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Study on impact of maternal CD4 count on birth outcomes and mother to child transmission of HIV infection.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2016 Aug; 3(8):2083-2087.Background: Iron deficiency anemia is major public health problem especially in pregnant women. Addition of Ascorbic acid may improve the effects of iron folic acid supplementation. The present study aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation of iron folic acid with and without ascorbic acid on hematological parameters of pregnant women. Methods: This case-control study was conducted at Mahila Chikitsalaya, SMS Medical College Hospital, Jaipur. Two hundred pregnant women in the age group of 18-40 years were selected and divided into control (n=100) and experimental group (n=100) randomly. General profile of the subjects was elicited using a pre coded pre tested questionnaire. Women in control group were supplemented with Iron Folic Acid (IFA) and experimental group with IFA+Vitamin C 500mg (Ceilen tablet) for two months. Hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed at baseline and after the supplementation period of two months. Results: Average age of the subjects in control and experimental groups was 24.18±3.77 and 23.23±2.96 years respectively. Post intervention change in experimental Vs Control group was observed-Hb 18.04% Vs 5.49%, HCT 3.90% Vs 1.89%, MCV 1.97% Vs 0.88%, MCH 6.56% Vs 1.85%, RBC 5.39% Vs 3.68%, Trasnferrin Saturation 12.44% Vs 7.0%, Serum Iron 6.92% Vs 2.70% and TIBC -4.84% Vs 3.67% respectively. Conclusions: Subjects in experimental group showed significantly higher change in hematological parameters compared to control group.
Sexual behavioural correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections among pregnant women in South-western Nigeria.
International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Apr; 5(4):1274-1280.Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. It leads to lifelong latent infection and this raises concerns among women of reproductive age, considering the risk of neonatal transmission. This study was undertaken to identify the sexual behavioural correlates of HSV-2 infection as well as negative pregnancy outcomes. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between March and August 2013, in the antenatal clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan. A total of 270 pregnant women aged 20 to 44 years were enrolled and their serum samples were tested for HSV-2 IgG using type specific third generation ELISA (DIAPRO Milano Italy). Pretested validated questionnaire were used to obtain bio-data, sexual behaviour and obstetrics history of the participants. Data analyses was done using SPSS version 20. Results: The seroprevalence of HSV-2 type specific IgG was 33.3% (90/270). Logistic regression analysis showed that multiple lifetime sexual partners, early age at sexual debut, previous history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having spouses whose work keep them away from home, were independent risk factors for HSV-2 infection. Obstetrics complications such as intrauterine foetal death, congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion were also strongly associated. Conclusions: The predictors of HSV-2 infection in this study may be important in selecting candidates for screening tests and developing strategies towards effective health promotion campaign.
Impact of maternal ART on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at six weeks postpartum in Rwanda.
BMC Public Health. 2018 Nov 12; 18(1):1248.BACKGROUND: In 2010, Rwanda adopted ART for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV from pregnant women living with HIV during pregnancy and breasfeeding period. This study examines rates of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV at 6-10 weeks postpartum and risk factors for mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) among HIV infected women on ART during pregnancy and breastfeeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted between July 2011-June 2012 among HIV-exposed infants aged 6-10 weeks and their mothers/caregivers. Stratified multi-stage, probability proportional to size and systematic sampling to select a national representative sample of clients. Consenting mothers/caregivers were interviewed on demographic and program interventions. Dry blood spots from HIV-exposed infants were collected for HIV testing using DNA PCR technique. Results are weighted for sample realization. Univariable analysis of socio-demographic and programmatic determinants of early mother-to-child transmission of HIV was conducted. Variables were retained for final multivariable models if they were either at least of marginal significance (p-value < 0.10) or played a confounding role (the variable had a noticeable impact > 10% change on the effect estimate). RESULTS: The study sample was 1639 infants with HIV test results. Twenty-six infants were diagnosed HIV-positive translating to a weighted MTCT estimate of 1.58% (95% CI 1.05-2.37%). Coverage of most elimination of MTCT (EMTCT) program interventions, was above 80, and 90.4% of mother-infant pairs received antiretroviral treatment or prophylaxis. Maternal ART and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis (OR 0.01; 95%CI 0.001-0.17) and maternal age older than 25 years were significantly protective (OR 0.33; 95%CI 0.14-0.78). No disclosure of HIV status, not testing for syphilis during pregnancy and preterm birth were significant risk factors for MTCT. Factors suggesting higher socio-demographic status (flush toilet, mother self-employed) were borderline risk factors for MTCT. CONCLUSION: ART for all women during pregnancy and breastfeeding was associated with the estimated low MTCT rate of 1.58%. Mothers who did not receive a full package of anti-retroviral therapy according to the Rwanda EMTCT protocol, and young and single mothers were at higher risk of MTCT and should be targeted for support in preventing HIV infection.
