Your search found 2604 Results

  1. 1

    Guidelines to support HIV-affected individuals and couples to achieve pregnancy safely: Update 2018.

    Davies NECG; Ashford G; Bekker LG; Chandiwana N; Cooper D; Dyer SJ; Jankelowitz L; Mhlongo O; Mnyani CN; Mulaudzi MB; Moorhouse M; Myer L; Patel M; Pleaner M; Ramos T; Rees H; Schwartz S; Smit J; van Zyl DS

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. 2018; 19(1):915.

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  2. 2

    Lessons learned from the enterprise infirmary guidelines development process.

    Yat B; Wofford D

    Washington, D.C., Population Council, The Evidence Project, 2018 Mar. 8 p. (Case Study)

    Women of reproductive age in Cambodia, and many other developing countries, comprise a large part of factories’ workforce. Integrating family planning and reproductive health information and services into factories can improve workers’ health and help countries achieve FP2020 commitments. This case study looks at the process of how the Cambodian Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training launched, as formal policy, a set of workplace health infirmary guidelines for enterprises. What made this policy process unique for Cambodia – and what can be replicated by health advocates elsewhere – is that a group of organizations typically focused on public health policy successfully engaged on labor policy with a labor ministry. This case study describes the policy process, which was underpinned by the strategic use of evidence in decision-making and has been hailed by government, donors, civil society and industry as a success. The learnings presented in this case study should be useful to health advocates, labor advocates, and program designers.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Utilization of quality assessments in improving adolescent reproductive and sexual health services in rural block of Maharashtra, India.

    Chauhan SL; Joshi BN; Raina N; Kulkarni RN

    International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 2018 Apr; 5(4):1639-1646.

    Background: The present study was conducted with an objective to evaluate the quality of ARSH services; assess if these services met the National Standards of care and to utilize periodic program improvement recommendations through the WHO - quality assessment (QA) tools. Quality of ARSH services at twenty public health facilities in a rural block of a state in India were assessed using WHO-QA tools with a pre-test post-test interrupted time series design. Methods: Seven standards of care addressing provision of quality ARSH services (Standard I-IV); demand generation for these services (V-VI); and management information system (Standard VII) were assessed using WHO-QA tools for five years (2009-2014). Data analysis was done using Excel scoring template developed jointly with WHO. Scores were given for each standard and to each facility. Results: Periodic interventions resulted in improving the average facility score from 27% to 83% and overall standards score from 28% to 81% at baseline and endline survey respectively. The average scores for Standards I-IV improved from 43% 86%; for standards V–VI from 3% to 66% while for standard VII from 16% to 92% at baseline and endline survey respectively. Conclusions: Appropriate QA and periodic evidence-informed program inputs improved the quality and utilization of ARSH services. However, community outreach activities continued to be challenging. The assessment demonstrated feasibility and usefulness of using the WHO-QA tools to monitor and improve the quality of ARSH services.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    A methodology to ensure that states adequately apply due diligence standards and processes to significantly impact levels of violence against women around the world.

    Sarkin J

    Human Rights Quarterly. 2018 Feb; 40(1):1-36.

    This article argues that until there are adequate processes in states around the world to accurately know the circumstances concerning discrimination and violence against women (VAW), and that until states are held accountable to deal with those circumstances, little will change to deal with the extensive problems that exist around the world. Due diligence processes can play a positive role in this regard. The article reviews the extent of gender discrimination and VAW globally. It examines the instruments and documents relating to non-discrimination and VAW, and argues that despite a tremendous number of such tools, VAW problems remain at extremely high levels. The article explores what constitutes discrimination against women and VAW, and the relationship between the two. It examines what due diligence is, why it is useful, what some of the issues concerning it are, and where it is found in international law. The provisions of various treaties that affect VAW, and specifically those that have due diligence provisions are examined, as well as how due diligence has been applied by some human rights bodies to determine how due diligence can be more regularly and usefully applied. Recommendations are made on how to practically bring about a reduction in violence against women and specifically how due diligence can assist in this regard. It is contended that a 7P response is needed (i.e. seven steps that all have a word beginning with the letter P designating what needs to be done by states) to deal with VAW. These are: (1) prevention, (2) protection against, (3) promoting awareness and adherence to non-discrimination and no VAW, (4) probing, (5) prosecuting, (6) punishing, and (7) providing redress for acts of violence against women. A key issue, noted by the article, is to ensure that due diligence becomes a more useful tool for there to be the regular collection of relevant, timely, coordinated, and accurate disaggregated data on all matters that affects VAW in states globally. For more information to be known and for problems are identified, data collected should not just be national totals, but also broken down by region and locality in all countries. The article argues that a universal process and oversight mechanism is needed to ensure that more states comply with a due diligence approach so that real measurable change can occur for women in all parts of the world. Violence against women remains pervasive, estimated to affect one in three women globally. We continue to witness, in the name of perceived honour, beauty, purity and tradition, girls and women are subject to “honor” killings, child marriages, and female genital mutilation. Too many women are being deprived of their sexual and reproductive health and rights, fundamental human rights of women. © 2017 by Johns Hopkins University Press.
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  5. 5

