund. Many service units experience delays in receiving reimbursement funds for the VS procedures already performed. A long delay in receiving the reimbursement limits the ability of service units to meet the current VS demand. The unit cost of VS procedures varies. The average total cost per VS procedure is Rp 39,520 for investment costs, Rp 7,570 for direct and indirect staff time, and Rp 15,978 for drugs and supplies. If general anaesthesia is used, the cost is slightly higher; i.e., Rp 69,685. This includes Rp 39,520 for investment costs, Rp 11,722 for direct and indirect staff time, and Rp 18,623 for drugs and supplies. The cost analysis shows that the Rp 10,000 reimbursement covers only 53.7%- 62.3% of drug and supply costs; or 32.9% - 42.5% of the operational cost (drug, supplies and staff time); or 14.4% - 15.9% of the total cost. The deficit affects the budgeting of the respective service unit. Even though a service unit is willing to sacrifice staff time and investment cost, the reimbursement amount is far below the amount required for necessary medicines and supplies. Without changes in the reimbursement system and increase in the reimbursement amount, the service units will not be able to fulfill the increasing demand for VS. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Quantitative meanings of verbal probability expressions.

    Reagan RT; Mosteller F; Youtz C

    Journal of Applied Psychology. 1989; 74(3):433-442.

    The meanings of 18 verbal probability expressions were studied in 3 ways: (a) frequency distributions of what single number best represented each expression; (b) word-to-number acceptability functions from what range of numbers from 0% to 100% best represented each expression; and (c) number-to-word acceptability functions from which expressions were appropriate for multiples of 5% from 5% to 95%. These results agreed highly with others and were highly consistent across methods. Expressions incorporating the stem probable were quantitatively synonymous with expressions incorporating the stem likely. Except for expressions using the word chance, positive expressions (e.g., likely) were closer to 50% in meaning than corresponding negative expressions (e.g., unlikely). This method proved very useful in deriving fuzzy-set membership functions for probability words, encouraging us in our ongoing codification effort. (author's)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Laparoscopic retrieval of transmigrated IUDs (report of 3 cases).

    Virkud AM; Shah SK

    Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 1989; 35(2):116-117.

    Three cases in whom transmigrated IUDs were removed with operative laparoscope are presented. Laparoscopy has been used for the diagnosis of perforated or transmigrated intra-utetrine contraceptive devices (IUD). In experienced hands, the operative laparoscope can also be used for their retrieval, thus avoiding exploratory laparotomy. Three case reports of perforated IUDs removed by Laparoscopy at B. Y. L. Nair Hospital are reported here. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Associations of timing of puberty, spatial ability, and lateralization in adult women.

    Newcombe N; Dubas JS; Baenninger MA

    Child Development. 1989 Feb; 60(1):246-254.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether timing of puberty is related to spatial ability in adult women, and whether, if so, the relation could be attributed to timing-related differences in hemispheric specialization and/or timing-related differences in personality and spatial activity. 53 female undergraduates were given 2 tests of spatial ability, tests of both right-hemispheric and left-hemispheric specialization using tachistoscopic procedures, several tests assessing masculinity and femininity, and a questionnaire on spatial activity. They were also asked to recall their age at menarche. Later age at menarche was associated with greater right-hemispheric advantage on the dot location task but not with higher spatial ability. Spatial ability in this sample was in fact correlated with greater left-hemispheric advantage on the dot location task, as well as with more balanced hemispheric specialization on the syllable task. It is suggested that variability in findings regarding cognitive correlates of timing of puberty may be related to variability in strategies for approaching tasks. The implications of these data for efforts to explain sex-related differences in spatial ability are discussed. (author's)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Economic hardship, parenting, and distress in adolescence.

    Lempers JD; Clark-Lempers D; Simons RL

    Child Development. 1989 Feb; 60(1):25-39.