Lancet. HIV. 2017 Jun; 4(6):e231.Add to my documents.
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2018 May - Jun; 22(3):177-185.OBJECTIVES: To estimate vertical HIV transmission rate in a capital city of the Midwest region of Brazil and describe the factors related to transmission. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study based on the analysis of secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). The analysis considered all HIV-infected pregnant women with delivery in Campo Grande-MS in the years 2007-2013 and their HIV-exposed infants. RESULTS: A total of 218 births of 176 HIV-infected pregnant women were identified during the study period, of which 187 infants were exposed and uninfected, 19 seroconverted, and 12 were still inconclusive in July 2015. Therefore, the overall vertical HIV transmission rate in the period was 8.7%. Most (71.6%) of HIV-infected pregnant women were less than 30 years at delivery, housewives (63.6%) and studied up to primary level (61.9%). Prenatal information was described in 75.3% of the notification forms and approximately 80% of pregnant women received antiretroviral prophylaxis. Among infants, 86.2% received prophylaxis, but little more than half received it during the whole period recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Among the exposed children, 11.3% were breastfed. CONCLUSION: The vertical HIV transmission rate has increased over the years and the recommended interventions have not been fully adopted. HIV-infected pregnant women need adequate prophylactic measures in prenatal, intrapartum and postpartum, requiring greater integration among health professionals. Copyright (c) 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 2016 Oct; 16(10):1107.Add to my documents.
Risk factors for transmission of HIV from mother to child in Bangui. Les facteurs de risque de transmission du VIH de la mere a l'enfant a Bangui.
Medecine et Sante Tropicales. 2017 Jun 1; 27(2):195-199.the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in pregnant women in Central Africa is 4.5%. Although a program to prevent mother-child transmission of HIV has been implemented throughout the country, the number of infected infants continues to increase. In this context, our study sought to determine the rate of mother-child transmission of HIV and to identify the main risk factors. this prospective cross-sectional study took place from November 1, 2014, to November 1, 2015, in all 16 maternal and child health centers in Bangui. The study population comprised the infants born to HIV-positive mothers and seen at these centers for HIV testing 6 weeks after birth. The mothers were interviewed and their files examined to identify the risk factors of HIV transmission to their babies. the study included 656 infants. The maternal-fetal transmission rate of HIV was 7%. The main risk factors were the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis for mothers or children and rupture of the membranes more than 24 hours before labor. HIV transmission from mother to child is a public health problem in Bangui. Vigorous action, such as interventions with antiretroviral medication, good obstetric practices, and especially the implementation of the 2013 WHO recommendations, should certainly reduce the number of new infections among newborns in Bangui.
I beg you...breastfeed the baby, things changed: infant feeding experiences among Ugandan mothers living with HIV in the context of evolving guidelines to prevent postnatal transmission.