    Improving women's health in low-income and middle-income countries. Part I: challenges and priorities.

    Mariani G; Kasznia-Brown J; Paez D; Mikhail MN; H Salama D; Bhatla N; Erba PA; Kashyap R

    Nuclear Medicine Communications. 2017 Dec; 38(12):1019-1023.

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  6. 6

    Motives for change of first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens in an unselected cohort of HIV/AIDS patients at a major referral centre in South-west Cameroon.

    Dimala CA; Bechem NN; Aroke D; Kadia BM

    BMC Research Notes. 2017 Nov 28; 10(1):623.

    OBJECTIVE: The rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa has encountered the challenge of maintaining international clinical standards of ART utilization and change of ART regimens. In Cameroon, scarce reports have documented the motives for change of ART. This study had as objective to investigate the reasons for switch in ART through a secondary analysis and descriptive synthesis of data from a cross-sectional study at the Limbe Regional Hospital. RESULTS: One hundred participants were included. Their mean age was 40.2 +/- 8.0 years and 70% of them were females. The median duration of ART use was 60 months. Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Nevirapine regimen was received by 83% of patients while the Stavudine-Lamivudine-Nevirapine regimen had the highest median duration of use (58 months). Most patients had experienced changes in ART (especially from Stavudine-Lamivudine-Nevirapine regimen) with the chief reason being unavailability of their previous regimens. Four patients had their ART changed due to active tuberculosis, 4 due to pregnancy and 7 due to ART toxicity (4 and 3 for peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy respectively). In conclusion, shortages in ART hugely influenced switch in regimens. In such a context, modifications in ART possibly deviate from guidelines with resultant sub-optimal therapy and enhanced drug resistance.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Adherence to the integrated management of childhood illness guidelines in Namibia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda: evidence from the national service provision assessment surveys.

    Kruger C; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M; Ali M

    BMC Health Services Research. 2017 Dec 13; 17(1):822.

    BACKGROUND: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) is regarded as a standard public health approach to lowering child mortality in developing countries. However, little is known about how health workers adhere to the guidelines at the national level in sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: Data from the Service Provision Assessment surveys of Namibia (NA) (survey year: 2009), Kenya (KE) (2010), Tanzania (TZ) (2006) and Uganda (UG) (2007) were analysed for adherence to the IMCI guidelines by health workers. Potential influencing factors included the survey country, patient's age, the different levels of the national health system, the training level of the health care provider (physician, non-physician clinician, nurse-midwife, auxiliary staff), and the status of re-training in IMCI. RESULTS: In total, 6856 children (NA: 1495; KE: 1890; TZ: 2469; UG: 1002 / male 51.2-53.5%) aged 2-73 months (2-24 months, 65.3%; median NA: 19 months; KE: 18 months; TZ: 16 months; UG: 15 months) were clinically assessed by 2006 health workers during the surveys. Less than 33% of the workers carried out assessment of all three IMCI danger signs, namely inability to eat/drink, vomiting everything, and febrile convulsions (NA: 11%; KE: 11%; TZ: 14%; UG: 31%) while the rate for assessing all three of the IMCI main symptoms of cough/difficult breathing, diarrhoea, and fever was < 60% (NA: 48%; KE: 34%; TZ: 50%; UG: 57%). Physical examination rates for fever (temperature) (NA: 97%; KE: 87%; TZ: 73%; UG: 90%), pneumonia (respiration rate/auscultation) (NA: 43%; KE: 24%; TZ: 25%; UG: 20%) and diarrhoea (dehydration status) (NA: 29%; KE: 19%; TZ: 20%; UG: 39%) varied widely and were highest when assessing children with the actual diagnosis of pneumonia and diarrhoea. Adherence rates tended to be higher in children
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Evidence-Based Programs, Yes-But What About More Program-Based Evidence?

    Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Jun 27; 6(2):247-248.

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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Doing What We Do, Better: Improving Our Work Through Systematic Program Reporting.

    Koek I; Monclair M; Anastasi E; Ten Hoope-Bender P; Higgs E; Obregon R

    Global Health, Science and Practice. 2018 Jun 27; 6(2):257-259.

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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Diagnostic Accuracy of Neonatal Assessment for Gestational Age Determination: A Systematic Review.

    Lee AC; Panchal P; Folger L; Whelan H; Whelan R; Rosner B; Blencowe H; Lawn JE

    Pediatrics. 2017 Dec; 140(6)

    CONTEXT: An estimated 15 million neonates are born preterm annually. However, in low- and middle-income countries, the dating of pregnancy is frequently unreliable or unknown. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to determine the diagnostic accuracy of neonatal assessments to estimate gestational age (GA). DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, POPLINE, and World Health Organization library databases. STUDY SELECTION: Studies of live-born infants in which researchers compared neonatal signs or assessments for GA estimation with a reference standard. DATA EXTRACTION: Two independent reviewers extracted data on study population, design, bias, reference standard, test methods, accuracy, agreement, validity, correlation, and interrater reliability. RESULTS: Four thousand nine hundred and fifty-six studies were screened and 78 included. We identified 18 newborn assessments for GA estimation (ranging 4 to 23 signs). Compared with ultrasound, the Dubowitz score dated 95% of pregnancies within +/-2.6 weeks (n = 7 studies), while the Ballard score overestimated GA (0.4 weeks) and dated pregnancies within +/-3.8 weeks (n = 9). Compared with last menstrual period, the Dubowitz score dated 95% of pregnancies within +/- 2.9 weeks (n = 6 studies) and the Ballard score, +/-4.2 weeks (n = 5). Assessments with fewer signs tended to be less accurate. A few studies showed a tendency for newborn assessments to overestimate GA in preterm infants and underestimate GA in growth-restricted infants. LIMITATIONS: Poor study quality and few studies with early ultrasound-based reference. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts in low- and middle-income countries should focus on improving dating in pregnancy through ultrasound and improving validity in growth-restricted populations. Where ultrasound is not possible, increased efforts are needed to develop simpler yet specific approaches for newborn assessment through new combinations of existing parameters, new signs, or technology. Copyright (c) 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    I beg you...breastfeed the baby, things changed: infant feeding experiences among Ugandan mothers living with HIV in the context of evolving guidelines to prevent postnatal transmission.

    Dunkley E; Ashaba S; Burns B; O'Neil K; Sanyu N; Akatukwasa C; Kastner J; Berry NS; Psaros C; Matthews LT; Kaida A

    BMC Public Health. 2018 Jan 29; 18(1):188.

    BACKGROUND: For women living with HIV (WLWH) in low- and middle-income countries, World Health Organization (WHO) infant feeding guidelines now recommend exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by mixed feeding until 24 months, alongside lifelong maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART). These recommendations represent the sixth major revision to WHO infant feeding guidelines since 1992. We explored how WLWH in rural Uganda make infant feeding decisions in light of evolving recommendations. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 postpartum Ugandan WLWH accessing ART, who reported pregnancy < 2 years prior to recruitment. Interviews were conducted between February-August 2014 with babies born between March 2012-October 2013, over which time, the regional HIV treatment clinic recommended lifelong ART for all pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+). Content analysis was used to identify major themes. Infant feeding experiences was an emergent theme. NVivo 10 software was used to organize analyses. RESULTS: Among 20 women, median age was 33 years [IQR: 28-35], number of livebirths was 3 [IQR: 2-5], years on ART was 2.3 [IQR: 1.5-5.1], and 95% were virally suppressed. Data revealed that women valued opportunities to reduce postnatal transmission. However, women made infant feeding choices that differed from recommendations due to: (1) perception of conflicting recommendations regarding infant feeding; (2) fear of prolonged infant HIV exposure through breastfeeding; and (3) social and structural constraints shaping infant feeding decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: WLWH face layered challenges navigating evolving infant feeding recommendations. Further research is needed to examine guidance and decision-making on infant feeding choices to improve postpartum experiences and outcomes. Improved communication about changes to recommendations is needed for WLWH, their partners, community members, and healthcare providers.
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Standardizing the measurement of maternal morbidity: Pilot study results.

