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Your search found 4023 Results

  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    A strategic action framework for multipurpose prevention technologies combining contraceptive hormones and antiretroviral drugs to prevent pregnancy and HIV.

    Young Holt B; Dellplain L; Creinin MD; Peine KJ; Romano J; Hemmerling A

    European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2018 Oct; 23(5):326-334.

    OBJECTIVE: Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are an innovative class of products that deliver varied combinations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, other sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and contraception. Combining separate strategies for different indications into singular prevention products can reduce the stigma around HIV and STI prevention, improve acceptability of and adherence to more convenient products, and be more cost-effective by addressing overlapping risks. METHODS: This article outlines a strategic action framework developed as an outcome of a series of expert meetings held between 2014 and 2016. The meetings focused on identifying opportunities and challenges for MPTs that combine hormonal contraception (HC) with antiretroviral drugs into single products. The framework aims to present an actionable strategy, by addressing key research gaps and outlining the key areas for progress, to guide current and future HC MPT development. RESULTS: We identified eight primary action areas for the development of impactful HC MPTs, and includes aspects from epidemiology, pharmacology, clinical trial design, regulatory requirements, manufacturing and commercialisation, behavioural science, and investment needs for research and development. CONCLUSION: Overall, the challenges involved with reconciling the critical social-behavioural context that will drive MPT product use and uptake with the complexities of research and development and regulatory approval are of paramount importance. To realise the potential of MPTs given their complexity and finite resources, researchers in the MPT field must be strategic about the way forward; increased support among policy-makers, advocates, funders and the pharmaceutical industry is critical.
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  2. 2
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    Interventions to reduce risk for sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: A meta-analysis of trials, 2008-2016.

    Morales A; Espada JP; Orgiles M; Escribano S; Johnson BT; Lightfoot M

    PloS One. 2018; 13(6):e0199421.

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of interventions to reduce risk for sexually transmitted infections in adolescents in recent years, but their global effects remain unknown since 2008, the last date of a comprehensive review of prior studies. AIMS: This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of interventions to promote sexual health, reduce STIs and unplanned pregnancies targeted to adolescents available after 2008; and analyzing the moderators of their global efficacy. METHODS: We searched electronic databases and manual searches of some journals focused on STIs in May 2016. The studies evaluated the efficacy of interventions to reduce sexual risk in adolescents (age range: 11-19) anywhere in the world. Effect size of the relevant outcomes for sexual risk was calculated for every study. Analyses incorporated random-effect assumptions for each outcome. The homogeneity in the results was examined with the I2 statistic and its associated 95% confident interval. RESULTS: Data from 63 studies (59,795 participants) were analyzed for behavioral and non-behavioral outcomes. In the short term, interventions had a positive impact in sexual health-related knowledge (Hedges'g = 1.01), attitudes (g = 0.29), self-efficacy toward condom use (g = 0.22), intention to refuse sex (g = 0.56), condom use intention (g = 0.46), and condom use (g = 0.38). In the medium term, positive effects observed at the short-term were maintained, although effect size significantly decreased in all variables. In the long term, interventions improved condom use (g = 0.47). Moderators of the efficacy are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual health promotion interventions are effective to promote sexual health through increasing condom use. Effects on non-behavioral variables tend to decrease over time, while condom use increased in the long-term. Interventions should focus on the long-term efficacy, especially in behavioral and biological measures.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Female sex workers experiences of using contraceptive methods: a qualitative study in Kenya.

    Ochako R; Okal J; Kimetu S; Askew I; Temmerman M

    BMC Women's Health. 2018 Jun 20; 18(1):105.