BMC Public Health. 2018 Jan 29; 18(1):188.BACKGROUND: For women living with HIV (WLWH) in low- and middle-income countries, World Health Organization (WHO) infant feeding guidelines now recommend exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by mixed feeding until 24 months, alongside lifelong maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART). These recommendations represent the sixth major revision to WHO infant feeding guidelines since 1992. We explored how WLWH in rural Uganda make infant feeding decisions in light of evolving recommendations. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 postpartum Ugandan WLWH accessing ART, who reported pregnancy < 2 years prior to recruitment. Interviews were conducted between February-August 2014 with babies born between March 2012-October 2013, over which time, the regional HIV treatment clinic recommended lifelong ART for all pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+). Content analysis was used to identify major themes. Infant feeding experiences was an emergent theme. NVivo 10 software was used to organize analyses. RESULTS: Among 20 women, median age was 33 years [IQR: 28-35], number of livebirths was 3 [IQR: 2-5], years on ART was 2.3 [IQR: 1.5-5.1], and 95% were virally suppressed. Data revealed that women valued opportunities to reduce postnatal transmission. However, women made infant feeding choices that differed from recommendations due to: (1) perception of conflicting recommendations regarding infant feeding; (2) fear of prolonged infant HIV exposure through breastfeeding; and (3) social and structural constraints shaping infant feeding decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: WLWH face layered challenges navigating evolving infant feeding recommendations. Further research is needed to examine guidance and decision-making on infant feeding choices to improve postpartum experiences and outcomes. Improved communication about changes to recommendations is needed for WLWH, their partners, community members, and healthcare providers.
Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among young women engaged in sex work aboard foreign fishing vessels in Kiribati.
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal. 2018 Jan-Mar; 9(1):8-15.Objective: To assess the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women who board foreign fishing vessels for sex work in Kiribati. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect data on behavioural risk factors for STIs and knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV and STIs during 2007. Urine and blood samples were collected to test for HIV and select STIs. Descriptive statistics were performed for sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics, and chi(2) tests were used to assess associations between potential key determinants and the presence of genital Chlamydia infection. Results: Women who boarded foreign fishing vessels for transactional sex were younger, had less education, were less likely to live with a partner and were less likely to be otherwise employed. Although no HIV infections were detected, more than half (57.5%) of the women were diagnosed with an STI. One quarter of the women tested positive for chlamydia, and 40% tested positive for mycoplasma. The presence of chlamydia was strongly associated with age at first sexual intercourse (P = 0.02) and number of sexual partners during the prior seven days (P = 0.02). Conclusion: The high rate of STIs in this population of sex workers is concerning given the potential of severe pregnancy-related and chronic health problems and the increased risk of transmission within the general population of Kiribati. We identified a specific sex worker population as a priority group for targeted public health efforts to prevent and control the spread of STIs in Kiribati.
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2018 May 4; 67(17):491-495.In 2005, the Regional Committee for the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR)* established a goal for measles elimination(dagger) by 2012 (1). To achieve this goal, the 37 WPR countries and areas implemented the recommended strategies in the WPR Plan of Action for Measles Elimination (2) and the Field Guidelines for Measles Elimination (3). The strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining >/=95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) through routine immunization services and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), when required; 2) conducting high-quality case-based measles surveillance, including timely and accurate testing of specimens to confirm or discard suspected cases and detect measles virus for genotyping and molecular analysis; and 3) establishing and maintaining measles outbreak preparedness to ensure rapid response and appropriate case management. This report updates the previous report (4) and describes progress toward measles elimination in WPR during 2013-2017. During 2013-2016, estimated regional coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) decreased from 97% to 96%, and coverage with the routine second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 91% to 93%. Eighteen (50%) countries achieved >/=95% MCV1 coverage in 2016. Seven (39%) of 18 nationwide SIAs during 2013-2017 reported achieving >/=95% administrative coverage. After a record low of 5.9 cases per million population in 2012, measles incidence increased during 2013-2016 to a high of 68.9 in 2014, because of outbreaks in the Philippines and Vietnam, as well as increased incidence in China, and then declined to 5.2 in 2017. To achieve measles elimination in WPR, additional measures are needed to strengthen immunization programs to achieve high population immunity, maintain high-quality surveillance for rapid case detection and confirmation, and ensure outbreak preparedness and prompt response to contain outbreaks.