    Barreix M; Barbour K; McCaw-Binns A; Chou D; Petzold M; Gichuhi GN; Gadama L; Taulo F; Tuncalp O; Say L

    International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2018 May; 141 Suppl 1:10-19.

    OBJECTIVE: To field test a standardized instrument to measure nonsevere morbidity among antenatal and postpartum women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jamaica, Kenya, and Malawi (2015-2016). Women presenting for antenatal care (ANC) or postpartum care (PPC) were recruited if they were at least 28 weeks into pregnancy or 6 weeks after delivery. They were interviewed and examined by a doctor, midwife, or nurse. Data were collected and securely stored electronically on a WHO server. Diagnosed conditions were coded and summarized using ICD-MM. RESULTS: A total of 1490 women (750 ANC; 740 PPC) averaging 26 years of age participated. Most women (61.6% ANC, 79.1% PPC) were healthy (no diagnosed medical or obstetric conditions). Among ANC women with clinical diagnoses, 18.3% had direct (obstetric) conditions and 18.0% indirect (medical) problems. Prevalences among PPC women were lower (12.7% and 8.6%, respectively). When screening for factors in the expanded morbidity definition, 12.8% (ANC) and 11.0% (PPC) self-reported exposure to violence. CONCLUSION: Nonsevere conditions are distinct from the leading causes of maternal death and may vary across pregnancy and the puerperium. This effort to identify and measure nonsevere morbidity promotes a comprehensive understanding of morbidity, incorporating maternal self-reporting of exposure to violence, and mental health. Further validation is needed.
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  13. 13

    Evaluation of the clinical protocol quality for family planning services of people living with HIV/AIDS. Avaliacao da qualidade de protocolo clinico para atendimento em planejamento familiar de pessoas vivendo com HIV/AIDS.

    Brasil RFG; Silva MJD; Moura ERF

    Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P. 2018; 52:e03335.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of a clinical protocol for family planning care for people living with HIV/AIDS. METHOD: An evaluative study based on the six domains of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II and on Pearson's Coefficient of Variation. RESULTS: The protocol reached between 88.8% and 100.0% quality in the domains of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II and 93.3% in the overall evaluation. The obtained Pearson's coefficient of variation was between zero and 18.6. Considering that a minimum percentage of 70.0% was adopted for the quality attributed by the evaluators, quality has been achieved for all domains of the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II. As a coefficient for all domains was less than 25%, we can infer that the scores attributed by the evaluators were linear or homogeneous, meaning high agreement between them. CONCLUSION: The protocol was evaluated as a quality instrument, recommended for use by health professionals who deal with family planning for people living with HIV/AIDS.
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  14. 14

    Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Eligibility and Coverage Among Children Aged <15 Years with HIV Infection - 20 PEPFAR-Supported Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2012-2016.

    Burrage A; Patel M; Mirkovic K; Dziuban E; Teferi W; Broyles L; Rivadeneira E

    MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2018 May 18; 67(19):552-555.

    Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2). Age at ART initiation for children with HIV infection expanded sequentially in the 2010, 2013, and 2016 WHO guidelines to include children aged <2, <5, and <15 years, respectively, regardless of clinical or immunologic status (3-5). The United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported ART for children with HIV infection since 2003 and, informed by the WHO guidelines and a growing evidence base, PEPFAR-supported countries have adjusted their national pediatric guidelines. To understand the lag between guideline development and implementation, as well as the ART coverage gap, CDC assessed national pediatric HIV guidelines and analyzed Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; UNAIDS) data on children aged <15 years with HIV infection and the numbers of these children on ART. Timeliness of WHO pediatric ART guideline adoption varied by country; >50% of children with HIV infection are not receiving ART, underscoring the importance of strengthening case finding and linkage to HIV treatment in pediatric ART programs.
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementing sexual and reproductive health care in humanitarian crises.

