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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    The case for routine Gram stain following invasive prenatal procedures with retained intrauterine device.

    Lo TK; So CH; Kan AS; Yao H; Lam BH

    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2018 Jun 8; 1-2.

    Despite a high colonisation rate of 38% in the female lower genital tract (DiGiulio 2012), Candida seldom causes chorioamnionitis in pregnancy. The candida species (including albicans, glabrata and parapsilosis) is an opportunistic pathogen. A recent review found that most reported cases had underlying risk factors, such as conception by in vitro fertilisation, presence of a retained intrauterine device (IUD) or cervical cerclage (Garcia-Flores et al. 2016). It called for consideration of this entity when an intra-amniotic infection is suspected in the at-risk cases (Garcia-Flores et al. 2016). The reported outcome of candida chorioamnionitis is poor, particularly in the cases with an extremely low-birth weight (Barton et al. 2017). In this report, the authors describe a case of pregnancy loss following a second-trimester amniocentesis and highlight the need to actively exclude this possibility when performing invasive prenatal procedures for the at-risk cases, particularly those with IUD.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementation and Operational Research: Impact of Nurse-Targeted Care on HIV Outcomes Among Immunocompromised Persons: A Before-After Study in Uganda.

    Kiragga AN; Nalintya E; Morawski BM; Kigozi J; Park BJ; Kaplan JE; Boulware DR; Meya DB; Manabe YC

    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2016 Jun 01; 72(2):e32-6.

    INTRODUCTION: Improving HIV outcomes among severely immunocompromised HIV-infected persons who have increased morbidity and mortality remains an important issue in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to evaluate the impact of targeted clinic-based nurse care on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention among severely immunocompromised HIV-infected persons. METHODS: The study included ART-naive patients with CD4 counts <100 cells per microliter registered in seven urban clinics in Kampala, Uganda. Data were retrospectively collected on patients enrolled from July to December 2011 (routine care cohort). Between July 2012 and September 2013, 1 additional nurse per clinic was hired (nurse counselor cohort) to identify new patients, expedite ART initiation, and trace those who were lost to follow-up. We compared time to ART initiation and 6-month retention in care between cohorts and used a generalized linear model to estimate the relative risk of retention. RESULTS: The study included 258 patients in the routine care cohort and 593 in the nurse counselor cohort. The proportion of patients who initiated ART increased from 190 (73.6%) in the routine care cohort to 506 (85.3%) in the nurse counselor cohort (P < 0.001). At 6 months, 62% of the routine care cohort were retained in care versus 76% in the nurse counselor cohort (P = 0.001). A 21% increase in the likelihood of retention in the nurse counselor cohort (relative risk: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.34) compared with the routine care cohort was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of targeted nurse-led care of severely immunocompromised HIV-infected patients in public outpatient health care facilities resulted in decreased time to ART initiation and increased retention.
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Predictors of retention in HIV care among youth (15-24) in a universal test-and-treat setting in rural Kenya.

    Brown LB; Ayieko J; Mwangwa F; Owaraganise A; Kwarisiima D; Jain V; Ruel T; Clark T; Black D; Chamie G; Bukusi EA; Cohen CR; Kamya MR; Petersen ML; Charlebois ED; Havlir DV

    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2017 Sep 1; 76(1):e15-e18.

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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Safe and cost-effective ultrasound guided removal of retained intrauterine device: our experience.

    Verma U; Astudillo-Davalos FE; Gerkowicz SA

    Contraception. 2015 Jul; 92(1):77-80.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and difference in cost of ultrasound guided removal of retained intrauterine device (IUD). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 23 women underwent ultrasound-guided retrieval of retained IUDs between January 2013 and March 2014. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed in all cases to assess the localization of the IUD. Under transabdominal ultrasound guidance, either the crochet type IUD hook (Gyneas, Goussainville, France) or Alligator forceps were used to grasp the IUD and remove it from the uterine cavity. The costs of the ultrasound guided procedure and the hysteroscopic removal of the IUD were compared. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients who failed IUD removal in the clinic were referred to our department for ultrasound-guided removal. All patients had an IUD present in the uterine cavity. Eleven patients had Paragard IUDs (48%), eight had Mirena IUDs (35%), three had Lippes loop (13%), and one had a ring IUD (4%). The patients' ages ranged from 20-56 years. The IUDs were in place for 8 months to 23 years. Of the 23 patients with retained IUDs, 19 were successfully removed (83%), and 4 underwent hysteroscopic removal of IUD. The IUD removal cost in the operating room on average was $3562 US dollars and the cost of ultrasound-guided removal was $465 US dollars. CONCLUSIONS: Retained intrauterine devices with or without strings can often be safely removed in an office-based setting under ultrasound guidance at less cost than in the operating room, even in cases with embedded IUDs. IMPLICATIONS: Our experience leads us to propose in-office IUD removal under ultrasound guidance as the first line in management of retained IUDs after failed removal by conventional practices. Ultrasound provides numerous advantages including direct visualization in a less invasive manner than hysteroscopy. Three-dimensional imaging can also be used for enhanced perspective. Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    Mobile health for early retention in HIV care: a qualitative study in Kenya (WelTel Retain).