    The relation between family economic hardship and adolescent distress among secondary school students in a small Midwestern community was investigated. According to prior results, family hardship has both direct and indirect effects on adolescent distress. The indirect effects come about through stress-induced changes in parental nurturance and parental discipline. The findings of this study showed that hardship effects varied according to type of distress. For females as well as males, economic hardship had both direct and indirect effects on a depression-loneliness distress factor. The indirect effects occurred through less parental nurturance and more inconsistent discipline. No direct effect of economic hardship was found for either males or females on a distress factor composed of delinquency and drug use items. For both females and males, however, an indirect effect of family economic hardship on the delinquency-drug use factor was found with inconsistent parental discipline as the mediating variable. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Welfare and work in Chicago's inner-city.

    Tienda M

    Chicago, Illinois, University of Chicago, Population Research Center, 1989 Dec. [40] p. (Population Research Center Discussion Paper Series OSC 90-1 (PRC))

    This paper examines the duration of welfare spells using the Urban Family Life Survey conducted in Chicago in 1978. Life table techniques are used to investigate the issue of chronic dependence and to compare the conditional exit probabilities for black, white, Mexican and Puerto Rican mothers. An event history analysis is used to assess how employment influences the probability of exiting AFDC. Results show that experiences with welfare differ markedly by race and ethnicity, with the longest spells corresponding to black and Puerto Rican mothers. Although black and Puerto Rican mothers reported fewer years of work experience than white and Mexican mothers prior to an episode of dependence, employment provided an avenue to self-sufficiency, but similar effects did not emerge for the latter. On balance the results suggest that programs emphasizing skill enhancement and employability of minority women might serve both to prevent bouts of dependence and to shorten spells that do occur. (author's)
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  7. 7

    Further tests of the confluence model.

    Retherford RD; Sewell WH

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989. 53 p. (CDE Working Paper No. 89-31)

    Confluence theory was originally developed to explain the negative effect of birth order on intelligence, as well as some peculiar effects of birth order on the intelligence of last-born children, in a large set of Dutch data. Subsequently the theory was elaborated to explain positive effects and nonlinear relationships between birth order and intelligence in other data sets. This paper identifies fundamental flaws in the methodology used to fit the confluence model to data. It is shown that earlier claims of excellent fits to data are based on statistically unsound methodology, and that in fact the fits are very poor when the analysis is done correctly. An alternative analysis, based on a within-family study design that utilizes sibling pairs indexed by birth order in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, finds no evidence of birth order effects on intelligence. (author's)
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  8. 8

    The use of intentions data to predict behavior: a best-case analysis.

    Manski CF

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989 Oct. 27 p. (CDE Working Paper No. 89-23)

    In surveys individuals are routinely asked to predict their future behavior, that is, to state their intentions. This paper studies the relationship between stated intentions and subsequent behavior under the "best-case" hypothesis that individuals have rational expectations and that their responses to intentions questions are best predictions of their future behavior. The objective is to place an upper bound on the behavioral information contained in intentions data and to determine whether prevailing approaches to the analysis of intentions data respect the bound. The analysis focusses on the simplest form of intentions questions, those that call for yes/no predictions of binary outcomes, The paper also discusses "forced-choice" questions, which are distinct from but are sometimes confused with intentions questions. A primary lesson is that not too much should be expected of intentions data, It is shown that intentions data bound but do not identify the probability that a person will behave in a given way. The derived bounds are nonparametrically estimable and may be used to test the best-case hypothesis. Contrary to assertions in the literature, there is no reason to think that individual-level differences between intentions and behavior should "average-out" in the aggregate. (author's)
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  9. 9

    Modeling retention and attrition of longitudinal members of the 1984 SIPP panel: implications for analysis.