    Chynoweth SK; Amsalu R; Casey SE; McGinn T

    Lancet. 2018 May 5; 391(10132):1770-1771.

    Although good quality research on humanitarian health interventions is indeed scarce, some evidence does exist. Three examples illustrate this point. First, the provision of long-acting reversible contraceptives is feasible in humanitarian crises, and evidence shows that when good quality contraceptive services (including these long-acting contraceptives) are offered in such settings, women will use them. Yet humanitarian health providers often only offer short-acting methods or none at all. Second, death in the neonatal period—the first 28 days of life—is the main cause of mortality for children under 5 years of age, and countries affected by conflict and instability suffer the highest neonatal mortality. There are cost-effective, evidence-based interventions that can be delivered at the lowest health-care level; however, these interventions are rarely available in crisis settings. Third, we know that women and men are targeted for sexual violence in many conflict settings, with an estimated one in five women in complex emergencies having suffered sexual violence. Clinical management of rape is a minimum standard in the delivery of humanitarian health services, as set forth in guidance from the Inter-Agency Standing Committee and WHO. Nevertheless, implementation of this life-saving care remains on an ad-hoc basis, even in settings where ample evidence exists that sexual violence is widespread, such as in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Further research and innovation relating to health in humanitarian crises are needed; however, research and innovation alone are insufficient to meet the health needs of crisis-affected populations. It is important that humanitarian actors apply existing evidence to reduce preventable mortality and morbidity, and to promote wellbeing. During humanitarian crises, donors, aid agencies, and ministries of health should prioritise and reinforce the application of the highest standard of health care, including for sexual and reproductive health. We already know that these interventions save lives and are feasible in humanitarian settings—now we must systematically use this evidence. We declare no competing interests.
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  16. 16

    Implementing sexual and reproductive health care in humanitarian crises - Authors' reply.

    Roberts B; Blanchet K

    Lancet. 2018 May 5; 391(10132):1771.

    In response to our Series paper calling for more rigorous research on health interventions in humanitarian settings, we very much welcome the letter by Sarah Chynoweth and colleagues, which raises the important issue that humanitarian health actors can also fail to apply existing evidence, particularly with regard to sexual and reproductive health. In their letter, the authors note that there are proven examples of effective interventions for family planning, neonatal health, and sexual violence that the humanitarian community still fail to adequately deliver. What might explain this failure to use existing evidence? In our paper,1 we noted several reasons why the humanitarian sector has been slow to meaningfully assess interventions, and some of these reasons could also explain the low uptake of existing evidence. One fundamental explanation is that many humanitarian actors are unaware of available evidence, and instead prefer to rely on usual practice and instinct. Changing this requires a cultural shift within humanitarian organisations, including building skills and capacity to better identify, analyse, interpret, and apply evidence (particularly from epidemiological and economic data). The failure of the humanitarian community to adequately use evidence also suggests that researchers are not effectively communicating their findings, or that the research being done has little relevance to humanitarian actors. Addressing this shortcoming requires academic institutions to better understand the needs of operational agencies and decision makers and their perceptions on the use of evidence, and to provide more relevant and timely evidence. There are some initiatives seeking to promote humanitarian and academic research collaborations, such as the RECAP project, ALNAP, and Evidence Aid, and these should be strongly encouraged. Improved open access digital platforms are also required in order to better share information, data, and evidence among the various actors in the humanitarian system. The failure to sufficiently use evidence-based interventions also highlights weaknesses in humanitarian governance. Donors to humanitarian agencies should have greater incentives and sanctions to require such agencies to use evidence-based approaches. Similarly, UN agencies responsible for coordinating humanitarian responses and setting normative standards should apply and enforce evidence-based approaches. The use of evidence should not be viewed as a luxury in humanitarian settings, but as an essential means of improving humanitarian responses and as a core part of humanitarian accountability. We declare no competing interests.
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Leadership, action, learning and accountability to deliver quality care for women, newborns and children.

    Adeniran A; Likaka A; Knutsson A; Costello A; Daelmans B; Baliqi B; Burssa D; Freer J; Askew I; Bowen L; et al.

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2018 Mar; 96(3):222-224.