    Smillie K; Van Borek N; van der Kop ML; Lukhwaro A; Li N; Karanja S; Patel AR; Ojakaa D; Lester RT

    African Journal of AIDS Research. 2014; 13(4):331-8.

    Many people newly diagnosed with HIV are lost to follow-up before timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A randomised controlled trial (RCT), WelTel Kenya1, demonstrated the effectiveness of the WelTel text messaging intervention to improve clinical outcomes among patients initiating ART. In preparation for WelTel Retain, an RCT that will evaluate the effect of the intervention to retain patients in care immediately following HIV diagnosis, we conducted an informative qualitative study with people living with HIV (n = 15) and healthcare providers (HCP) (n = 5) in October 2012. Study objectives included exploring the experiences of people living with HIV who have attempted to engage in HIV care, the use of cell phones in everyday life, and perceptions of communicating via text message with HCP. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted and recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo software. Analysis was guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Technology Acceptance Model. Results indicate that while individuals have many motivators for engaging in care after diagnosis, structural and individual barriers including poverty, depression and fear of stigma prevent them from doing so. All participants had access to a mobile phone, and most were comfortable communicating through text messages, or were willing to learn. Both people living with HIV and HCP felt that increased communication via the text messaging intervention has the potential to enable early identification of problems, leading to timely problem solving that may improve retention and engagement in care during the first year after diagnosis.
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  6. 6
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    Improving early infant HIV diagnosis in Kenya: Study protocol of a cluster-randomized efficacy trial of the HITSystem.

    Finocchario-Kessler S; Goggin K; Khamadi S; Gautney B; Dariotis JK; Bawcom C; Cheng AL; Nazir N; Martin C; Ruff A; Sweat M; Okoth V

    Implementation Science. 2015 Jul 9; 10(1):1-8.

    Background: Early infant diagnosis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants is a critical component of prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs. Barriers to early infant diagnosis include poor uptake, low retention at designated re-testing intervals, delayed test results, passive systems of communication, and poor linkage to treatment. This study will evaluate the HIV Infant Tracking System (HITSystem), an eHealth intervention that streamlines communication and accountability between the key early infant diagnosis stakeholders: HIV+ mothers and their HIV-exposed infants, healthcare providers, and central laboratory personnel. It is hypothesized that the HITSystem will significantly improve early infant diagnosis retention at 9 and 18-months postnatal and the timely provision of services. Methods/design: Using a phased cluster-randomized controlled trial design, we will evaluate the impact of the HITSystem on eight primary benchmarks in the 18-month long cascade of care for early infant diagnosis. Study sites are six government hospitals in Kenya matched on geographic region, resource level, and patient volume. Early infant diagnosis outcomes of mother-infant dyads (n = 120 per site) at intervention hospitals (n = 3) where the HITSystem is deployed at baseline will be compared to the matched control sites providing standard care. After allowing for sufficient time for enrollment and 18-month follow-up of dyads, the HITSystem will be deployed at the control sites in the end of Year 3. Primary outcomes are retention among mother-infant dyads, initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected infants, and the proportion of services delivered within the optimal time window indicated by national and study guidelines. Satisfaction interviews with participants and providers will inform intervention improvements. Cost-effectiveness analyses will be conducted to inform the sustainability of the HITSystem. Hypothesized outcomes include significantly higher retention throughout the 18-month early infant diagnosis process, significantly more services provided on-time at intervention sites, and a potential savings to the healthcare system. Discussion: This study will evaluate the public health impact of the HITSystem to improve critical early infant diagnosis outcomes in low-resource settings. Cost-effectiveness analyses will inform the feasibility of scale-up in other settings.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    The Link4Health study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention strategy for linkage to and retention in HIV care in Swaziland: Protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    McNairy ML; Gachuhi AB; Lamb MR; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha H; Burke S; Ehrenkranz P; Mazibuko S; Sahabo R; Philip NM; Okello V; El-Sadr WM

    Implementation Science. 2015 Jul 19; 10(1):101.