    David MH

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989 Aug 1. [23] p. (CDE Working Paper No. 89-24)

    The 1984 SIPP design produces a panel of eight or nine interviews with individuals sampled in a period from October 1983 to January 1984. Individuals over 14 years of age were followed until the panel terminated in July 1986. Data were collected on the four months prior to each interview and interviews were taken at four-month intervals. Information is available for months that we index from 1 to 38. Income measurements are available for months 1 to 36. According to this index, the first interview takes place in month 5; and the reference period for that interview is months 1-4. The potentiality for using detailed information on the SIPP sample for dynamic analysis over the this period is challenging, but also raises vexing questions about how to define a longitudinal sample and what effect noninterviews and attrition have on the representativeness of the population that responds for the intervals required by the analysis. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    The two faces of divorce: women's and children's interests.

    McLanahan SS

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989 Dec. 30 p. (CDE Working Paper No. 89-25)

    In this paper I examine the consequences of divorce and single parenthood in terms of women's and children's well-being. Theory as well as empirical evidence lends support to the notion that, on balance, the recent increase in divorce is indicative of an overall gain in women's well-being. In contrast, new data from longitudinal surveys suggest that the long-term effects of living apart from a parent are negative for children. After weighing the individual and social costs of divorce, I describe the policies that seem to be in order--those designed to improve the economic well-being of single mothers and their children, with particular attention to child support reform and employment and training programs. (author's)
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  11. 11

    Women's economic dependency and men's support obligations: economic relations within households.

    Sorensen A; McLanahan S

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989 May. [29] p. (CDE Working Paper No. 89-26)

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the support obligations and dependency that characterized gender relations in American households during the period from 1967 to 1981. We propose some simple measures of men and women's status, including whether they support other adults, whether they depend on other adults for support, or whether they are independent. These measures allow us to determine if there has been a qualitative change in economic relations between the sexes. They are supplemented with two measures which gauge the magnitude of men and women's dependency and support obligations. Our primary focus is on support relations between adults. While obligations toward children may also encourage individual growth and achievement, obligations toward adults have an additional advantage: they increase one's ability to enlist the assistance of other adults in the pursuit of individual achievement. Similarly, whereas children's dependence on parents is assumed to enhance rather than undermine their life chances, the dependence of adult women on men is viewed as more problematic for women and more beneficial for men. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Demographic and social trends and women in poverty.

    Ware H

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1989 Feb 8. 40 p.

    Development planners have too long neglected women's economic needs which are growing as a consequence of both demographic and social changes. Principal demographic factors involved are the increase in the proportion of women bearing children without permanent partners, changing migration patterns which split up nuclear families, and other forms of marital breakdown. Trends in widowhood play a more equivocal role. Social factors, especially the decline in mutual help within extended families and increasing male biases in the distribution of benefits within households - both themselves associated with impoverishment - are more important factors in women's growing poverty than the impact of demographic trends. Responsive strategies to increase women's income earning opportunities need to be based on women's own perceptions of priority needs and do not vary with the marital or headship status of the women concerned. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    The Determinants and Consequences of Female Headed Households. Notes from Seminar III of the Seminar Series. Determinants of Households Headed or Maintained by Women: Considerations of the Lifecycle, April 10 and 11, 1989.

    Population Council; International Center for Research on Women [ICRW]

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1989. 22 p.

    The third seminar focussed attention on the process of family formation and poverty, considering the role of adolescent fertility, migration (both male and female), spousal separation and divorce, widowhood, and age differentials between spouses at marriage in the creation of women headed or maintained households. With reference to specific regions and countries, the seminar explored the magnitude and duration of female headed households and the welfare and development needs of households headed by women in different lifecycle stages. In addition, there was discussion on how we can use data available from international surveys such as the World Fertility Survey, the Demographic Health Surveys, and the Living Standards and Measurement Surveys to assess the magnitude and meaning of female maintenance of families, the duration of this status, and the numbers of dependents with whom women heads share their relatively impoverished status. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage in Canada.