    BACKGROUND: Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are predisposed to a broad range of social, sexual and reproductive health problems such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV, unintended pregnancy, violence, sexual exploitation, stigma and discrimination. Female sex workers have unmet need for contraceptives and require comprehensive Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) prevention interventions. Existing programs pay little attention to the broad sexual and reproductive health and rights of these women and often focus on HIV and other STIs prevention, care and treatment while neglecting their reproductive health needs, including access to family planning methods. The aim of this study is, therefore, to explore the experiences of female sex workers with using existing contraceptive methods, assess individual and health facility-level barriers and document inter-partner relationship in the use of contraceptives. METHODS: We focus on women aged 15-49, who reported current sex work, defined as 'providing sexual services in exchange for money or other material compensation as part of an individual's livelihood.' RESULTS: Findings reveal that while some FSWs know about modern contraceptives, others have limited knowledge or out rightly refuse to use contraceptives for fear of losing clients. The interaction with different client types act as a barrier but also provide an opportunity for contraceptive use among FSWs. Most FSWs recognize the importance of dual protection for HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention. However, myths and misconceptions, fear of being tested for HIV at the family planning clinic, wait time, and long queues at the clinics all act in combination to hinder uptake of contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend a targeted approach to address the contraceptive needs of FSWs to help remove barriers to contraceptive uptake. We also support the introduction of counseling services to provide information on the benefits of non-barrier contraceptive methods and thereby enhance dual use for both pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention.
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  4. 4
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    The Protective Value of Discussing Condom Use: A Study of Young Black Men Attending STI Clinics in the Southern United States.

    Crosby R; Skakoon-Sparling S; Milhausen RR; Sanders S; Graham CA; Yarber WL

    Health Education and Behavior. 2018 Oct; 45(5):706-713.

    Young Black men (YBM) experience disparities in both HIV incidence and incidence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs); thus, developing efficacious behavioral interventions is an especially critical goal. One potential avenue for intervention involves improving sexual health communications among YBM and their partners, before sex occurs. Such discussions may serve several purposes, including improving condom use and facilitating the negotiation of correct and consistent condom use. The aim of the current study was to determine the STI-protective effects of discussing condom use with sex partners, among medically underserved YBM. A total of 702 YBM were recruited from three STI clinics in the Southern United States. YBM completed a self-interview at baseline and again 6 months later. At 12 months postenrollment, a chart review determined incidents of STIs. The majority of YBM participants (61.1%) had recently discussed condom use with partners before sex. Of the 12 assessed outcomes, 7 were significantly associated with this measure. In each case, a protective effect was observed. In controlled analyses, the 12-month incidence of STIs was significantly ( p = .05) greater among YBM not discussing condoms with sex partners. The results of the current study suggest that, among YBM attending clinics, discussing condom use with sex partners may promote safer sex practices. This behavior was also predictive of lower STI incidence in the ensuing 12 months, suggesting that it may be an ideal intervention target for programs designed to protect YBM against STI acquisition, including HIV.
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  5. 5
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    ACOG Committee Opinion No. 735: Adolescents and Long-Acting Reversible Contraception: Implants and Intrauterine Devices.

    Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2018 May; 131(5):e130-e139.

    The phenomenon of adolescent childbearing is complex and far reaching, affecting not only the adolescents but also their children and their community. The prevalence and public health effect of adolescent pregnancy reflect complex structural social problems and an unmet need for acceptable and effective contraceptive methods in this population. In 2006-2010, 82% of adolescents at risk of unintended pregnancy were currently using contraception, but only 59% used a highly effective method, including any hormonal method or intrauterine device. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) have higher efficacy, higher continuation rates, and higher satisfaction rates compared with short-acting contraceptives among adolescents who choose to use them. Complications of intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are rare and differ little between adolescents and women, which makes these methods safe for adolescents. Barriers to use of LARC by adolescents include patients' lack of familiarity with or understanding about the methods, potentially high cost of initiation, lack of access, low parental acceptance, and obstetrician-gynecologists' and other health care providers' misconceptions about the safety of LARC use in adolescents. Because adolescents are at higher risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), obstetrician-gynecologists should continue to follow standard guidelines for STI screening. They should advise adolescents who choose LARC methods to use male or female condoms consistently (dual method use) to decrease the risk of STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Obstetrician-gynecologists should counsel all sexually active adolescents who do not seek pregnancy on the range of reversible contraceptive methods, including LARC, and should help make these contraceptives readily accessible to them.
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  6. 6
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    Female sex workers use power over their day-to-day lives to meet the condition of a conditional cash transfer intervention to incentivize safe sex.

    Cooper JE; Dow WH; de Walque D; Keller AC; McCoy SI; Fernald LCH; Balampama MP; Kalolella A; Packel LJ; Wechsberg WM; Ozer EJ

    Social Science and Medicine. 2017 May; 181:148-157.