    Background: Gaps in the HIV care continuum contribute to suboptimal individual health outcomes and increased risk of HIV transmission at the population level. Implementation science studies are needed to evaluate clinic-based interventions aimed at improving retention of patients across the continuum. Methods/design: Link4Health uses an unblended cluster site-randomized design to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention strategy (CIS) as compared to standard of care on linkage to and retention in care among HIV-diagnosed adults in Swaziland. The CIS intervention targets a multiplicity of structural, behavioral, and biomedical barriers through five interventions: (1) point-of-care CD4 testing at time of HIV testing, (2) accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for eligible patients, (3) mobile phone appointment reminders, (4) care and prevention packages, and (5) non-cash financial incentives for linkage and retention. The unit of randomization is a network of HIV clinics inclusive of a secondary facility coupled with an affiliated primary facility. Ten study units were randomized based on implementing partner, geographic location, and historic volume of HIV patients. Target enrollment was 2200 individuals, each to be followed for 12 months. Eligibility criteria includes HIV-positive test, age >18 years, willing to receive HIV care at a clinic in the study unit and consent to study procedures. Exclusion criteria included previous HIV care in the past 6 months, planning to leave the community, and current pregnancy. The primary study outcome is linkage within 1 month and retention at 12 months after testing HIV positive. Secondary outcomes include viral load suppression at 12 months, time to ART eligibility and initiation, participant acceptability, and cost-effectiveness. The trial status is that study enrollment is complete and follow-up procedures are ongoing. Discussion: Link4Health evaluates a novel and pragmatic combination intervention strategy to improve linkage to and retention in care among adults with HIV in Swaziland. If the strategy is found to be effective, this study has the potential to inform HIV service delivery in resource-limited settings.
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    Loss to follow-up within the prevention of mother-to-child transmission care cascade in a large ART program in Nigeria.

    Rawizza HE; Chang CA; Chaplin B; Ahmed IA; Meloni ST; Oyebode T; Banigbe B; Sagay AS; Adewole IF; Okonkwo P; Kanki PJ

    Current HIV Research. 2015 May; 13(3):201-209.

    Background: The 2013 WHO guidelines incorporated simplified and more effective antiretroviral regimens for the purposes of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. With ideal implementation of these recommendations, perinatal HIV transmission could be reduced to less than 2%. However, loss to follow-up (LTFU) has the potential to erode the success of programs and a number of studies report high rates of LTFU within the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care cascade. We evaluated the timing and magnitude of LTFU in a large programmatic PMTCT cohort in Nigeria in order to focus future efforts to reduce loss in this high burden setting. Methods: From 2004-2014, the APIN/Harvard PEPFAR program supported antenatal HIV screening for nearly one million pregnant women and provided PMTCT care to over 30,000 women. The care cascade for women enrolling in the PMTCT program includes antenatal, delivery, and infant follow-up services through 12-18 months of life. In this retrospective cohort analysis, we examined data collected between 2004-2014 from 31 clinical sites in Nigeria and assessed the numbers of mothers and infants enrolled and LTFU at various points along the care cascade. Results: Among 31,504 women (median age 30, IQR: 27-34) entering PMTCT care during the antenatal period, 20,679 (66%) completed the entire cascade of services including antenatal, delivery, and at least one infant follow-up visit. The median gestational age at presentation for antenatal care services was 23 weeks (IQR: 17-29). The median infant age at last follow-up visit was 12 months (IQR: 5-18). The greatest loss in the PMTCT care cascade occurred prior to delivery care (21%), with a further 16% lost prior to first infant visit. Of the 38,223 women who entered at any point along the PMTCT cascade, an HIV DNA PCR was available for 20,202 (53%) of their infants. Among infants for whom DNA PCR results were available, the rate of HIV transmission for infants whose mothers received any antenatal and/or delivery care was 2.8% versus 20.0% if their mother received none. Conclusion: In this large cohort analysis, the proportion of women LTFU in the PMTCT care cascade was lower than that reported in previous cohort analyses. Nevertheless, this proportion remains unacceptably high and inhibits the program from maximally achieving the goals of PMTCT care. We also provide the largest analysis to date on rates of perinatal HIV transmission, with low rates among women receiving NNRTI-or PI-based regimens, approaching that reported in clinical trials. However, among mothers who received any antenatal care, infant outcomes were unknown for 48%, and women presented later in pregnancy than that recommended by current guidelines. Implementation research to evaluate ways to improve integration of services, particularly transitions from antenatal to delivery and pediatric care, are critically needed to reduce LTFU within PMTCT programs and achieve the ultimate goal of eliminating pediatric HIV infection.
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Implementation and operational research: the impact of option B+ on the antenatal PMTCT cascade in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Kim MH; Ahmed S; Hosseinipour MC; Giordano TP; Chiao EY; Yu X; Nguyen C; Chimbwandira F; Kazembe PN; Abrams EJ

    Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2015 Apr 15; 68(5):e77-83.