    Wu Z; Balakrishnan TR

    London, Canada, University of Western Ontario, Population Studies Centre, 1989 Sep. 27 p. (Discussion Paper No. 89-7)

    An analysis of a national sample of Canadian women in the Canadian National Fertility Survey (1984) indicate that attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage are associated with their demographic, socioeconomic and cultural background. Eight attitudinal variables in the survey are used to construct the scales for the attitudes in a confirmatory factor analysis. Women who are in older ages, currently married, living in rural areas, with lower educational attainment, non-Catholic, having a higher frequency of church attendance and a higher desired number of children are found to be more conservative in their attitudes towards cohabitation and marriage. The study also finds that Quebec women tend to be more liberal than non-Quebec women. (author's)
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  15. 15

    Living with the past: The Songs of the Herero in Botswana.

    Alnaes K

    Africa. 1989; 59(3):267-299.

    'I am in the Batawana's country,' wrote the Herero chief Samuel Maharero to the British Magistrate in Tsau in Ngamiland on 28 September 1904. 'I am writing to tell you that I have been fighting with the Germans in may country; the Germans were my friends; they made me suffer so much by the manner in which they troubled me, that I fought with them...' (PRO CO 879/80). On the same date he wrote to the Tawana chief Sekgoma: 'I tell you that I have fought with the German, they trouble me and killed my people, then I was angry about that. I have fought with them for 8 (eight) months, and I have no ammunition to-day, this is the reason why I came here...' (PRO CO 879/86). These quotations reveal a man forced to acknowledge that he has been utterly deceived by his former friends the Germans; their brutalities against his people have caused him to turn against them and fight. Maharero and his people fought as long as they were able, but eventually they had to give up and seek refuge in neighbouring Botswana. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Women's agricultural production and political action in the Cameroon grassfields. [Production agricole et action politique des femmes dans la région Grassfield au Cameroun]

    Diduk S

    Africa. 1989; 59(3):338-355.

    In 1958 Kedjom women's societies provided the viable and instrumental idiom through which women could criticize the results of colonial policies that undermined their roles as producers of food and reproducers of children. Women's organisations like fombuen provided the framework that allowed women to gather together, make decisions and act as a group. The democratic nature of these organisations opened the way for full participation by all Kedjom women in the move to act against colonial policies. Women never spoke about being marginalised or disenfranchised in any way within the organisation. The irony is that the women who were viewed as threatening by the British colonial government and the traditional power structure built their organisation around societies that had received no public recognition by the British colonial government. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Kikuyu women and the Harry Thuku disturbances: some uniformities of female militancy.

    Wipper A

    Africa. 1989; 59(3):300-337.

    African men, like men everywhere, have dominated the public sphere holding the vast majority of official positions of power and authority. In pre-colonial African societies women were formally subordinate to male authority and male dominance was buttressed by an ideology of male superiority and a status system where women showed deference to men. But formal systems, ideologies and codes of etiquette are not realities. In some societies women wielded considerable influence and authority, so much in fact that these systems have been characterized as dual-sex political systems with each sex managing its own affairs (Okonjo, 1976). Women were not so much involved in hierarchical orders or relationships as in complementary, mutually dependent relationships. This article will focus on the collective activity of African women in the Harry Thuku 'Riot' in Kenya, 1922, which involved mass demonstrations, a clash with the authorities, and the loss of lives. It asks: what did the women do, how and why did they do it? I then briefly compare this example of militancy with women's activities in the Women's War in Nigeria, 1929, and the Anlu Uprising in the British Cameroons, 1958-59. Despite their formal subordination to men, in these incidents women challenged not only male but also colonial authority, sometimes successfully. This is not to imply that women in these societies wielded power or authority equal to that of men, but to show that, given certain conditions, institutions and traditions, women did achieve a strong political voice. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Law and order and the state in the Nyamwezi and Sukuma area of Tanzania.

    Abrahams R

    Africa. 1989; 59(3):356-370.