Prevalence, incidence and correlates of low risk HPV infection and anogenital warts in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa.
PloS One. 2018; 13(5):e0196018.OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV) and anogenital warts (AGW) among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA), and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes. METHODS: We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623) aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months) after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA(R) genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW. RESULTS: Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p<0.001) and incident LR-HPV infection (BF: 25.8% vs. SA: 31.6%, p = 0.05). Prevalence of persistent LR-HPV was similar in the two countries (BF: 33.3% vs. SA: 30.4%; p = 0.54), as were prevalence and incidence of AGW (Prevalence: BF: 7.5% vs. SA: 5.7%; p = 0.21; Incidence: BF: 2.47 vs. SA: 2.33 per 100 person-years; p = 0.41). HPV6 was associated with incident AGW (BF: adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) = 4.88; 95%CI: 1.36-17.45; SA: aHR = 5.02; 95%CI: 1.40-17.99). Prevalent LR-HPV (BF: adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR = 1.86]; 95%CI: 1.01-3.41; SA: aOR = 1.75; 95%CI: 0.88-3.48); persistent LR-HPV (BF: aOR = 1.92; 95%CI: 0.44-8.44; SA: aOR = 2.81; 95%CI: 1.07-7.41) and prevalent AGW (BF: aOR = 1.53; 95%CI: 0.61-3.87; SA: aOR = 4.11; 95%CI: 1.20-14.10) were each associated with low CD4+ counts (i.e. <200 vs. >500 cells/muL). Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes. CONCLUSION: LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden of AGW in this population.
Mother to child transmission of HIV in Brazil: Data from the "Birth in Brazil study", a national hospital-based study.
PloS One. 2018; 13(2):e0192985.AIMS: to estimate the mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among infected pregnant women identified in the "Birth in Brazil" study and to evaluate care practices provided in order to identify missed opportunities at preventing the MTCT of HIV infection in the country. METHODS: Descriptive study using data obtained from the consultation of different databases: the "Birth in Brazil" study database and the Brazilian National Information Systems (NIS) databases. We used cases of pregnant women infected with HIV identified in the "Birth in Brazil" study, and cases of AIDS in children under 5 years old identified in the NIS, to estimate the MTCT of HIV infection in the country, with a 95% confidence interval. We also estimated the HIV cascade (HIV diagnosis; use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) during pregnancy, labour, and for the newborn; adequate care during childbirth considering viral load at birth; and no breastfeeding) using data from the same sources. RESULTS: MTCT of HIV of 2.0% (95% CI 0.3%-13.8%). At birth, 84.0% of HIV infected woman showed a positive HIV diagnosis, 74.9% received combined ART during pregnancy, 80.7% received ART during childbirth, 77.1% received adequate care during childbirth, 86.8% of newborns received ART within the first 24 hours after birth, and 2.8% of newborns were breastfed. Considering all steps, 61.3% of the women (95% CI 48.3%-72.8%) received all available medical interventions. In the analysis restricted to women identified in the NIS, 65.3% (95% CI 48.0%-79.3%) of HIV infected women received all available medical interventions. CONCLUSION: Brazil has healthcare policies that guarantee free access to tests, ART and substitutes for maternal milk. However, missed opportunities to prevent MTCT of HIV were identified in at least one-third of women and may be making it difficult to reach HIV-elimination targets especially in the less developed country regions.
Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and HIV-Free Survival in Swaziland: A Community-Based Household Survey.