    Female Sex Workers are a core population in the HIV epidemic, and interventions such as conditional cash transfers (CCTs), effective in other health domains, are a promising new approach to reduce the spread of HIV. Here we investigate how a population of Tanzanian female sex workers, though constrained in many ways, experience and use their power in the context of a CCT intervention that incentivizes safe sex. We analyzed 20 qualitative in-depth interviews with female sex workers enrolled in a randomized-controlled CCT program, the RESPECT II pilot, and found that while such women have limited choices, they do have substantial power over their work logistics that they leveraged to meet the conditions of the CCT and receive the cash award. It was through these decisions over work logistics, such as reducing the number of workdays and clients, that the CCT intervention had its greatest impact on modifying female sex workers' behavior. Copyright (c) 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Influence of peer support on HIV/STI prevention and safety amongst international migrant sex workers: A qualitative study at the Mexico-Guatemala border.

    Febres-Cordero B; Brouwer KC; Rocha-Jimenez T; Fernandez-Casanueva C; Morales-Miranda S; Goldenberg SM

    PloS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190787.

    BACKGROUND: Migrant women engaged in precarious employment, such as sex work, frequently face pronounced social isolation alongside other barriers to health and human rights. Although peer support has been identified as a critical HIV and violence prevention intervention for sex workers, little is known about access to peer support or its role in shaping health and social outcomes for migrant sex workers. This article analyses the role of peer support in shaping vulnerability and resilience related to HIV/STI prevention and violence among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border. METHODS: This qualitative study is based on 31 semi-structured interviews conducted with international migrant sex workers in the Mexico-Guatemala border communities of Tapachula, Mexico and Tecun Uman and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. RESULTS: Peer support was found to be critical for reducing social isolation; improving access to HIV/STI knowledge, prevention and resources; and mitigating workplace violence, particularly at the initial stages of migration and sex work. Peer support was especially critical for countering social isolation, and peers represented a valuable source of HIV/STI prevention knowledge and resources (e.g., condoms), as well as essential safety supports in the workplace. However, challenges to accessing peer support were noted, including difficulties establishing long-lasting relationships and other forms of social participation due to frequent mobility, as well as tensions among peers within some work environments. Variations in access to peer support related to country of work, work environment, sex work and migration stage, and sex work experience were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that peer-led and community empowerment interventions represent a promising strategy for promoting the health, safety and human rights of migrant sex workers. Tailored community empowerment interventions addressing the unique migration-related contexts and challenges faced by migrant sex workers should be a focus of future community-based research, alongside promotion of broader structural changes.
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  8. 8
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    Efficacy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Interventions Targeting Female Entertainment Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Lim RBT; Tham DKT; Cheung ONY; Wong ML

    AIDS and Behavior. 2017 Aug; 21(8):2341-2361.

    Female entertainment workers (FEWs) working in karaoke lounges, bars, pubs, nightclubs, discotheques, dance halls, massage parlours, restaurants (as hostesses or singers) and beer gardens are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI). The aim of the systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of HIV/STI intervention programmes targeting FEWs. Among the 14 included studies, majority were in Asia and targeted native FEWs. Most studies were quasi-experimental and the overall quality was relatively low. While most studies employed only behavioural strategies, structural interventions were the least common. In studies with structural interventions, there was a preference for behavioural and biomedical-based outcome measurements rather than structural-related indicators. FEWs in the intervention group were significantly more likely to report condom use with paying (odds ratio OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.9, p 0.04), but not with regular (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3, p 0.84) partner than the control/comparison group post-intervention.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Dual method use among long-acting reversible contraceptive users.

    Bernard C; Zhao Q; Peipert JF

    European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care. 2018 Apr; 23(2):97-104.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare rates of dual method use (concurrent use of condoms and an effective method of contraception) in long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) and non-LARC hormonal contraceptive users, and to determine factors associated with dual method use. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, an observational, prospective cohort study of 9256 women in St. Louis, MO, USA. Our sample included 6744 women who initiated a contraceptive method within 3 months of enrollment, continued use at 6 months post-enrollment, and responded regarding dual method use. Our primary outcome was the rate of dual method use at 6 months post-enrollment. RESULTS: Dual method use was reported by 32% of LARC and 45% of non-LARC hormonal contraceptive users (p < .01). After adjusting for other covariates and comparing to non-LARC hormonal contraceptive users, LARC users were less likely to report dual method use (RRadj 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.83). Factors associated with dual method use in our multivariable analysis were age <25 years, black race, lower education, single relationship status, baseline dual method use, baseline diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection (STI), greater partner willingness to use a condom, and higher condom self-efficacy score. CONCLUSIONS: LARC users are less likely to report dual method use compared to non-LARC hormonal contraceptive users, but other factors also impact dual method use. Further studies should be performed to determine whether this lower dual method use increases the risk of STI. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Identifier NCT01986439.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Web 2.0 Tools in the Prevention of Curable Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Scoping Review.