    The national governments of Bangladesh, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Malawi, Nigeria, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania, together with WHO, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), implementation partners and other stakeholders, have established the Network for Improving Quality of Care for Maternal Newborn and Child Health care. The network has agreed to pursue the ambitious goals of halving maternal and newborn deaths and stillbirths and improving experience of care in participating health facilities within five years of implementation. Under the leadership of the participating countries’ health ministries, the network will support the implementation of national frameworks for quality improvement by pursuing four strategic objectives: (i) leadership by building and strengthening national institutions and processes for improving quality of care; (ii) action by accelerating and sustaining implementation of quality-of-care improvement packages through operationalizing a standards-based approach to quality improvement; (iii) learning by promoting joint learning and generating evidence on quality planning, improvement and control of health services; and (iv) accountability by developing, strengthening and sustaining institutions and mechanisms for accountability of quality maternal, neonatal and child health services that are equitable and dignified. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Investigation of the effects of a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission program among Iranian neonates.

    Bokharaei-Salim F; Kalantari S; Gholamypour Z; Najafi A; Keyvani H; Esghaei M; Monavari SH; Khanaliha K; Bastani MN; Fakhim A; Garshasbi S

    Archives of Virology. 2018 May; 163(5):1179-1185.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is mostly spreading in developing countries. One of the most important pathways of HIV infection in these nations is the vertical route, from mother to infant. Therefore, this study evaluated the effectiveness of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program for HIV among Iranian neonates born to HIV-positive mothers. A total of 54 neonates born to HIV-1 positive mothers, all of whom were in a PMTCT program for HIV, as per the Iranian guidelines, were enrolled in this descriptive cross sectional study from March 2014 to July 2017. After RNA extraction of a plasma specimen, HIV-1 viral load was tested by an Artus HIV-1 RG RT-PCR Kit. Out of 54 evaluated neonates, 32 (59.3%) were male. The mean age of the HIV-infected mothers was 30.1 +/- 5.4 (range: 19-47) years, and 36 (66.7%) of the mothers were in the age group 26-34 years. In the present study, it was found that none of the neonates whose mothers had previously entered PMTCT programs had HIV. 15 children were found who were born to HIV-positive mothers who had not entered the PMTCT program. Three of these children were infected with HIV (CRF35_AD), and none of them carried HIV-1 variants with SDRMs. The results of this study indicate that if HIV-positive pregnant women enter the PMTCT program for HIV, they can realistically hope to give birth to a non-infected child.
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  19. 19

    World Health Organization Guidelines for Feeding Low Birth Weight Infants: Effects of Implementation in First Referral Level Health Facilities in India.

    Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2016 Jun; 83(6):522-8.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of implementing World Health Organization (WHO) low birth weight (LBW) feeding guidelines in First Referral Level health facilities in India. METHODS: This was a before-and-after study conducted at two First Referral Level health facilities in India. In the pre and post implementation periods of 4 mo each, the authors compared knowledge and skills of health care providers (HCPs) with regard to feeding of LBW infants using multiple choice and short answer questions and objective structured clinical examinations. The authors also enrolled in the two periods, separate cohorts of LBW infants along with their mothers at birth, and followed them till 2 wk of age or death/discharge. Quality of care received by the infants was assessed at 24-48 h and at discharge/2 wk using pre-determined parameters based on which quality scores were assigned by experienced neonatologists. Knowledge and skills of the mothers were also assessed at these time points through semi structured questionnaires and observation checklists. Guidelines were implemented using specially prepared training material through seminars, workshops, refresher courses and on-job support. RESULTS: Overall knowledge (62 +/- 16 vs. 75 +/- 15, n = 55; p < 0.01) and skill scores (298 +/- 37 vs. 348 +/- 52, p < 0.05) of HCPs improved. Correct knowledge increased among the mothers at the time of discharge (7.1 % vs. 63.4 %; p < 0.01). However, there was no improvement in maternal feeding skills at either 24-48 h or at discharge and key feeding practices remained unchanged. Though there was increased uptake of kangaroo mother care (0 vs. 21.9 %; p < 0.01) and alternate methods of feeding (15.9 % vs. 31.7 %; p = 0.03) by discharge/14 d, there was no significant improvement in overall quality of care of LBW infants (4.8 % vs. 6.7 %; p = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: For the Guidelines to be fully effective, additional efforts on part of HCPs/additional staff and efforts to promote generic early feeding practices in addition to LBW focused guidelines would be required.
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  20. 20

    Quality Primary Care and Family Planning Services for LGBT Clients: A Comprehensive Review of Clinical Guidelines.