    My aim in this article is to look at some features of the development of legal and political institutions in this area during the colonial period as one phase in the larger history of governmental influence and control over the people there. I suggest that the state--in its various forms of chiefship, the colonial regime, and the independent Tanzanian government--has co-existed with and overlain a village level of political and legal organisation and know-how, and that all these forms have at some time come into conflict with this 'village polity'. This is not to deny important differences between the forms of government involved, and I will attempt to highlight some of these in my discussion, but it seems worthwhile to pay attention also to apparent continuities in the situation. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    The epidemiologic transition and morbidity.

    Riley JC; Alter G

    Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT], [1989]. 27 p. (Population Institute for Research and Training (PIRT) Working Paper No.10)

    Our objective here is to suggest the importance of examining changes in morbidity during the epidemiologic transition. Although attention has been drawn to changing causes of death, the transition in the prevalent types of disease identified by Omran has significant implications for the health of the surviving population. The transition is characterized by a shift from acute to chronic conditions, which can bring about an overall increase in the prevalence of poor health. We will examine briefly the mechanisms by which this can occur and describe its implications for a more complete theory of epidemiologic transition. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    How do we evaluate the effects of different social policies on health?

    Stolnitz GJ

    Bloomington, Indiana, Indiana University, Population Institute for Research and Training [PIRT], 1989 Jun. [46] p. (Population Institute for Research and Training (PIRT) Working Paper No. 25)

    A paper much longer than this one would be needed merely to summarize briefly the topics one might include as significant under my titular assignment. "Health" as conceived by researchers, leading policymakers and major agencies in the field may be limited to concern with mortality phenomena, be enlarged to encompass some or all disease and disability prevention or reduction ends and means, or be extended to embrace enormously flexible interpretations of well-being under alternative "holistic" approaches. Moreover, "health" in possible outcome terms would not exhaust the subject; equally relevant -- and multiple -- from evaluative viewpoints are the means or "inputs" relevant for achieving health effects. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Relationships between fathers and children who live apart.

    Seltzer JA

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989 May. [46] p. (National Survey of Families and Households. NSFH Working Paper No. 4)

    Nearly half of all children will spend time in a single-mother household. While the majority of children separated from their fathers have little contact with them, some fathers maintain close ties to their children. Wide variation in patterns of fathers' involvement suggests an absence of clear rules about fathers' responsibilities after separation. This paper uses data from the 1987-88 National Survey of Families and Households to describe three components of nonresidential fathers' involvement with children: social contact, economic involvement, and participation in childrearing decisions. The analysis shows that fathers' involvement with children varies depending on the circumstances of the children's birth and their current living arrangements. Nevertheless, the data suggest stability in the definition of the father role after separation, controlling for family characteristics. Just as fathers who live with their children spend time with them, provide for their material welfare, and exercise authority over them, fathers who live apart from their children combine these responsibilities. Fathers who visit are also more likely to pay child support and influence childrearing decisions. Notwithstanding the close correspondence between the three dimensions of paternal involvement, levels of involvement are low. Even among those who visit, fewer than two-fifths of fathers see their children weekly, and even among those who pay some child support, the annual payment is a small fraction of childrearing expenses. Thus, for most children born outside of marriage or whose parents divorce, the father role is defined as much by omission as by commission. (author's)
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  22. 22

    Violent acts and injurious outcomes in married couples: new data from the National Survey of Families and Households.

    Brush LD

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989 Apr 14. [23] p. (National Survey of Families and Households. NSFH Working Paper No. 6)

    Analysis of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) confirms earlier findings that much of the reported violence between married partners occurs in couples in which both partners are reported as perpetrators, and that women as well as men commit violent acts in married couples. In addition, the NSFH data indicate that the probabilities of injury for male and female respondents differ significantly, and wives are more likely to be injured than are husbands. Moreover, female respondents report that in cases in which both partners are acting violently, women are more likely to be hurt than are their partners. These findings add to the growing empirical evidence on women and violence and reinforce the need for continuing sociological research to understand the incidence and meanings of intimate violence. (author's)
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  23. 23

    Antecedents of parent-adult child coresidence.