    Sanz-Lorente M; Wanden-Berghe C; Castejon-Bolea R; Sanz-Valero J

    Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2018 Mar 22; 20(3):e113.

    BACKGROUND: The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas in Spain, and the Indice Bibliografico Espanol de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017. The equation search was realized by means of the using of descriptors together with the consultation of the fields of title register and summary with free terms. Bibliographies of the selected papers were searched for additional articles. RESULTS: A total of 627 references were retrieved, of which 6 papers were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The STDs studied were chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The Web 2.0 tools used were Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. The 6 papers used Web 2.0 in the promotion of STD detection. CONCLUSIONS: Web 2.0 tools have demonstrated a positive effect on the promotion of prevention strategies for STDs and can help attract and link youth to campaigns related to sexual health. These tools can be combined with other interventions. In any case, Web 2.0 and especially Facebook have all the potential to become essential instruments for public health. (c)Maria Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramon Castejon-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 22.03.2018.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention With Long-Acting Reversible Contraception: Factors Associated With Dual Use.

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2018 Apr; 45(4):e19.

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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Nanotechnology and the future of condoms in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

    Yah CS; Simate GS; Hlangothi P; Somai BM

    Annals of African Medicine. 2018 Apr-Jun; 17(2):49-57.

    Objective: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is among the utmost destructive viruses humankind has ever faced in almost four decades. It carries with it profound socioeconomic and public health implications. Unfortunately, there is, currently, no effective cure for HIV infections. This review discusses the various types of condoms, microbicides, and the potential use of nanoparticle-coated condoms as a means of diminishing the risk of HIV transmission and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during sexual intercourse. Methods: We identified 153 articles from 1989 to 2015 indexed in various journal platforms, reports, and magazines. Using the PRISMA guidelines as proxy in performing the research review process, only 53 articles were selected. Ideally, articles that failed to describe the nature and types of condoms, condom failures, nanoparticle-coated condoms, microbicides, and HIV prevention were excluded. Results and Discussion: In general, it has been shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) currently available can only limit transmission and acquisition of HIV strains. Apart from ART treatment, the use of condoms has been identified globally as a cost-effective intervention for reducing the spread of HIV and other STIs. However, while condoms are supposed to be effective, reliable, and easy to use, research has shown that they are attributable to 20% failures including breakages. Nevertheless, other studies have shown that coating condoms with nanoparticles is an important and effective method for reducing condom breakage and HIV/STI transmission during sexual intercourse. Conclusions:: A review of literature cited in this paper has shown that nanotechnology-based condom systems have the potential to prevent the spread of HIV and STIs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial nature of some nanoparticles could provide a safe and efficient way to disrupt and/or inactivate different STIs - including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Receipt of Sexually Transmitted Infection/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Services.

    Steiner RJ; Pazol K; Swartzendruber A; Liddon N; Kramer MR; Gaydos LM; Sales JM

    Journal of Adolescent Health. 2018 Apr; 62(4):417-423.

    PURPOSE: Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods do not require annual clinic visits for continuation, potentially impacting receipt of recommended sexually transmitted infection (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services for young women. We assess service receipt among new and continuing LARC users versus moderately and less effective method users and non-contraceptors. METHODS: Using 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth data from sexually active women aged 15-24 years (n = 2,018), we conducted logistic comparisons of chlamydia, any STI and HIV testing, and sexual risk assessment in the past year by current contraceptive type. RESULTS: Less than half of respondents were tested for chlamydia (40.9%), any STI (47.3%), or HIV (25.9%); 66.5% had their sexual risk assessed. Differences in service receipt between new and continuing LARC users as compared with moderately effective method users were not detected in multivariable models, except that continuing LARC users were less likely to be tested for HIV (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = .52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .32-.85). New, but not continuing, LARC users were more likely than less effective method users (aPR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.03-1.76) and non-contraceptors (aPR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.11-1.85) to have their sexual risk assessed, although both groups were more likely than non-contraceptors to be tested for chlamydia (new: aPR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.08-2.15; continuing: aPR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.24-2.29). CONCLUSIONS: We found little evidence that LARC use was associated with lower prevalence of STI testing. However, new, but not continuing, LARC users, as compared with those not using a method requiring a clinic visit, were more likely to have had their risk assessed, suggesting that initiating LARC may offer an opportunity to receive services that does not persist. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Gender identity, healthcare access, and risk reduction among Malaysia's mak nyah community.