    Klein DA; Malcolm NM; Berry-Bibee EN; Paradise SL; Coulter JS; Keglovitz Baker K; Schvey NA; Rollison JM; Frederiksen BN

    LGBT Health. 2018 Apr; 5(3):153-170.

    LGBT clients have unique healthcare needs but experience a wide range of quality in the care that they receive. This study provides a summary of clinical guideline recommendations related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. In addition, we identify gaps in current guidelines, and inform future recommendations and guidance for clinical practice and research. PubMed, Cochrane, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality electronic bibliographic databases, and relevant professional organizations' websites, were searched to identify clinical guidelines related to the provision of primary care and family planning services for LGBT clients. Information obtained from a technical expert panel was used to inform the review. Clinical guidelines meeting the inclusion criteria were assessed to determine their alignment with Institute of Medicine (IOM) standards for the development of clinical practice guidelines and content relevant to the identified themes. The search parameters identified 2,006 clinical practice guidelines. Seventeen clinical guidelines met the inclusion criteria. Two of the guidelines met all eight IOM criteria. However, many recommendations were consistent regarding provision of services to LGBT clients within the following themes: clinic environment, provider cultural sensitivity and awareness, communication, confidentiality, coordination of care, general clinical principles, mental health considerations, and reproductive health. Guidelines for the primary and family planning care of LGBT clients are evolving. The themes identified in this review may guide professional organizations during guideline development, clinicians when providing care, and researchers conducting LGBT-related studies.
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  21. 21

    Toxicological requirements for sclerosing agents or other chemicals for female sterilization.

    Heywood R

    International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 1995 Dec; 51 Suppl 1:S41-S45.

    There are no guidelines regulating the technologies available for Fallopian tube occlusion. Generally accepted regulatory requirements cannot be applied directly to the safety assessment of these technologies. The more appropriate guidelines are those regulating medical devices. Each method has to be evaluated on its own merits taking into consideration the duration of contact with tissue and the chemical and physical composition of the occlusive agents. (c) 1995 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    Cohort profile: the Right to Care Clinical HIV Cohort, South Africa.

    Fox MP; Maskew M; Brennan AT; Evans D; Onoya D; Malete G; MacPhail P; Bassett J; Ebrahim O; Mabotja D; Mashamaite S; Long L; Sanne I

    BMJ Open. 2017 Jun 10; 7(6):e015620.

    PURPOSE: The research objectives of the Right to Care Clinical HIV Cohort analyses are to: (1) monitor treatment outcomes (including death, loss to follow-up, viral suppression and CD4 count gain among others) for patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART); (2) evaluate the impact of changes in the national treatment guidelines around when to initiate ART on HIV treatment outcomes; (3) evaluate the impact of changes in the national treatment guidelines around what ART regimens to initiate on drug switches; (4) evaluate the cost and cost-effectiveness of HIV treatment delivery models; (5) evaluate the need for and outcomes on second-line and third-line ART; (6) evaluate the impact of comorbidity with non-communicable diseases on HIV treatment outcomes and (7) evaluate the impact of the switch to initiating all patients onto ART regardless of CD4 count. PARTICIPANTS: The Right to Care Clinical HIV Cohort is an open cohort of data from 10 clinics in two provinces within South Africa. All clinics include data from 2004 onwards. The cohort currently has data on over 115 000 patients initiated on HIV treatment and patients are followed up every 3-6 months for clinical and laboratory monitoring. FINDINGS TO DATE: Cohort data includes information on demographics, clinical visit, laboratory data, medication history and clinical diagnoses. The data have been used to identify rates and predictors of first-line failure, to identify predictors of mortality for patients on second-line (eg, low CD4 counts) and to show that adolescents and young adults are at increased risk of unsuppressed viral loads compared with adults. FUTURE PLANS: Future analyses will inform national models of HIV care and treatment to improve HIV care policy in South Africa.
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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in an era of stalled HIV prevention: Can it change the game?

    Eakle R; Venter F; Rees H

    Retrovirology. 2018 Apr 2; 15(1):29.