AIDS and Behavior. 2018 Jul; 22(Suppl 1):105-113.In Swaziland, no data are available on the rates of HIV infection and HIV-free survival among children at the end of the breastfeeding period. We performed a national crosssectional community survey of children born 18-24 months prior to the study, in randomly selected constituencies in all 4 administrative regions of Swaziland, from April to June 2015. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and HIV-free survival rates were calculated for all HIV-exposed children. The overall HIV-free survival rate at 18-24 months was 95.9% (95% CI 94.1-97.2). The estimated proportion of HIV infected children among known HIV-exposed children was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4-5.2). Older maternal age, delivering at a health facility, and receiving antenatal antiretroviral drugs were independently associated with reduced risk for child infection or death. The Swaziland program for prevention of MTCT achieved high HIV-free survival (95.9%) and low MTCT (3.6%) rates at 18-24 months of age when Option A (infant prophylaxis) of the WHO 2010 guidelines was implemented.
Increased Cytomegalovirus Secretion and Risks of Infant Infection by Breastfeeding Duration From Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Compared to Negative Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 2016 Jun; 5(2):138-46.BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding imparts beneficial immune protection and nutrition to infants for healthy growth, but it is also a route for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. In previous studies, we showed that HCMV adversely affects infant development in Africa, particularly with maternal HIV exposure. In this study, we analyzed infants risks for acquisition of HCMV infection from breastfeeding and compared HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers. METHODS: Two cohorts were studied in Zambia. (1) Two hundred sixty-one HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers were compared for HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) loads and genotypes (glycoprotein gO) in milk from birth to 4 months postpartum. (2) Maternally HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants were compared for HCMV infection risk factors. The second cohort of 460 infants, from a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary-food to breastfeeding, were studied between 6 and 18 months of age. Human cytomegalovirus seroprevalence was assayed, and logistic regression was used to calculate risk factors for HCMV infection, including maternal HIV exposure and breastfeeding duration. RESULTS: Human cytomegalovirus was detected in breast milk from 3 days to 4 months postpartum, with significantly raised levels in HIV-positive women and independent of genotype. In infants, HCMV antibody seroprevalence was 83% by 18 months age. Longer breastfeeding duration increased infection risk in maternally HIV-unexposed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.69 for 18 months vs <12 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-8.59; P = .03) and HIV-exposed infants (OR = 20.37 for >6 months vs never; 95% CI, 3.71-111.70; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged breastfeeding, which is common in Africa, increased risk of HCMV infection in infants. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had extended milk HCMV secretion. Women who were HIV-positive secreted higher HCMV levels, and for longer duration, with their children at increased infection risk. Human cytomegalovirus control is required to maintain health benefits of breastfeeding. (c) The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.
International Journal of STD and AIDS. 2018 Aug; 29(9):908-916.Despite pregnancy spacing recommendations to optimize health outcomes among mothers and neonates, unplanned pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa is common among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WLHIV). This study examined factors associated with reproductive decision-making among WLHIV to inform pregnancy-planning interventions. WLHIV in rural South Africa (n = 165) were assessed at 12 months postpartum. The relative importance of factors associated with reproductive decision-making was estimated. Women were a mean of 28 years old (SD = 5.71). Risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV (Mean = 0.43; SD = 0.33) had the greatest impact on decision-making, followed by partners' desires (M = 0.22; SD = 0.18), family preferences (M = 0.18; SD = 0.13), and community opinion (M = 0.17; SD = 0.13). MTCT was most important to women with greater HIV knowledge. However, WLHIV who had been diagnosed with HIV for a longer time placed more emphasis on partner preference and community opinion, and less importance on MTCT risk. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) was less important to women experiencing intimate partner violence and those with depression. Findings highlight the need for tailored, focused interventions to support the unique circumstances of WLHIV and support the inclusion of families and/or partners in the counseling process. Results underscore the need for perinatal preconception counseling for women during routine HIV care.
Women's knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward the prevention of human papillomavirus transmission.