    Gibson BA; Brown SE; Rutledge R; Wickersham JA; Kamarulzaman A; Altice FL

    Global Public Health. 2016 Aug-Sep; 11(7-8):1010-25.

    Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalise them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilisation patterns and harm reduction behaviours. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 male-to-female transgender (mak nyah) sex workers in Malaysia. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analysed using thematic coding. Results suggest that TGW identity is shaped at an early age followed by incorporation into the mak nyah community where TGW were assisted in gender transition and introduced to sex work. While healthcare was accessible, it failed to address the multiple healthcare needs of TGW. Pressure for gender-affirming health procedures and fear of HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening led to potentially hazardous health behaviours. These findings have implications for developing holistic, culturally sensitive prevention and healthcare services for TGW.
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  15. 15
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    Key Programme Science lessons from an HIV prevention 'Learning Site' for sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya.

    McClarty LM; Bhattacharjee P; Isac S; Emmanuel F; Kioko J; Njiraini M; Gichangi P; Okoth CD; Musimbi-Mbole J; Blanchard JF; Moses S; Muysyoki H; Becker ML

    Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2018 Aug; 94(5):346–352.

    Objectives In 2013, Kenya’s National AIDS and STI Control Program established a Learning Site (LS) in Mombasa County to support and strengthen capacity for HIV prevention programming within organizations working with sex workers. A defining feature of LS was the use of a Program Science approach throughout its development and implementation. We provide an overview of the key components of LS, present findings from 23 months of program monitoring data, and highlight key Program Science lessons from its implementation and monitoring. Methods Routine monitoring data collected from September 2013 through July 2015 are presented. Individual-level service utilization data were collected monthly and indicators of interest were analyzed over time to illustrate trends in enrolment, program coverage and service utilization among sex workers in Mombasa County. Results Over the monitoring period, outreach program enrolment occurred rapidly; condom distribution targets were met consistently; rates of STI screening remained high and diagnoses declined; and reporting of and response to violent incidents increased. At the same time, enrolment in LS clinics was relatively low among female sex workers, and HIV testing at LS was low among both female and male sex workers. Conclusion Lessons learnt from operationalizing the Program Science framework through the Mombasa LS can inform the development and implementation of similar LS in different geographical and epidemiological contexts. Importantly, meaningful involvement of sex workers in the design, implementation and monitoring processes ensures that overall program performance is optimized in the context of local, ‘on-the-ground’ realities. Additionally, learnings from LS highlight the importance of introducing enhanced monitoring and evaluations systems into complex programs to better understand and explain program dynamics over time.
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  16. 16

    Breaking Down the Administrative Barriers: Condom Availability in the School Setting.

    Maziarz L

    NASN School Nurse. 2018 Mar; 33(2):110-114.

    School nurses are at the forefront of health resource decisions, education, and health advocacy in the school setting. When it comes to sex education and condom availability, navigating the politics and controversy surrounding student access and education is not an easy task. Moreover, recent research shows school administrators are not aware of sexual health issues in their district and are not typically supportive of condom availability, limiting evidence-based practice implementation in the school setting. At the district level, school nurses must recognize these challenges and develop plans to promote science-based interventions for students' sexual health.
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    A comprehensive review of HIV/STI prevention and sexual and reproductive health services among sex Workers in Conflict-Affected Settings: call for an evidence- and rights-based approach in the humanitarian response.

    Ferguson A; Shannon K; Butler J; Goldenberg SM

    Conflict and Health. 2017; 11:25.

