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Female garment workers' experiences of violence in their homes and workplaces in Bangladesh: A qualitative study.
Social Science and Medicine. 2017 Nov 21; 196:150-157.The ways in which women's engagement in paid work shapes their experiences of violence in the home and workplace is widely debated, particularly in Bangladesh, but rarely considered together. We undertook 23 in-depth interviews with female garment workers living in slums in Bangladesh, and nine interviews with key informants (factory managers and supervisors, male workers, and employees from non-governmental organisations). Data came from two studies conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh - the first between August and September 2011 and the second between June and August 2015 - and were analysed using thematic analysis. In both settings, women experienced similar forms of violence, including emotional, physical, sexual, and economic, although from different perpetrators. Despite violence in the home and violence in the workplace typically being considered separately, we identify four overlaps between them. First, violence in both settings is shaped by how patriarchal norms and structures of institutions intersect with institutions economic structures. Second, dominant representations of female garment workers as sex workers or sexually promiscuous enables violence against them. Third, economic violence is used as a way to control and limit women's autonomy. Fourth, women develop strategies to continue working and maximize the benefits of work for themselves. Finally, we suggest how interventions could work to prevent violence in the home and workplace. Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Medical Anthropology. 2017 Nov-Dec; 36(8):744-757.In this article, I investigate how particular discourses surrounding class specific understandings of sexual behavior and female morality shape awareness and views of the disease and personal vulnerability. Although both groups belong to the working class, those employed by the transportation board consider themselves government servants and, therefore, "respectable gentlemen." Construction workers identify easily with their class position, recognizing and sometimes trying to live up to the stereotypes of free sexuality. These different perceptions directly affect their concern and awareness of risk factors for sexually transmissible infections and safe-sex practices. While the "respectable gentlemen" consider themselves invulnerable, the "street-savvy men" learned about risks and took precautions to prevent STIs.
A workplace intervention program and the increase in HIV knowledge, perceived accessibility and use of condoms among young factory workers in Thailand.
SAHARA J. 2017 Dec; 14(1):132-139.Vulnerability to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among factory workers is a global problem. This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to increase AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use among young factory workers in Thailand. The intervention was a workplace program designed to engage the private sector in HIV prevention. A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2008 to measure program outcomes in factories in Thailand was used in this study. The workplace intervention included the development of policies for management of HIV-positive employees, training sessions for managers and workers, and distribution of educational materials and condoms. A multi-level analysis was used to investigate the effect of HIV/AIDS prevention program components at the workplace on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular sexual partners among 699 young factory workers (aged 18-24 years), controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. Interventions related to the management and services component including workplace AIDS policy formulation, condom services programs and behavioral change campaigns were found to be significantly related to increased AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular partners. The effect of the HIV/AIDS training for managers, peer leaders and workers was positive but not statistically significant. With some revision of program components, scaling up of workplace interventions and the engagement of the private sector in HIV prevention should be seriously considered.
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the HERhealth Model for Improving Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Knowledge and Access of Female Garment Factory Workers in Bangladesh.
Washington, D.C., Population Council, The Evidence Project, 2017 Sep. 52 p.This report describes the results from the evaluation of the HERhealth model, including: 1) The HERhealth intervention had a positive impact on knowledge and behavior related to menstrual hygiene, in part because of the intervention’s facilitation of relationships between factories and menstrual products suppliers, which made it possible for factories to offer reduced-cost sanitary pads to workers; 2) A positive impact was also observed on workers’ knowledge of STIs and HIV/AIDS, knowledge of recommended antenatal care, and use of contraception; 3) Factory managers reported observing positive effects on workers’ health-related knowledge, awareness, and behaviors, particularly related to hygiene and nutrition. Factory managers were generally supportive of the intervention and seemed to understand the value of healthy workers for improving business outcomes; and 4) Results show that family planning products like oral pill, condom, injectable, and IUDs were not provided by participating factory clinics, highlighting an important area for future investment and revision in the HERhealth intervention. The report also presents several recommendations for improving the sustainability of the HERhealth model: 1) Extend training content and duration: Many of the female factory workers who were exposed to the HERhealth program recommended more training on health-related issues; 2) Engage male workers: Factory managers suggested that sensitizing male workers could support positive changes in their spouse’s knowledge and behavior; and 3) Regular follow up: Particularly in the context of high turnover in this sector, regular follow up by the implementing agency with factories where the HERhealth intervention has been completed is important to ensure positive impacts are sustained.
Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Young Men Working at a Rural Roadside Market in Malawi.
Journal of the Association of Nurses In AIDS Care. 2017 Mar - Apr; 28(2):250-265.Using an ecological model, we describe substance use and sexual risk behaviors of young male laborers at a roadside market in Malawi. Data included observations and interviews with 18 key market leaders and 15 laborers (ages 18-25 years). Alcohol, marijuana, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) were widely available. We identified three patterns of substance use: 6 young men currently used, 6 formerly used, and 3 never used. Substance use was linked to risky sex, including sex with CSWs. The market supported risky behaviors through availability of resources; supportive norms, including beliefs that substance use enhanced strength; and lack of restraints. Community-level poverty, cultural support for alcohol, interpersonal family/peer influences, early substance use, and school dropout also contributed to risky behaviors. Parental guidance was protective but not often reported. Local programs addressing substance use and risky sex simultaneously and better national substance use policies and mental health services are needed. Copyright (c) 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Contraceptive use, unwanted pregnancies and abortions among hairdressers in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.
African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2017 Mar; 21(1):104-113.The study was conducted in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria to determine prevalence and predictors of contraceptive use, unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among hairdressers. 1687 female hairdressers were surveyed using a cross sectional design and cluster sampling technique. Mean age was 27.0±8.1 years, 851 (50.4%) were single and 1005 (59.6%) qualified hairdressers. 817 (56.8%) of sexually active were currently using contraception. Attainment of secondary school education was a predictor of contraceptive use; OR=1.4, 95% CI (1.1-1.8). 429 (29.8%) ever had an unwanted pregnancy; 26.5 % among singles, 32.3 % among married. Predictors of unwanted pregnancies were age >30years; OR=1.9, 95% CI (1.4-2.5) and being a qualified hairdresser; OR=1.6, 95% CI (1.2-2.2). 347 (24.1%) ever had an induced abortion; 21.5.0 % of singles, 26% of married. Being married; OR=5.2, 95% CI (2.2-11.9) was the only predictor of induced abortion. Prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and abortions were high especially among married hairdressers.
Evaluation of the HERhealth Intervention in Bangladesh: Baseline findings from an implementation research study.
Washington, D.C., Population Council, The Evidence Project, Jun 2017. 16 p. (Baseline Brief)BSR’s HERproject is a collaborative initiative that strives to empower low-income women working in global supply chains in 14 countries worldwide. One of the HERproject’s three pillars is HERhealth, which seeks to improve the health-related knowledge and behaviors and access to health services and products of low-income working women. In Bangladesh, HERhealth specifically addresses reproductive health and family planning needs. BSR asked the Evidence Project/Population Council to conduct an implementation science study assessing the effectiveness of BSR’s HERhealth model in Bangladesh. This study is one of the first studies of female garment workers in Dhaka to explore SRH-related outcomes while controlling for respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics. This brief presents findings from the baseline survey, with useful insights into the characteristics, knowledge, and experiences of female garment factory workers in Bangladesh.
Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 2016 Sep; 28(2):94-100.Background: In the global maritime industry, seafarers, fishing, seaport and other land-based personnel face a rising risk of infection of sexually transmitted diseases, including Human Immuno Virus (HIV). The close proximity of brothels and large sex-worker populations, as well as the fact that many seafarers are young, mobile and sexually active compounds the problem and increases the danger of HIV infection. In spite of this, no official statistics on prevalence of HIV among this high risk occupational group in Nigeria have been documented. Objective: To assess the prevalence and determinants of HIV infection among seaport workers in one of the ports in Nigeria Methods: The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional design. Respondents were selected using a stratified random sampling technique and employee status formed the basis of each stratum. A pre-tested structured intervieweradministered questionnaire was used for the study. Voluntary Counseling and Testing using Elisa test kit according to the WHO guidelines was done and Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to confirm positive samples. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software and level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: A total of 420 respondents with mean age (SD) of 39.0 ± 1.1 years participated in the study. A higher proportion, 259 (62.8%) and 256 (60.1%) were males and married respectively. Of the 381 (90.0%) respondents who were aware of HIV, majority 345 (90.6%) had good knowledge of HIV. Knowledge increased with increasing age (p=0.005). Prevalence of HIV in the studied population was 4.8%. Factors associated with HIV status among the port workers included gender (p=0.005), marital status (p=0.005), educational status (p=0.05), number of sexual partners (p = 0.021) and lack of condom use (p = 0.05). Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV in the studied population was high. Determinants of HIV included marital status, educational status, multiple sexual partners and lack of condom use. Port Health Department should ensure special 'behavioural change' programmes are put in place to curb the risk factors for HIV, thereby reducing the high prevalence of this disease among this special group.
Health needs, health seeking pathways, and drivers of health seeking behaviors of female garment factory workers in Cambodia: Findings from a qualitative study in Phnom Penh and Kandal provinces.
Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Population Council, Evidence Project, 2017 Apr. 12 p. (Policy Brief; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-13-00087)Existing information on GFWs’ barriers to health services has generally come from project implementation documents or general baseline studies of these projects, rather than independent, rigorous studies that specifically examine the health needs and health seeking behaviors of workers. Since previous studies did not include specific indicators related to workers’ health needs and health seeking behaviors, they cannot offer a complete picture of these important issues. To fill this critical knowledge gap, in partnership with the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH), the Evidence Project / Population Council conducted a formative qualitative study under the USAID-funded WorkerHealth project to improve the understanding of health needs, health seeking pathways, and drivers of health seeking behaviors of female GFWs in Cambodia. Though the study focused broadly on health needs, the findings emphasize workers’ concerns regarding sexual and reproductive health care and FP services. This research study offers the first illustrative mapping of the health seeking pathways of female GFWs, which provides a richer understanding of workers’ perceptions of health care quality and of the values, beliefs, and socio-economic conditions that shape decision-making on how and where to seek healthcare in communities.
Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Population Council, Evidence Project, 2017 Apr. 56 p.As part of the WorkerHealth project, the Evidence Project / Population Council conducted a comprehensive review of garment sector health interventions, particularly RH- and FP-focused projects, in Cambodia during the last five years. The results from the review support WorkerHealth’s objective of enabling evidence-based decisionmaking and programming related to the health and wellbeing of female garment factory workers in Cambodia, by documenting the range of garment sector health interventions and identifying best practices and gaps in programming and evaluation. Key findings from the study included: RH and FP health service needs are paramount for the economically important, female-dominated garment sector, but most interventions do not specifically or adequately address these issues. Joint partnership projects -- both in terms of leadership and finance -- hold untapped potential for maximizing expertise and resources. Collaboration between government, implementers, and donors would enable future projects to increase coverage, adopt more integrated, complementary intervention approaches, and reduce the burden on factory management. Policy advocacy and innovative health financing strategies are under-utilized approaches: future projects should engage with the government through policy advocacy, especially the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MoLVT). Projects can also actively support the government’s work to improve worker health, including for example by developing health financing strategies that complement the National Social Security Fund (NSSF). There is an acute need for rigorous monitoring and evaluation of project outcomes and implementation processes, to determine what works and does not work and to inform future GF-based health intervention design.