    OBJECTIVE: In 2011, Malawi implemented Option B+ (B+), lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women. We aimed to describe changes in service uptake and outcomes along the antenatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade post-B+ implementation. DESIGN: Pre/post study using routinely collected program data from 2 large Lilongwe-based health centers. METHODS: We compared the testing of HIV-infected pregnant women at antenatal care, enrollment into PMTCT services, receipt of ART, and 6-month ART outcomes pre-B+ (October 2009-March 2011) and post-B+ (October 2011-March 2013). RESULTS: A total of 13,926 (pre) and 14,532 (post) women presented to antenatal care. Post-B+, a smaller proportion were HIV-tested (99.3% vs. 87.7% post-B+; P < 0.0001). There were 1654 (pre) and 1535 (post) HIV-infected women identified, with a larger proportion already known to be HIV-infected (18.1% vs. 41.2% post-B+; P < 0.0001) and on ART post-B+ (18.7% vs. 30.2% post-B+; P < 0.0001). A significantly greater proportion enrolled into the PMTCT program (68.3% vs. 92.6% post-B+; P < 0.0001) and was retained through delivery post-B+ (51.1% vs. 65% post-B+; P < 0.0001). Among those not on ART at enrollment, there was no change in the proportion newly initiating ART/antiretrovirals (79% vs. 81.9% post-B+; P = 0.11), although median days to initiation of ART decreased [48 days (19, 130) vs. 0 days (0, 15.5) post-B+; P < 0.0001]. Among those newly initiating ART, a smaller proportion was alive on ART 6 months after initiation (89.3% vs. 78.8% post-B+; P = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: Although several improvements in PMTCT program performance were noted with implementation of B+, challenges remain at several critical steps along the cascade requiring innovative solutions to ensure an AIDS-free generation.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    We should really keep in touch: predictors of the ability to maintain contact with contraception clinical trial participants over 12 months.

    Torres LN; Turok DK; Sanders JN; Jacobson JC; Dermish AI; Ward K

    Contraception. 2014 Dec; 90(6):575-580.

    OBJECTIVES: This study assesses the ability to maintain contact with participants enrolled in an emergency contraception (EC) trial with 12 months of follow-up based on the modes of contact they provided at enrollment. STUDY DESIGN: Data came from a clinical trial offering women the copper intrauterine device or oral levonorgestrel for EC. A modified Poisson regression was used to assess predictors associated with the ability to contact study participants 12 months after enrollment. RESULTS: Data were available for 542 participants; 443 (82%) could be contacted at 12 months. Contact at 12 months was greatest for those whose preferred the method of contact was text messaging, e-mail or any (62/68; 91% contacted) and worst for the 18 who had a landline phone (only 7 contacted; 39%). After controlling for age, having an e-mail address, text messaging, language preference, type of EC chosen and insurance, preferred contact other than phone increased the likelihood of follow-up by 10% [risk ratio (RR) 1.1 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.2], while having a landline reduced a woman's likelihood of being contacted at 12 months by 50% compared to women with a contract cell (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-1.0). CONCLUSION: The few women with a landline for contact had poor follow-up at 1 year, while women who preferred e-mail or text had the highest rate of follow-up. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding how best to reduce loss to follow-up is an essential component of conducting a contraceptive clinical trial. Improved participant retention maximizes internal validity and allows for important clinical outcomes, such as pregnancy, to be assessed. Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    Retention of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a prospective cohort study.

    Alam K; Oliveras E

    Human Resources For Health. 2014; 12:29.

    BACKGROUND: Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case-control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. METHODS: We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. RESULTS: Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training regularly to make it a meaningful predictor of retention that could be applied in the project setting. CONCLUSION: Factors that affect retention of CHWs may change over time, with some factors that are important in the early years of a project losing importance as the project matures. Community health programs operating in fragile urban slums should consider changing factors over program duration for better retention of volunteer CHWs.
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  12. 12
    Peer Reviewed

    Retention in care under universal antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women ('Option B+') in Malawi.

    Tenthani L; Haas AD; Tweya H; Jahn A; van Oosterhout JJ; Chimbwandira F; Chirwa Z; Ng'ambi W; Bakali A; Phiri S; Myer L; Valeri F; Zwahlen M; Wandeler G; Keiser O

    AIDS. 2014 Feb 20; 28(4):589-98.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the levels and determinants of loss to follow-up (LTF) under universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant and breastfeeding women ('Option B+') in Malawi. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We examined retention in care, from the date of ART initiation up to 6 months, for women in the Option B+ program. We analysed nationwide facility-level data on women who started ART at 540 facilities (n = 21,939), as well as individual-level data on patients who started ART at 19 large facilities (n = 11,534). RESULTS: Of the women who started ART under Option B+ (n = 21,939), 17% appeared to be lost to follow-up 6 months after ART initiation. Most losses occurred in the first 3 months of therapy. Option B+ patients who started therapy during pregnancy were five times more likely than women who started ART in WHO stage 3/4 or with a CD4 cell count 350 cells/mul or less, to never return after their initial clinic visit [odds ratio (OR) 5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-6.1]. Option B+ patients who started therapy while breastfeeding were twice as likely to miss their first follow-up visit (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.8). LTF was highest in pregnant Option B+ patients who began ART at large clinics on the day they were diagnosed with HIV. LTF varied considerably between facilities, ranging from 0 to 58%. CONCLUSION: Decreasing LTF will improve the effectiveness of the Option B+ approach. Tailored interventions, like community or family-based models of care could improve its effectiveness.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Scaling up antiretroviral treatment and improving patient retention in care: lessons from Ethiopia, 2005-2013.