    Background: While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of all peer review (both epidemiological and qualitative) and grey literature published in the last 15 years (2000-2015), focusing on 1) HIV/STI vulnerability or prevention, and/or 2) access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings. Five databases were searched, using combinations of sex work, conflict/mobility, HIV/STI, and SRH service terms. Relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature were also hand-searched, and key papers were cross-referenced for additional material. Results: Five hundred fifty one records were screened and 416 records reviewed. Of 33 records describing HIV/STI prevention and/or access to SRH services among sex workers in conflict-affected settings, 24 were from sub-Saharan Africa; 18 studies described the results of primary research (13 quantitative, 3 qualitative, 2 mixed-methods) and 15 were non-primary research (e.g., commentaries, policy reports, programmatic manuals). Available evidence indicated that within conflict-affected settings, SWs' capacity to engage in HIV/STI prevention and access SRH services is severely undermined by social and structural determinants including widespread violence and human rights violations, the collapse of livelihoods and traditional social structures, high levels of displacement, and difficulties accessing already scant health services due to stigma, discrimination and criminalization. Discussion/Conclusions: This review identified significant gaps in HIV/STI and SRH research, policy, and programming for conflict-affected sex workers, highlighting a critical gap in the humanitarian response. Sex worker-informed policies and interventions to promote HIV/STI prevention and access to HIV and SRH services using a rights-based approach are recommended, and further research on the degree to which conflict-affected sex workers are accessing HIV/STI and SRH services is recommended.A paradigm shift from the behavioural and biomedical approach to a human rights-based approach to HIV/STI prevention and SRH is strongly recommended.
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  18. 18

    Global sexual and reproductive service package for men and adolescent boys.

    Shand T; Hopkins J; Zamir J; Marcell AV; Perlson S

    London, United Kingdom, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2017. 144 p.

    The Global Sexual and Reproductive Health Service Package for Men and Adolescent Boys has been developed to support providers of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services to increase the range and quality of services to meet the specific and diverse needs of men and adolescent boys. This package focuses specifically on the provision of such services integrated within clinical and non-clinical contexts and follows a gender-transformative approach. It covers men and adolescent boys in all their diversity and takes a positive approach to SRH, seeing this not just as the absence of disease, but the positive expression of one’s gender, sex and sexuality. In doing so, this service package contributes to efforts to ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) as prioritized in the Sustainable Development Goals.1 This package is in no way intended to detract from the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women and adolescent girls, nor to divert resources, funding or attention from much-needed SRH services and programmes for women and adolescent girls. (Excerpt)
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Preventing syndemic Zika virus, HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy: dual method use and consistent condom use among Brazilian women in marital and civil unions.

    Tsuyuki K; Gipson JD; Barbosa RM; Urada LA; Morisky DE

    Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2017 Dec 12; 1-17.

    Syndemic Zika virus, HIV and unintended pregnancy call for an urgent understanding of dual method (condoms with another modern non-barrier contraceptive) and consistent condom use. Multinomial and logistic regression analysis using data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher (PNDS), a nationally representative household survey of reproductive-aged women in Brazil, identified the socio-demographic, fertility and relationship context correlates of exclusive non-barrier contraception, dual method use and condom use consistency. Among women in marital and civil unions, half reported dual protection (30% condoms, 20% dual methods). In adjusted models, condom use was associated with older age and living in the northern region of Brazil or in urban areas, whereas dual method use (versus condom use) was associated with younger age, living in the southern region of Brazil, living in non-urban areas and relationship age homogamy. Among condom users, consistent condom use was associated with reporting Afro-religion or other religion, not wanting (more) children and using condoms only (versus dual methods). Findings highlight that integrated STI prevention and family planning services should target young married/in union women, couples not wanting (more) children and heterogamous relationships to increase dual method use and consistent condom use.
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    Umbrella: an innovative integrated sexual health service in Birmingham, UK.

    Jewell S; Campbell K; Jaffer K

    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2017 Jul; 43(3):229-231.

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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Men's reproductive health knowledge in Mankweng District, Limpopo Province.

    Rasesemola RM; Ramukumba TS; Masala-Chokwe M; Nkosi ZZ

    Curationis. 2017 Oct 19; 40(1):e1-e7.