MRIMS Journal of Health Sciences. 2015 Jan-Jun; 3(1):45-49.Background: Domestic violence is the most common form of violence against women. It affects the life span from sex selective abortion of female foetuses to forced suicide and abuse and isevident, to some degree,in every society in the world. It is important that studies on domestic violence should be conducted and those women who are found as victims should be counselled to reduce/prevent the health hazards among them. Objective: To study domestic violence against working women. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences and Malla Reddy Hospital for a period of one month. All professionals and working class women including faculty, nurses, clerks, and class-3 and class-4 employees were included. Total women working in Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences and Malla Reddy Hospital were 355. Out of 355, 125 women agreed to participate in the study. Results: The prevalence of domestic violence was 23.2%. It was found that slapping was the most common type of physical violence, i.e., 20.6%. 11 (37.9%) women out of 29 were facing the economic abuse (violence). 20 (69%) of women out of 29, reported emotional violence. Alcoholic husband was the most common cause in 43.7% of cases. 41.6% of women do not want to report the incidence to anyone. Similar number however has reported to their parents. Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded that the prevalence of domestic violence was very high among the working women.
Hanoi, Viet Nam, FHI 360, Alive and Thrive, 2014 Dec. 36 p.This toolkit aims to provide information and guidance for institutions, companies, and other organizations interested in implementing policies and interventions to support lactation in the workplace. It highlights the benefits of creating an enabling environment for breastfeeding women to express and store their breast milk while at work, and offers practical guidance on how to do so. It is based on the best practices of a model piloted in Viet Nam by Alive & Thrive (A&T) and the Viet Nam General Confederation of Labor (VGCL) from January 2012 to August 2014.
[Hanoi], Vietnam, FHI 360, Alive and Thrive, . 2 p.In partnership with VGCL and enterprises, A&T is implementing the Workplace Intervention Program to (1) support the establishment of lactation rooms in the workplace, (2) enable female workers to breastfeed their children optimally by improving their awareness of the maternity leave policy which the project successfully advocated to extend from four months to six months in 2012, and (3) encourage female workers to apply recommended breastfeeding practices. This fact sheet answers the questions: What problems triggered the Workplace Intervention Program in Viet Nam?, What are the roles of partners in the Workplace Intervention Program?, and What are the benefits for enterprises? It also provides information on cost estimation and activities and achievements. It provides quotations from leaders and workers and a list of the program's partner enterprises.
Factors Associated With Uptake of Voluntary Counselling and Testing Services among Boda Boda Operators in Ndhiwa Constituency, Western Kenya.
African Journal of Health Sciences. 2012 Apr-Jun; 21(3-4):133-142.Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) provides access to ARVS, HIV patient care, support and behaviour change. In spite of these benefits, its ample utilization is still wanting in various rural areas of Kenya including Ndhiwa constituency where boda boda business is a major means of transport and economic activity. The study was to determine uptake of VCT services and its associated factors among Boda Boda operators in Ndhiwa constituency. A cross-sectional study using questionnaires with systematic random sampling was adopted. Data was analysed using SPSS Version 16.0. Both descriptive and bivariate analysis was carried out. Binary logistic regression was done to adjust for confounding. The prevalence of VCT uptake among the operators was 71.9%. Factors that were significantly associated with uptake of VCT among the operators were male gender (OR=4.529, 95% CI=1.753-11.687), going to a VCT centre with a sexual partner (OR=7.286, 95% CI=3.012-17.624) and being assured of confidentially of HIV test results (OR=4.79, 95% CI=2.033-8.907). In conclusion, there is need to develop interactive programmes between the operators and the immediate society to translate the HIV/AIDS awareness of the operators to the community. Couple counselling and testing should be encouraged among the operators and within the community.