    Assefa Y; Alebachew A; Lera M; Lynen L; Wouters E; Van Damme W

    Globalization and Health. 2014; 10:43.

    BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) was provided to more than nine million people by the end of 2012. Although ART programs in resource-limited settings have expanded treatment, inadequate retention in care has been a challenge. Ethiopia has been scaling up ART and improving retention (defined as continuous engagement of patients in care) in care. We aimed to analyze the ART program in Ethiopia. METHODS: A mix of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. Routine ART program data was used to study ART scale up and patient retention in care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with program managers. RESULTS: The number of people receiving ART in Ethiopia increased from less than 9,000 in 2005 to more than 439, 000 in 2013. Initially, the public health approach, health system strengthening, community mobilization and provision of care and support services allowed scaling up of ART services. While ART was being scaled up, retention was recognized to be insufficient. To improve retention, a second wave of interventions, related to programmatic, structural, socio-cultural, and patient information systems, have been implemented. Retention rate increased from 77% in 2004/5 to 92% in 2012/13. CONCLUSION: Ethiopia has been able to scale up ART and improve retention in care in spite of its limited resources. This has been possible due to interventions by the ART program, supported by health systems strengthening, community-based organizations and the communities themselves. ART programs in resource-limited settings need to put in place similar measures to scale up ART and retain patients in care.
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  14. 14
    Peer Reviewed

    Factors affecting retention of child health card in a rural area.

    Pahari DP; Bastola SP; Paudel R

    Journal of Nepal Health Research Council. 2011 Oct; 9(2):154-8.

    BACKGROUND: The child health card is a tool used by Health Management Information System in Nepal. It contains records on immunization, vitamin A and a weight-for-age growth chart. The objective of this study was to identify the magnitude of and the factors affecting retention of child health card. METHODS: A cross sectional descriptive design using quantitative methodology was applied. Divyapuri VDC was selected purposively and simple random sampling was applied to obtain a sample of 282 households with children between one to 36 months. Information was collected by interview with mothers of one to 36 months children and by observation of child health cards. Descriptive analysis was performed to assess the magnitude of retention of child health card. Then, bivariate analysis was performed; odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval were used to test the significance of association. Logistic regression model was used for control of confounding. RESULTS: Only 41% of the mothers produced child health card at the time of survey. For about 7% respondents, child health card was not issued and only 45% of the respondents who were issued child health card have retained it. Younger age group of the child, mothers living nearer to health facility, mothers with knowledge on use of child health card for recording immunization and recording growth monitoring; and mothers who were explained child health card by health worker were found significantly higher odds of retaining it. CONCLUSIONS: The retention of child health card was low in the study area. Health workers should be trained to educate mothers on retention and use of child health cards.
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  15. 15
    Peer Reviewed

    Factors associated with loss to clinic among HIV patients not yet known to be eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Mozambique.

    Pati R; Lahuerta M; Elul B; Okamura M; Alvim MF; Schackman B; Bang H; Fernandes R; Assan A; Lima J; Nash D

    Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2013; 16:18490.

    INTRODUCTION: Retention in HIV care prior to ART initiation is generally felt to be suboptimal, but has not been well-characterized. METHODS: We examined data on 37,352 adult pre-ART patients (ART ineligible or unknown eligibility) who enrolled in care during 2005-2008 with >1 clinical visit at 23 clinics in Mozambique. We defined loss to clinic (LTC) as >12 months since the last visit among those not known to have died/transferred. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to examine factors associated with LTC, accounting for clustering within sites. RESULTS: Of 37,352 pre-ART patients, 61% had a CD4 count within three months of enrolment (median CD4: 452, IQR: 345-611). 17,598 (47.1%) were ART ineligible and 19,754 (52.9%) were of unknown eligibility status at enrolment because of missing information on CD4 count and/or WHO stage. Kaplan-Meier estimates for LTC at 12 months were 41% (95% CI: 40.2-41.8) and 48% (95% CI: 47.2-48.8), respectively. Factors associated with LTC among ART ineligible patients included male sex (AHR(men_vs_non-pregnant women): 1.5; 95% CI: 1.4-1.6) and being pregnant at enrolment (AHR(pregnant_vs_non-pregnant women): 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5). Older age, more education, higher weight and more advanced WHO stage at enrolment were independently associated with lower risks of LTC. Similar findings were observed among patients whose ART eligibility status was unknown at enrolment. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial LTC occurred prior to ART initiation among patients not yet known to be eligible for ART, including nearly half of patients without documented ART eligibility assessment. Interventions are needed to target pre-ART patients who may be at higher risk for LTC, including pregnant women and patients with less advanced HIV disease.
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Poor retention does not have to be the rule: retention of volunteer community health workers in Uganda.