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention has evolved significantly over the years where clinical trials have now demonstrated the efficacy of oral PrEP, and the field is scaling-up implementation. The WHO and UNAIDS have made PrEP implementation a priority for populations at highest risk, and several countries have developed guidelines and national plans accordingly, largely based on evidence generated by demonstration projects. PrEP presents the opportunity to change the face of HIV prevention by offering a new option for protection against HIV and disrupting current HIV prevention systems. Nevertheless, as with all new technologies, both practical and social requirements for implementation must be taken into account if there is to be sustained and widespread adoption, which will also apply to forthcoming prevention technologies. Defining and building success for PrEP within the scope of scale-up requires careful consideration. This review summarises where the PrEP field is today, lessons learned from the past, the philosophy and practicalities of how successful programming may be defined, and provides perspectives of costs and affordability. We argue that a successful PrEP programme is about effective intervention integration and ultimately keeping people HIV negative.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Should trained lay providers perform HIV testing? A systematic review to inform World Health Organization guidelines.

    Kennedy CE; Yeh PT; Johnson C; Baggaley R

    AIDS Care. 2017 Dec; 29(12):1473-1479.

    New strategies for HIV testing services (HTS) are needed to achieve UN 90-90-90 targets, including diagnosis of 90% of people living with HIV. Task-sharing HTS to trained lay providers may alleviate health worker shortages and better reach target groups. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating HTS by lay providers using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Peer-reviewed articles were included if they compared HTS using RDTs performed by trained lay providers to HTS by health professionals, or to no intervention. We also reviewed data on end-users' values and preferences around lay providers preforming HTS. Searching was conducted through 10 online databases, reviewing reference lists, and contacting experts. Screening and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate using systematic methods. Of 6113 unique citations identified, 5 studies were included in the effectiveness review and 6 in the values and preferences review. One US-based randomized trial found patients' uptake of HTS doubled with lay providers (57% vs. 27%, percent difference: 30, 95% confidence interval: 27-32, p < 0.001). In Malawi, a pre/post study showed increases in HTS sites and tests after delegation to lay providers. Studies from Cambodia, Malawi, and South Africa comparing testing quality between lay providers and laboratory staff found little discordance and high sensitivity and specificity (>/=98%). Values and preferences studies generally found support for lay providers conducting HTS, particularly in non-hypothetical scenarios. Based on evidence supporting using trained lay providers, a WHO expert panel recommended lay providers be allowed to conduct HTS using HIV RDTs. Uptake of this recommendation could expand HIV testing to more people globally.
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    Knowledge and practice of immediate newborn care among health care providers in eastern zone public health facilities, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016.

    Berhe AK; Tinsae F; Gebreegziabher G

    BMC Pediatrics. 2017 Jul 11; 17(1):157.

    BACKGROUND: According to WHO (2013) report the number of under five-year mortality in Ethiopia was 195,504, out of this 84,437 was from neonatal death and this mortality is related to immediate obstetric and newborn care of babies provided by health care providers; But little was known about the level of knowledge and practice related to immediate newborn care and their associated factors among health care providers generally in Tigray region and specifically in the Eastern Zone so the aim of this study was to assess knowledge and practice of immediate newborn care and associated factors among health care providers in the Eastern zone public health facilities, Tigray, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to February 2016. A total of 16 health care facilities were selected for study using simple random sampling techniques and all health care providers in the selected health care facilities who participated in immediate newborn care were involved in the study. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Ethical clearance was obtained from Adigrat University institutional ethical review board and Tigray regional health bureau. Consent was obtained from participants to conduct the study. RESULT: In this study 215 participants were contacted, with a response rate of 99.1%. Generally, from the health care providers who participated in this study, 74.65% had adequate knowledge on newborn care and overall 72.77% of the participants were having good newborn care practice. Among the health care providers participated in the study, 151 (70.9%) were getting access to newborn care national guideline and only 99 (46%) of the health care providers get training in newborn care within the past two years before the study. Availability of national guideline, having adequate materials, the period of taking training and type of health facility were significant predictors for the health care providers newborn care practice. CONCLUSION: Even though some improvement observed in the knowledge and practice of health care providers on newborn care, but still this study identified knowledge and practice gap. Regional health bureau and district health offices should provide refreshment training on immediate newborn care regularly, equipping all health facilities with necessary materials and national guideline of newborn care and there should be sharing experience between hospital and health center staffs working on newborn care through mentoring.
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