Sexual practices and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among hairdressers in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2015; 35(7):716-20.The environment in salons provides hairdressers the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits which may promote unhealthy sexual behaviour and increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to determine sexual practices and knowledge and experience of STIs among hairdressers. The study was carried out in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. A total of 1700 hairdressers were selected by cluster sampling technique. Predictors of risky sexual behaviour, knowledge and experience of STIs were identified. Their mean age was 27.0 +/- 8.1 years, 860 (50.6%) were single. Majority of them, 1453(85.5%) had ever had sex. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.9 years. Mean knowledge score of STIs was 14.0 out of 25. Only 158(9.3%) experienced symptoms of STIs in the last 12 months. Among singles, senior secondary education was a predictor of ever had sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-3.13), good knowledge of STIs (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.45-2.83) and experience of STIs in the last 12 months (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.53-3.13). Hairdressers, especially singles, are a vulnerable group at risk of reproductive health morbidities. There is a need to focus reproductive health interventions on this occupational group.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2016 Jul; 7(3):181-185.Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study 171 fishermen and fisherwomen were interviewed to collect information about workplace violence. The overall prevalence of workplace violence reported was 14.6%. This included 2 (8%) cases of physical assault, 1 (4%) case of sexual harassment of fisherwoman by her colleague and 22 (88%) cases of verbal abuse. A significant (p=0.002) association was found between gender and verbal abuse at the workplace. In conclusion, this study highlighted the occurrence of workplace violence among fishery workers in India. There was a gender bias towards females that can be attributed to male dominance in this occupation.
Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment of HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Formal Sector Employees in Namibia.
PloS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131737.INTRODUCTION: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses the presence of three of the most significant threats to health in Namibia among employees in the formal sector: elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV and assesses the knowledge and self-perceived risk of employees for these conditions. METHODS: A health and wellness screening survey of employees working in 13 industries in the formal sector of Namibia was conducted including 11,192 participants in the Bophelo! Project in Namibia, from January 2009 to October 2010. The survey combined a medical screening for HIV, blood glucose and blood pressure with an employee-completed survey on knowledge and risk behaviors for those conditions. We estimated the prevalence of the three conditions and compared to self-reported employee knowledge and risk behaviors and possible determinants. RESULTS: 25.8% of participants had elevated blood pressure, 8.3% of participants had an elevated random blood glucose measurement, and 8.9% of participants tested positive for HIV. Most participants were not smokers (80%), reported not drinking alcohol regularly (81.2%), and had regular condom use (66%). Most participants could not correctly identify risk factors for hypertension (57.2%), diabetes (57.3%), or high-risk behaviors for HIV infection (59.5%). In multivariate analysis, having insurance (OR:1.15, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.28) and a managerial position (OR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.13 - 1.47) were associated with better odds of knowledge of diabetes. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV among employees of the Namibian formal sector is high, while risk awareness is low. Attention must be paid to improving the knowledge of health-related risk factors as well as providing care to those with chronic conditions in the formal sector through programs such as workplace wellness.
Alcoholic beverage companies and the HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa: A case study of HIV programs at Heineken and SABMiller.
Arlington, Virginia, JSI Research and Training Institute, Strengthening High Impact Interventions for an AIDS-free Generation [AIDSFree], 2016 Mar.  p. (AIDS-Free Case Study Series; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-A-14-00046)Close to 26 million people (70 percent of those living with HIV globally) were living with HIV in 2014 in sub-Saharan Africa, and the number of new infections was estimated at 1.4 million. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 66 percent of the global total of new HIV infection. Forty-one percent of all people living with HIV in the region were accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART). In the same year, 790,000 people died of AIDS-related causes. Despite improved access to ART, HIV continues to have a significant impact on economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. Morbidity and mortality among the region’s 26 million HIV-positive people affect companies at every operational level: from staffing and training through production and distribution. This case study presents the responses developed by the alcoholic beverage companies Heineken and SABMiller to address HIV within their African business communities. Both companies have contributed to the HIV response, not only within their operating companies or subsidiaries, but also at community and national levels by partnering with governments, NGOs, and international organizations.
Sexual behaviour and associated risk factors among adolescent/young adult male transport workers at Yaba bus stop, Lagos.
Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2007 Mar; 14(1):21-5.OBJECTIVES: Sexual activity is increasing among young people with negative consequences and out of school males are a vulnerable segment of the population. This study was carried out to examine the sexual behaviour of young males who are out of school and identify factors that influence their behaviour. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted among all the three hundred and ninety one young male bus conductors and drivers at Yaba bus stop Lagos. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Almost all the respondents (93.4%) have had sexual intercourse and many of them with multiple partners. Less than half of them used condoms at every intercourse. Their main reasons for initiating sexual intercourse were peer pressure and curiosity. There was a significant relationship between early initiation of sexual intercourse and use of drugs and alcohol(p<0.05).Respondents who have resided with their parents initiated intercourse at an older age than those residing with other people.(p<0.05) CONCLUSION: Many young out of school males are sexually active and engage in high-risk sexual behaviour. Provision of sexuality education programmes, co-habitation of parents with their young children and the control of use of alcohol and drugs are important in delaying sexual initiation and reducing sexual risk taking among young people.
Cross-sectional study assessing HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior in the Namibian truck transport sector: Readjusting HIV prevention programs in the workplace.
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2015 Jul-Aug; 8(4):346-54.The objectives of this study were to assess the current status of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior (KAB) of employees in the private transport sector in Namibia and to compare companies with established HIV workplace program (WPPs) with those that have recently initiated the implementation of such programs. The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Between January and March 2011, the survey was conducted in the Namibian truck transport sector in six companies of different sizes. The participants were selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on a KAB questionnaire. The range of correct answers to the survey concerning the knowledge of HIV transmission was 67-95%. Twenty percent of the employees had never been tested for HIV. Additionally, risky sexual behaviors were quite prevalent and included having multiple concurrent partners and the use of sex for incentives. This study revealed that drivers and laborers were especially at risk for such behaviors. The employees of companies with established WPPs were tested for HIV more often than those of companies with new WPPs; however, aside from this difference, only minor differences were observed between the two groups. The findings of this study highlight the need for on-going HIV information and prevention campaigns that focus on the special needs of mobile and low-income workers. WPPs should be tailored accordingly and shift their focus to more practical approaches, such as voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), to increase their effectiveness. (c) 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gender, gender identification and perceived gender discrimination: An examination of mediating processes in China.
Equality Diversity and Inclusion. 2015; 34(8):650-665.Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of gender and strength of gender identification on employees' perception of gender discrimination. It also explores whether gender comparison and perceived gender bias against women act as mediators in the above relationships. It aims to advance the understanding of the processes leading to individual's perception of gender discrimination in the Chinese workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 362 workers via an employee survey in three large companies in China. The human resource staff helped us to distribute a self-administered questionnaire to the employees, and the authors assured them of confidentiality and protected their anonymity. To test the hypotheses, the authors employed structural equation modeling. The authors first conducted confirmatory factor analysis on the measurement model, and then the authors estimated three nested structural models to test the mediating hypotheses. Findings: The results reveal that gender and strength of gender identification are related to perceived gender discrimination. The authors further found that gender comparison and perceived gender bias against women partially mediated the relationship between gender and perceived gender discrimination, while gender comparison fully mediated the relationship between strength of gender identification and perceived gender discrimination. Practical implications: The study helps managers understand why and how their subordinates form perceptions of gender discrimination. Given the findings, they should be aware of the importance of gender identity, gender comparison, and gender bias in organizational practices in affecting such perceptions. Originality/value: This study is the first exploration of the complex relationships among gender, gender identification, gender comparison, perceived gender bias against women, and perceived gender discrimination. It shows the salient role of gender comparison and gender bias against women in shaping employees' perceptions of gender discrimination, apart from the direct effects of gender and strength of gender identification.
Science of the Total Environment. 2015 Dec 1; 536:408-418.People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p. = 0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p < 0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p < 0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p = 0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015.