    Ludwick T; Brenner JL; Kyomuhangi T; Wotton KA; Kabakyenga JK

    Health Policy and Planning. 2014 May; 29(3):388-95.

    Globally, health worker shortages continue to plague developing countries. Community health workers are increasingly being promoted to extend primary health care to underserved populations. Since 2004, Healthy Child Uganda (HCU) has trained volunteer community health workers in child health promotion in rural southwest Uganda. This study analyses the retention and motivation of volunteer community health workers trained by HCU. It presents retention rates over a 5-year period and provides insight into volunteer motivation. The findings are based on a 2010 retrospective review of the community health worker registry and the results of a survey on selection and motivation. The survey was comprised of qualitative and quantitative questions and verbally administered to a convenience sample of project participants. Between February 2004 and July 2009, HCU trained 404 community health workers (69% female) in 175 villages. Volunteers had an average age of 36.7 years, 4.9 children and some primary school education. Ninety-six per cent of volunteer community health workers were retained after 1 year (389/404), 91% after 2 years (386/404) and 86% after 5 years (101/117). Of the 54 'dropouts', main reasons cited for discontinuation included 'too busy' (12), moved (11), business/employment (8), death (6) and separation/divorce (6). Of 58 questionnaire respondents, most (87%) reported having been selected at an inclusive community meeting. Pair-wise ranking was used to assess the importance of seven 'motivational factors' among respondents. Those highest ranked were 'improved child health', 'education/training' and 'being asked for advice/assistance by peers', while the modest 'transport allowance' ranked lowest. Our findings suggest that in our rural, African setting, volunteer community health workers can be retained over the medium term. Community health worker programmes should invest in community involvement in selection, quality training, supportive supervision and incentives, which may promote improved retention.
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches.

    Kamanda A; Embleton L; Ayuku D; Atwoli L; Gisore P; Ayaya S; Vreeman R; Braitstein P

    BMC Public Health. 2013; 13:91.

    BACKGROUND: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children's Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. METHODS: The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR's Health and Well-being Project's corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. RESULTS: To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. CONCLUSION: CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    Quantifying and addressing losses along the continuum of care for people living with HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Kranzer K; Govindasamy D; Ford N; Johnston V; Lawn SD

    Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2012; 15(2):17383.

    INTRODUCTION: Recent years have seen an increasing recognition of the need to improve access and retention in care for people living with HIV/AIDS. This review aims to quantify patients along the continuum of care in sub-Saharan Africa and review possible interventions. METHODS: We defined the different steps making up the care pathway and quantified losses at each step between acquisition of HIV infection and retention in care on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted a systematic review of data from studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and published between 2000 and June 2011 for four of these steps and performed a meta-analysis when indicated; existing data syntheses were used for the remaining two steps. RESULTS: The World Health Organization estimates that only 39% of HIV-positive individuals are aware of their status. Among patients who know their HIV-positive status, just 57% (95% CI, 48 to 66%) completed assessment of ART eligibility. Of eight studies using an ART eligibility threshold of
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Low mortality risk but high loss to follow-up among patients in the Tanzanian national HIV care and treatment programme.

    Somi G; Keogh SC; Todd J; Kilama B; Wringe A; van den Hombergh J; Malima K; Josiah R; Urassa M; Swai R; Zaba B

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2012 Apr; 17(4):497-506.

    OBJECTIVE To analyse survival and retention rates of the Tanzanian care and treatment programme. METHODS: Routine patient-level data were available from 101 of 909 clinics. Kaplan-Meier probabilities of mortality and attrition after ART initiation were calculated. Mortality risks were corrected for biases from loss to follow-up using Egger's nomogram. Smoothed hazard rates showed mortality and attrition peaks. Cox regression identified factors associated with death and attrition. Median CD4 counts were calculated at 6 month intervals. RESULTS: In 88,875 adults, 18% were lost to follow up 12 months after treatment initiation, and 36% after 36 months. Cumulative mortality reached 10% by 12 months (15% after correcting for loss to follow-up) and 14% by 36 months. Mortality and attrition rates both peaked within the first six months, and were higher among males, those under 45 kg and those with CD4 counts below 50 cells/mul at ART initiation. In the first year on ART, median CD4 count increased by 126 cells/mul, with similar changes in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Earlier diagnoses through expanded HIV testing may reduce high mortality and attrition rates if combined with better patient tracing systems. Further research is needed to explore reasons for attrition. (c) 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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  20. 20
    Peer Reviewed

    The Tingathe programme: a pilot intervention using community health workers to create a continuum of care in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) cascade of services in Malawi.