    BACKGROUND: Gender roles influence men's attitudes towards reproductive health, and society might assume that reproductive health issues, fertility and family planning are women's responsibilities. Moreover, literature shows that men have insufficient knowledge about reproductive health matters and some misconceptions about modern contraceptive practices. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe reproductive health knowledge of men in Mankweng District and was conducted in 2015. METHODS: A descriptive research study was conducted by using quantitative approach. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Cluster random multistage sampling was used to select villages in Mankweng District and convenient sampling was used to identify participants who met the inclusion criteria to participate on the study. RESULTS: A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed and returned; 197 (98.5%) of the returned questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The findings indicated that the majority of participants, 74% (n = 145), considered their partners to be unclean during menstruation, and 84.77% (n = 167) of participants did not know how to perform self-testicular examination. More than half of the participants, 55.83% (n = 67), were not in favour of vasectomy and had strong opinions about it; some of those who reportedly knew what a vasectomy involves had some misconceptions. CONCLUSION: The findings showed that despite participants' reported knowledge about some reproductive health matters their perceptions were unfavourable towards them. Despite men's sufficient knowledge about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and ways to protect themselves against STIs men had limited knowledge about other male and female reproductive health matters.
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  22. 22

    Female condoms: a tool for sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Center for Health and Gender Equity [CHANGE]

    Washington, D.C., Center for Health and Gender Equity [CHANGE], 2017 Sep. 5 p.

    Female condoms are currently the only available prevention method designed for women to initiate that provide effective protection against unintended pregnancy and STI and HIV transmission. They are also an important method of protection for people of all genders who engage in receptive vaginal or anal sex, as female condoms give them more agency over their sexual health. They should be a standard option in an array of available methods for contraception and STI/HIV prevention to meet women’s diverse needs and preferences.
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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    Exploring the Context and Implementation of Public Health Regulations Governing Sex Work: A Qualitative Study with Migrant Sex Workers in Guatemala.

    Rocha-Jiménez T; Brouwer KC; Silverman JG; Morales-Miranda S; Goldenberg SM

    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. 2017; 19(5):1235-1244.

    Public health regulations practices surrounding sex work and their enforcement can have unintended consequences for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and care among sex workers. This analysis was based on qualitative in-depth (n = 33) and focus groups interviews (n = 20) conducted with migrant female sex workers in Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, and explored the implementation of sex work regulations and related consequences for HIV prevention and care among migrant sex workers. Sex work regulations were found to have health-related benefits (e.g., access to HIV/STI testing) as well as negative impacts, such as abuse by police and harassment, detention/deportation of migrant sex workers. Whereas public health regulations may improve access to HIV/STI testing, their implementation may inadvertently jeopardize sex workers’ health through unintended negative consequences. Non-coercive, evidence-based public health and sex work policies and programs are needed to expand access to HIV/STI prevention and care among migrant sex workers, while protecting their dignity and human rights. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
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  24. 24

    CDC's Male Circumcision Recommendations Represent a Key Public Health Measure [commentary]

    Morris BJ; Krieger JN; Klausner JD

    Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Mar 24; 5(1):15-27.

    Frisch and Earp, opponents of male circumcision, have criticized draft recommendations from the CDC that advocate counseling men and parents of newborn boys in the United States about the benefits and risks of male circumcision. We provide a rebuttal to Frisch and Earp's criticisms and contend that the recommendations are entirely appropriate and merit consideration for policy development.
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  25. 25

    Correlates of intention to abstain from sex among HIV positive adolescents in Botswana.

    Kubanji R; Rapinyana O; Phaladze N; Molebatsi K

    African Population Studies. 2016; 30(2 Suppl):2920-2930.

    The study assesses correlates of abstinence intention among HIV positive adolescents aged 15-19 years to identify salient behavioural, normative and control beliefs relevant to sexual risky behaviour using the theory of reasoned action and planned behaviour. A cross sectional survey of 98 HIV positive adolescents aged 15-19 years was conducted at a Children’s center and from the infectious disease care clinics in Mochudi. Among 98 respondents, 56% were females (mean age 15.80, SE=0.21) and 44% were males (mean age 15.73, SE = 0.187). Abstinence behavioural beliefs (p<0.0001), abstinence prevention beliefs (p<0.0001) and abstinence normative beliefs (p=0.025) were significantly associated with intention to abstain from sex. Investing in interventions that enhance behavioural and prevention beliefs and promote intention to abstain would reduce the risk of reinfection, STDs and delay sexual debut. HIV interventions targeting adolescents would help prevent new infections.
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