Enfermeria Clinica. 2018 Feb; 28 Suppl 1:191-194.OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between women's knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors and human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission prevention. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling technique. The samples were from 649 women of reproductive age who either were married or who had once been married. Data were analyzed using the Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The results showed a statistically significant relationship between knowledge, beliefs and sexual behaviors, and the prevention of HPV transmission. Knowledge was the most dominant variable affecting the prevention of HPV transmission (r=0.174) with p value < 0.001; the better the women's knowledge, the higher the prevention effort. CONCLUSIONS: Beliefs regarding HPV transmission, healthy sexual behavior, and knowledge of prevention could reduce the prevalence of HPV transmission and would improve women's health in general. In addition, providing education, avoiding the risk factors, early detection, and performing a regular screening of reproductive organs are the key factors in preventing HPV transmission. Copyright (c) 2018 Elsevier Espana, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2018 Apr; 96(4):256-265.Objective: To estimate the use and outcomes of the Malawian programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis of 33 744 mother-infant pairs, we estimated the weighted proportions of mothers who had received antenatal HIV testing and/or maternal antiretroviral therapy and infants who had received nevirapine prophylaxis and/or HIV testing. We calculated the ratios of MTCT at 4-26 weeks postpartum for subgroups that had missed none or at least one of these four steps. Findings: The estimated uptake of antenatal testing was 97.8%; while maternal antiretroviral therapy was 96.3%; infant prophylaxis was 92.3%; and infant HIV testing was 53.2%. Estimated ratios of MTCT were 4.7% overall and 7.7% for the pairs that had missed maternal antiretroviral therapy, 10.7% for missing both maternal antiretroviral therapy and infant prophylaxis and 11.4% for missing maternal antiretroviral therapy, infant prophylaxis and infant testing. Women younger than 19 years were more likely to have missed HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 4.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.3-10.6) and infant prophylaxis (aOR: 6.9; 95% CI: 1.2-38.9) than older women. Women who had never started maternal antiretroviral therapy were more likely to have missed infant prophylaxis (aOR: 15.4; 95% CI: 7.2-32.9) and infant testing (aOR: 13.7; 95% CI: 4.2-83.3) than women who had. Conclusion: Most women used the Malawian programme for the prevention of MTCT. The risk of MTCT increased if any of the main steps in the programme were missed. (author's)
Quality of life among perinatally HIV-affected and HIV-unaffected school-aged and adolescent Ugandan children: a multi-dimensional assessment of wellbeing in the post-HAART era.
Quality of Life Research. 2017 Sep; 26(9):2397-2408.OBJECTIVE: To examine quality of life (QOL) in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) or HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) vs. healthy HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children during school-age/adolescence. METHODS: PHIV infection was diagnosed via DNA PCR. Current HIV status was confirmed by HIV rapid diagnostic test. Three HIV groups were defined: PHIV, PHEU, and HUU. QOL was assessed with proxy and self-report versions of the PedsQL 4.0 instrument at 6-18 years of age. QOL scores ranged from zero (least QOL) to 100 (highest QOL) in the following dimensions: combined QOL inventory (CQOLI), multi-dimensional vigor (MDV), general wellbeing (GWB), present functioning, and general cognitive functioning (CF). Multivariable linear regression models estimated HIV-related percent differences (beta) in QOL scores and 95% confidence intervals (CI). FINDINGS: Compared to HUU CQOLI deficits ranged from 6.5 to 9.2% (95% CI -15.4, -1.6), GWB deficit ranged from 6.5 to 10.5% (95% CI -16.0, -1.3), MDV deficit ranged from 6.8 to 11.6% (95% CI -14.5, 0.9), and CF deficit ranged from 9.7 to 13.1% for PHIV children. QOL deficits of similar magnitude and direction in most domains were observed for PHIV compared to PHEU. However, self-reported indicators of GWB (beta = -3.5; 95% CI -9.0, 2.0) and present functioning (beta = 4.0; 95% CI -4.6, 12.5) were similar for PHIV compared to PHEU. QOL scores were generally similar for PHEU compared to HUU. CONCLUSION: PHEU and HUU had similar QOL profile but PHIV predicted sustained deficits in multiple QOL domains. PHIV and PHEU children were similar with respect to general wellbeing and present functioning. Psychosocial and scholastic interventions in combination with HIV care are likely to improve QOL in PHIV.