Tested or Not? - A Categorical Examination of HIV/AIDS Testing among Workers in the South African Construction Industry.
Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. 2015 Dec 1; 141(12):04015040.HIV/AIDS voluntary counseling and antibody testing (VCT) is the cornerstone of HIV/AIDS prevention. Prevalence rates for the infection in the South African construction industry exceed those of most other sectors. Little is known about the testing status of different categories of construction workers. A field-administered questionnaire survey gathered data from 512 site-based construction employees in the Western Cape, South Africa. Bivariate tests of association and bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression were used to explore demographic determinants of testing. The results indicate that (1) age, gender, employment type, and firm predict testing status, with older workers, females, permanent workers, and workers employed by firms with proactive intervention management more likely to have been tested than their counterparts; (2) education and race are not determinants of testing status; (3) workers aged 30 years and younger are the least likely to have been tested, particularly those 20 years and younger; (4) female construction workers are five times more likely to have been tested than males; (5) permanent employees are twice as likely to have been tested than temporary workers; and (6) workers employed by firms with comparatively more proactive HIV/AIDS intervention management are more likely to have been tested. This research identifies key variables that increase or decrease the probability of construction workers being tested at sites where VCT services are offered. Consequently, it confirms that the provision of VCT services is not in itself sufficient to address worker HIV incidence and prevalence rates. Rather, constructions firms need to be much more focused on the design of these services to ensure better targeting of subpopulations that are least likely to test. The identification of these key demographic variables highlights the value of shifting away from relatively standardized VCT services in the industry to those that are company- and perhaps even site-specific. This requires a degree of innovation in VCT services that not only is grounded in the construction sector but learns and adapts knowledge and practice from other sectors of society.
Handbook on Well-Being of Working Women. 2016 Jan 1; 781-803.This chapter surveys current literature and found that women constitute 60 % of people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa due mainly to cultural practices. Working women living with the disease are subjected to violence by their employers and co-workers as a direct result of HIV related stigma and discrimination. Workplace violence includes unauthorised disclosure of HIV status, unfair dismissal, victimisation and harassment and social isolation. These were found to have significant impact on the wellbeing of the working women (Asante AD, Scaling up HIV prevention: Why routine or mandatory testing is not feasible for sub-Saharan Africa.
Determinants of demand for condoms to prevent HIV infections among barmaids and guesthouse workers in two districts, Tanzania.
BMC Research Notes. 2015; 8:630.BACKGROUND: Condoms are scientifically recommended as potential products for preventing infections attributable to human immuno-deficiency viruses (HIV). However, evidence on factors leading to their inadequate use in developing countries is still scanty. This paper reports an exploratory study of factors constraining condoms use in Tanzania from the perspectives of barmaids, guest-house workers and retailers. METHODS: Data were collected in two districts-Mpwapwa in Dodoma Region and Mbeya Rural in Mbeya Region-between October and December 2011, using structured interviews with 238 individuals including barmaids, guesthouse workers and 145 retailers. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11 software. RESULTS: Awareness about condoms was high among all study groups. Male condoms were more popular and available than female ones. A considerable proportion of the barmaids and guesthouses were disappointed with condoms being promoted and distributed to young children and disliked condom use during sexual intercourse. Accessibility of condoms was reported as being lowered by condom prices, shortage of information concerning their availability; short supply of condoms; some people shying away to be watched by children or adult people while purchasing condoms; retailers' using bad languages to condom customers; occasionally condom shops/kiosks found closed when they are urgently needed; and prevailing social perception of condoms to have low/no protective efficacy. Regression analysis of data from barmaids and guesthouse-workers indicated variations in the degree of condom acceptability and methods used to promote condoms among respondents with different demographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: A combination of psychosocial and economic factors was found contributing to lower the demand for and actual use of condoms in study communities. Concerted measures for promoting condom use need to address the demand challenges and making operational research an integral element of monitoring and evaluation of the launched interventions, hence widening the evidence for informed policy decisions.