    Kim MH; Ahmed S; Buck WC; Preidis GA; Hosseinipour MC; Bhalakia A; Nanthuru D; Kazembe PN; Chimbwandira F; Giordano TP; Chiao EY; Schutze GE; Kline MW

    Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2012; 15 Suppl 2:17389.

    INTRODUCTION: Loss to follow-up is a major challenge in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme in Malawi with reported loss to follow-up of greater than 70%. Tingathe-PMTCT is a pilot intervention that utilizes dedicated community health workers (CHWs) to create a complete continuum of care within the PMTCT cascade, improving service utilization and retention of mothers and infants. We describe the impact of the intervention on longitudinal care starting with diagnosis of the mother at antenatal care (ANC) through final diagnosis of the infant. METHODS: PMTCT service utilization, programme retention and outcomes were evaluated for pregnant women living with HIV and their exposed infants enrolled in the Tingathe-PMTCT programme between March 2009 and March 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was done to evaluate maternal factors associated with failure to complete the cascade. RESULTS: Over 24 months, 1688 pregnant women living with HIV were enrolled. Median maternal age was 27 years (IQR, 23.8 to 30.8); 333 (19.7%) were already on ART. Among the remaining women, 1328/1355 (98%) received a CD4 test, with 1243/1328 (93.6%) receiving results. Of the 499 eligible for ART, 363 (72.8%) were successfully initiated. Prior to, delivery there were 93 (5.7%) maternal/foetal deaths, 137 (8.1%) women transferred/moved, 51 (3.0%) were lost and 58 (3.4%) refused ongoing PMTCT services. Of the 1318 live births to date, 1264 (95.9%) of the mothers and 1285 (97.5%) of the infants received ARV prophylaxis; 1064 (80.7%) infants were tested for HIV by PCR and started on cotrimoxazole. Median age at PCR was 1.7 months (IQR, 1.5 to 2.5). Overall transmission at first PCR was 43/1047 (4.1%). Of the 43 infants with positive PCR results, 36 (83.7%) were enrolled in ART clinic and 33 (76.7%) were initiated on ART. CONCLUSIONS: Case management and support by dedicated CHWs can create a continuum of longitudinal care in the PMTCT cascade and result in improved outcomes.
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    Early loss to follow-up of recently diagnosed HIV-infected adults from routine pre-ART care in a rural district hospital in Kenya: a cohort study.

    Hassan AS; Fielding KL; Thuo NM; Nabwera HM; Sanders EJ; Berkley JA

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2012 Jan; 17(1):82-93.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate and predictors of early loss to follow-up (LTFU) for recently diagnosed HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-ineligible adults in rural Kenya. METHODS: Prospective cohort study. Clients registering for HIV care between July 2008 and August 2009 were followed up for 6 months. Baseline data were used to assess predictors of pre-ART LTFU (not returning for care within 2 months of a scheduled appointment), LTFU before the second visit and LTFU after the second visit. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with LTFU before the second visit, while Cox regression was used to assess predictors of time to LTFU and LTFU after the second visit. RESULTS: Of 530 eligible clients, 178 (33.6%) were LTFU from pre-ART care (11.1/100 person-months). Of these, 96 (53.9%) were LTFU before the second visit. Distance (>5 km vs. <1 km: adjusted hazard ratio 2.6 [1.9-3.7], P < 0.01) and marital status (married vs. single: 0.5 [0.3-0.6], P < 0.01) independently predicted pre-ART LTFU. Distance and marital status were independently associated with LTFU before the second visit, while distance, education status and seasonality showed weak evidence of predicting LTFU after the second visit. HIV disease severity did not predict pre-ART LTFU. CONCLUSIONS: A third of recently diagnosed HIV-infected, ART-ineligible clients were LTFU within 6 months of registration. Predictors of LTFU among ART-ineligible clients are different from those among clients on ART. These findings warrant consideration of an enhanced pre-ART care package aimed at improving retention and timely ART initiation. (c) 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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  22. 22
    Peer Reviewed

    Risk factors, barriers and facilitators for linkage to antiretroviral therapy care: a systematic review.

    Govindasamy D; Ford N; Kranzer K

    AIDS. 2012 Oct 23; 26(16):2059-67.