AIDS Care. 2017 Nov; 29(11):1426-1432.Patient costs are a critical barrier to the elimination of mother to child HIV transmission. Despite the Ugandan government providing free public HIV services, infant antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis coverage remains low (25%). To understand costs mothers incur in accessing ARV prophylaxis for their infants, we conducted a mixed methods study to quantify and identify their direct costs. We used cross-sectional survey data and focus group discussions from 49 HIV-positive mothers in Uganda. Means and standard deviations were calculated for the direct costs (e.g., transportation, caretaker, services/medications) involved in accessing infant HIV services. The direct cost of attending HIV clinic visits averaged $3.71 (SD = $3.52). Focus group discussions identified two costs hindering access to infant HIV services: transportation costs and informal service charges. All participants reported significant costs associated with accessing infant HIV services - the equivalent of 2-3 days' income. To address transportation costs, community and home care models should be explored. Additionally, stricter policies and oversight should be implemented to prevent informal HIV service charges.
Revista Do Instituto De Medicina Tropical De Sao Paulo. 2017 Dec 21; 59:e78.INTRODUCTION: In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 1.9 million pregnant women were infected with syphilis worldwide, of which 66.5% had adverse fetal effects in cases of untreated syphilis. Congenital syphilis contributes significantly to infant mortality, accounting for 305,000 perinatal deaths worldwide annually. AIM: To estimate the prevalence of syphilis in parturients, the incidence of congenital syphilis and the vertical transmission rate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a cross-sectional study with data collected from 2041 parturients who had undergone treatment between 2012 and 2014 in the maternity section of the Pedro Ernesto Hospital of the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. The inclusion criterion was positive VDRL and treponemal test in a hospital environment. RESULTS: the prevalence of syphilis in pregnant women was 4.1% in 2012, 3.1% in 2013 and 5% in 2014, with official reporting of 15.6%, 25.0% and 48.1%, respectively. The incidence of congenital syphilis (CS) was 22/1,000 in live births (LB) in 2012; 17/1,000 LB in 2013 and 44.8/1,000 LB in 2014. CS underreporting during the period was 6.7%. Vertical transmission occurred in 65.8% of infants from infected mothers. It was concluded that, in 34.6% of the CS cases, maternal VDRL titers were = 1/4. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate the magnitude of the disease, fragility of the reporting system in the assessment of the actual prevalence, impact on perinatal outcomes, and they are a warning about the real situation of syphilis, which is still underestimated in the State.
Baltimore, Maryland, Jhpiego, 2018. 92 p. (USAID Award No. HRN-A-00-98-00043-00; USAID Leader with Associates Cooperative Agreement No.GHS-A-00-04-00002-00)The Malaria in Pregnancy reference manual and clinical learning materials are intended for skilled providers who provide antenatal care, including midwives, nurses, clinical officers, and medical assistants. The clinical learning materials can be used to conduct a 2-day workshop designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed to prevent, recognize, and treat malaria in pregnancy as they provide focused antenatal care services.