    Aquilino WS

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989 Aug. 39 p. (National Survey of Families and Households. NSFH Working Paper No. 11)

    The influence of child, parent, and family structural characteristics on the likelihood of parents having a coresident adult child was estimated. Data from a representative national sample of parents (N=4,883) showed that parental dependency is not a major factor in coresidency at any point in the life course. The overwhelming majority of parents at all ages maintain their own households, and nearly all parents and adult children who coreside live in the parent's household. At all ages, parents are much more likely to provide a home for adult children than adult children are for their parents. Children's marital status was the strongest predictor of coresidence--only parents with unmarried adult children have any appreciable risk of having an adult child at home. Family structure exerted a strong influence on the probability of coresidence. Parents' marital dissolution and remarriage, and larger family size, decreased the likelihood of coresidence; parents with extended households were more likely to have a coresident adult child. There was no evidence for a cultural preference explanation of racial differences in coresidence rates. Marital status differences between black and white adult children completely accounted for racial differences in rates of coresidence. (author's)
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  24. 24

    Family background, the life cycle, and inter-household transfers.

    MacDonald MM

    Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1989 Dec. [50] p. (National Survey of Families and Households. NSFH Working Paper No. 13)

    Providing a perspective on the magnitude of inter-transfers relative to household income required income variables that refer to the income of all household adults. An advantage of the NSFH is that it obtained income reports from more than one respondent. However, when the main respondent was not the householder, the income reports are not complete for all household members. Hence another sample restriction is that the analysis excludes respondents who were not householders. Missing data for other explanatory variables and about the inter-transfers further reduces the weighted sample sizes in tables presented here. The main findings can be presented in three parts. The next section shows patterns of inter-transfers with respect to household type, age, family relationships, the reasons reported for the largest gifts and loans, and correlates with education, race, and household income. Averages for various types of household income and income in total are then compared to corresponding estimates of average inter-transfer amounts within broad age groups. Section III addresses some questions about family motives for inter-transfers with a Multiple Classification Analysis of the effects of gender, birth-order, family size, and other background characteristics on amounts of gifts and loans, first home aid, and inheritances. Section IV explores the determinants of gifts and loans further, to illustrate the relative impacts of various life-course events, such as marriage, divorce, and spells of nonemployment. The findings for the percentages that receive these transfers are also compared to the results of a parallel analysis of public assistance recipiency. The concluding remarks summarize briefly and suggest some issues for next steps. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    Does sex education corrupt? The case of Costa Rica. [¿La educación sexual corrompe? El caso de Costa Rica]

    Stycos JM

    Ithaca, New York, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, 1989 Dec. [37] p. (Population and Development Program Working Paper No. 1.19)

    Interviews with Costa Rican officials revealed considerable ambivalence and disagreement about the political and educational costs and benefits of formal programs of sex education. Advocates, especially those involved in family planning programs, argued that such programs help to curb high rates of teenage pregnancy and relieve some of the psychological stresses characteristic of adolescence. Opponents, especially those who were politically conservative or close to the Catholic Church, tended to believe that such instruction cannot adequately be handled in the classroom, and that it can cause or aggravate the very disorders it is supposed to prevent; i.e., increase psychological tensions and encourage sexual relations. Technically oriented professionals, such as Ministry of Education staff, often favored sex education in principle, but were concerned about the alleged negative attitudes of parents, teachers, and religious leaders. Indeed, these arguments are heard throughout Latin America, and are not unfamiliar in other parts of the world. This paper first addresses the question of the impact of sex education on the adolescent school population, and then examines the attitudes toward such programs on the part of students, parents, and teachers. (excerpt)
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