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize patient and programmatic factors associated with retention in care during the pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) period and linkage to ART care. DESIGN: Systematic literature review. METHODS: An electronic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Global Health, Google Scholar and conference databases to identify studies reporting on predictors, barriers and facilitators of retention in care in the pre-ART period, and linkage to care at three steps: ART-eligibility assessment, pre-ART care and ART initiation. Factors associated with attrition were then divided into areas for intervention. RESULTS: Seven hundred and sixty-eight citations were identified. Forty-two studies from 12 countries were included for review, with the majority from South Africa (16). The most commonly cited category of factors was transport costs and distance. Stigma and fear of disclosure comprised the second most commonly cited category of factors followed by staff shortages, long waiting times, fear of drug side effects, male sex, younger age and the need to take time off work. CONCLUSION: This review highlights the importance of investigating interventions that could reduce transport difficulties. Decentralization, task-shifting and integration of services need to be expedited to alleviate health system barriers. Patient support groups and strategic posttest counselling are essential to assist patients deal with stigma and disclosure. Moreover, well tolerated first-line drugs and treatment literacy programmes are needed to improve acceptance of ART. This review suggests a combination of interventions to retain specific groups at risk for attrition such as workplace programmes for employed patients, dedicated clinic and support programmes for men and younger individuals.
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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    Controversies in family planning: retained products of conception.

    Russo JA; DePineres T; Gil L

    Contraception. 2012 Nov; 86(5):438-42.

    In July 2011, the authors performed a literature review to develop a protocol for the management of retained products of conception (RPOC) after medical and surgical abortion. The protocol is to be used by a legal abortion provider in Bogota, Colombia. The report answers questions about the incidence of RPOC in medical and surgical abortion, its risk factors, and specific diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, the report discusses the use of antibiotics and treatment of RPOC with misoprostol, the incidence of a paracervical block, and the relationship between cannula size and safety of aspiration procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  24. 24
    Peer Reviewed

    Dialing for doses: enhancing community-based adherence support with mobile technologies.

    Browne SH

    Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2013 Feb 14; [3] p.

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from a deadly disease to a manageable chronic infection. However, the continued requirement for strict medication adherence to prevent emergent resistance, as well as the lack of global resources to deliver drug regimens successfully over a patient’s lifetime, especially in resource-limited settings, are two major problems that persist. The study discussed in the present issue of “Clinical Infectious Diseases” addresses issues of treatment adherence and retention in therapy in rural Rwanda, and finds that clinics offering community-based accompaniment with ART care has substantially greater treatment retention rates at one year versus clinics without accompaniment. In this editorial commentary on the present study, the author raises several questions about the sustainability, feasibility, impact, and reasons for the efficacy of community-based adherence support. The author acknowledges that these models appear to be working in sub-Saharan Africa, and policy makers should review the evidence for its expansion. Mobile initiatives should consider trials with community-based lay workers as a cost-effective and culturally compatible way to enhance care with emerging mobile technologies.
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis for heterosexual HIV transmission in Botswana.

    Thigpen MC; Kebaabetswe PM; Paxton LA; Smith DK; Rose CE; Segolodi TM; Henderson FL; Pathak SR; Soud FA; Chillag KL; Mutanhaurwa R; Chirwa LI; Kasonde M; Abebe D; Buliva E; Gvetadze RJ; Johnson S; Sukalac T; Thomas VT; Hart C; Johnson JA; Malotte CK; Hendrix CW; Brooks JT

    New England Journal of Medicine. 2012 Aug 2; 367(5):423-34.

    BACKGROUND: Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral agents has been shown to reduce the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among men who have sex with men; however, the efficacy among heterosexuals is uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV-seronegative men and women to receive either tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or matching placebo once daily. Monthly study visits were scheduled, and participants received a comprehensive package of prevention services, including HIV testing, counseling on adherence to medication, management of sexually transmitted infections, monitoring for adverse events, and individualized counseling on risk reduction; bone mineral density testing was performed semiannually in a subgroup of participants. RESULTS: A total of 1219 men and women underwent randomization (45.7% women) and were followed for 1563 person-years (median, 1.1 years; maximum, 3.7 years). Because of low retention and logistic limitations, we concluded the study early and followed enrolled participants through an orderly study closure rather than expanding enrollment. The TDF-FTC group had higher rates of nausea (18.5% vs. 7.1%, P<0.001), vomiting (11.3% vs. 7.1%, P=0.008), and dizziness (15.1% vs. 11.0%, P=0.03) than the placebo group, but the rates of serious adverse events were similar (P=0.90). Participants who received TDF-FTC, as compared with those who received placebo, had a significant decline in bone mineral density. K65R, M184V, and A62V resistance mutations developed in 1 participant in the TDF-FTC group who had had an unrecognized acute HIV infection at enrollment. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis that included the 33 participants who became infected during the study (9 in the TDF-FTC group and 24 in the placebo group; 1.2 and 3.1 infections per 100 person-years, respectively), the efficacy of TDF-FTC was 62.2% (95% confidence interval, 21.5 to 83.4; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Daily TDF-FTC prophylaxis prevented HIV infection in sexually active heterosexual adults. The long-term safety of daily TDF-FTC prophylaxis, including the effect on bone mineral density, remains unknown. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health; TDF2 number, NCT00448669.).
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