International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2018; 33(1):31-50.Introduction: Vertical transmission represents the major route of HIV infection for children. However, the preventive interventions available are extremely effective. This review summarizes evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of mother-to-child-transmission preventive screenings, to help policy makers in choosing the optimal antenatal screening strategy. Methods: A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted, using 3 databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry. All articles regarding HIV screening to avoid vertical transmission were included. Results: The review included 21 papers. Seven studies assessed the cost-effectiveness of universal antenatal screening during early gestation. Two papers considered the integration of HIV screening with other medical interventions. Eight works estimated the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in late pregnancy. Finally, 4 papers considered the combination of multiple strategies. The selected papers focused on both developed and developing countries, with a different HIV prevalence. The characteristics and methodology of the studies were heterogeneous. However, all studies agreed about the main findings, outlining the cost-effectiveness of both universal antenatal screening and HIV rescreening in late pregnancy. Cost-effectiveness improved when HIV burden increased. The major findings were proved to be robust across various scenarios when tested in sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: The review confirmed the cost-effectiveness not only of HIV universal antenatal screening but also of rescreening in late gestation in both developed and developing countries. Universal screening is cost-effective even in case of extremely low HIV prevalence. Therefore, to maximize screening, coverage appears as a worldwide priority. In certain settings, a targeted screening towards high-risk groups could be a valuable option. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
AIDS and Behavior. 2017 Sep; 21(9):2693-2702.Vertical transmission of HIV is responsible for about 14 % of new HIV cases reported each year in sub-Saharan Africa. Barriers that prevent women from accessing and using antiretroviral medications (ARVs) for themselves and their infants perpetuate the epidemic. To identify influences on access to and use of infant HIV health services, specifically nevirapine administration, we conducted a mixed methods study among HIV-positive women in Uganda. This included a cross-sectional survey (n = 384) and focus group discussions (n = 6, 5-9 participants each). Of the 384 women, 80 % gave nevirapine to their infants within 72 h of birth. Factors independently associated with nevirapine administration were lack of maternal adherence to ARVs (AOR 3.55, 95 % CI 1.36-9.26) and attending a support group (AOR 2.50, 95 % CI 1.06-5.83). Non-health facility births were inversely related to nevirapine use (AOR 0.02, 95 % CI 0.003-0.09). Focus group discussions identified four themes impacting access and use: attending a support group, health care worker attitudes, lack of partner support, and poor health messaging regarding ARVs. Improving health care worker messaging regarding ARVs and providing women with needed support to access and use infant ARV prophylaxis is critical to overcoming access barriers. Eliminating these barriers may prevent numerous HIV infections each year saving the lives of many HIV-exposed infants.
[A plea for introduction of hepatitis B vaccination at birth in Cote d'Ivoire] Plaidoyer pour l'introduction du vaccin contre l?hepatite virale B a la naissance en Cote d?Ivoire.
Sante Publique. 2017 Dec 5; 29(5):751-760.The Cote d'Ivoire National Immunization Technical Advisory Group 2015 work plan included elaboration of an opinion on inclusion of hepatitis B vaccination at birth in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Cote d'Ivoire. A task force was set up to conduct this assessment according to a systematized method. The task force analysed scientific articles on the burden of hepatitis B in Cote d'Ivoire, the burden of mother-child transmission, the impact of hepatitis B vaccination at birth in countries which have adopted this strategy, the efficacy and safety of hepatitis B vaccine in newborns, the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B vaccination at birth, and the best strategy to introduce hepatitis B vaccination at birth in the EPI. The National Immunization Technical Advisory Group of Cote d'Ivoire finally recommended introduction of a dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth in the context of the Expanded Program on Immunization with maintenance of three doses of pentavalent vaccine (DPT-HepB-Hib) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age.
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care. 2017 May/Jun; 16(3):303-308.INTRODUCTION: This study describes the epidemiologic features and clinical course of children with blood transfusion-associated HIV infection (TAHI) in Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: All children diagnosed to have TAHI at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, were studied and compared with children who acquired HIV vertically using the pediatric HIV database in the hospital. RESULTS: Transfusion-associated HIV infection accounted for 14 (2.3%) of the 597 children diagnosed to have HIV infection between January 2004 and December 2011. The mean age at diagnosis of TAHI was 10.2 years and that of vertically acquired HIV infection was 3.9 years ( P < .001). In 9 cases, blood transfusion took place in private hospitals and in 5 cases in public hospitals. Median interval between infection and diagnosis of AIDS was 84 months in cases with TAHI and 48 months in vertically acquired cases ( P = .542). CONCLUSION: Optimal blood safety practices are advocated for prevention of TAHI in Nigeria.