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Public opinion regarding oocyte donation in Turkey: first data from a secular population among the Islamic world.
Human Reproduction. 2006; 21(1):318-323.We aimed to reveal the general attitudes of Turkish people toward various aspects of oocyte donation. This descriptive study was carried out in two separate districts of a large Turkish city. Four hundred participants were chosen by cluster sampling methods. The questionnaires were performed by 4th year medical students face to face with the participants. The participants consisted of 232 women (58%) and 168 men (42%); 65% were married, 5% were divorced; 64% had children, 15 (4%) had infertility problems, 263 (66%) were graduates of high school or university; 269 (67%) considered themselves religious. Only less than one-third of the respondents actually knew what oocyte donation meant. Approval of oocyte donation was high in our study sample. Only 61 (15%) respondents showed complete objection to oocyte donation and more men were in favour than women. Less than half of the participants thought that their religion would prevent oocyte donation if they needed it. More than half of the participants would prefer the use of oocyte donation treatment rather than adoption of a child. This is the first report on the attitudes towards oocyte donation from a country having a secular constitution and whose population is mainly Muslim. The most important conclusion to be drawn from the present study is the fact that most of the participants did not have any objection to oocyte donation treatments. (author's)
Family Planning Perspectives. 1997 Mar-Apr; 29(2):70-5.A 1994-95 survey of men and women aged 18-44 years in the US, Canada, and the Netherlands revealed considerable differences in public knowledge and perceptions about unplanned pregnancy and contraception. The proportion who believe that unplanned pregnancy is a "very big problem" is 60% in the US, 36% in Canada, and 6% in the Netherlands. Americans are more likely than their Canadian or Dutch counterparts to cite societal problems as significant factors in the rate of unplanned pregnancy; higher proportions of Americans also cite the cost of contraceptives (52% vs. 46% of Canadians and 34% of the Dutch) and an inability to obtain methods (66%, 51%, and 33%, respectively). In all three countries, adults are generally well informed about the relative effectiveness of commonly used contraceptives, but Americans are more skeptical about method safety and effectiveness. For example, 17% think the pill is "very safe," compared with 21% of Canadians and 40% of the Dutch; and whereas 64% of Americans consider the pill "very effective," 73% of Canadians and 90% of the Dutch give it this rating. Health care professionals are the most frequently cited source of contraceptive information, but only 51-63% of adults have ever discussed contraception with such a practitioner. (author's)
Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2006 Oct; 32(4):249-252.Both the Delphi method and nominal group technique offer structured, transparent and replicable ways of synthesising individual judgements and have been used extensively for priority setting and guideline development in health-related research including reproductive health. Within evidence-based practice they provide a means of collating expert opinion where little evidence exists. They are distinct from many other methods because they incorporate both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Both methods are inherently flexible; this article also discusses other strengths and weaknesses of these methods. (excerpt)
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 2000; 38(6):103-33.South Africa prides itself on having one of the most progressive constitutions in the world. The Bill of Rights guarantees a host of basic political, cultural, and socioeconomic rights to all who are resident in the country. Yet there have been persistent reports that citizen intolerance of non-citizens, refugees, and migrants has escalated dramatically since 1994. This article documents this process through presentation of results of national public opinion surveyed by the Southern African Migration Project. The surveys show that intolerance is extremely pervasive and growing in intensity and seriousness. Abuse of migrants and refugees has intensified, and there is little support for the idea of migrant rights. Only one group of South Africans, a small minority with regular personal contact with non-citizens, is significantly more tolerant. These findings do not augur well for migrant and refugee rights in this newly democratic country, or early acceptance of the UN Convention on the protection of migrant workers. (author's)
Journal of Community Health. 2006 Apr; 31(2):84-93.The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and barriers to use of postpartum care service among rural communities in Uganda. Study was a part of a larger reproductive health evaluation project, and was cross-sectional in nature utilizing qualitative research methods using the narrative inquiry. Two matched rural communities were used in this study; Semuto in Luwero district, and Lwamaggwa in Rakai district. Fifty key informants who were purposefully selected from each study site were interviewed. They included community leaders, political leaders, health care providers, women leaders and community members. One-on-one interviews were conducted with key community informants using an interview guide. The purpose of the interview was explained to each participant, and written informed consent was obtained before the start of the interview. Respondents were allowed to express their views, opinions and observations on several health issues including postpartum health care services. There was a low level of knowledge about postpartum care services among the respondents of the two communities. There was lack of awareness about postpartum care and it's benefits. The main barriers to use of services were; misconceptions regarding the importance of postpartum care, distance to health facilities, poverty, and health system factors notably; poor facilities, lack of essential drugs, and poor attitudes of health workers. In the effort to improve reproductive health care services, there is an urgent need to improve postpartum services, and make them more accessible and user friendly. The training of providers at all levels is essential, in addition to educating families on the importance of postpartum care services. (author's)
[The French and maternal mortality in the world: the state of opinion] Les Francais et la mortalite maternelle dans le monde: l'etat de l'opinion.
EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2000 Aug-Sep; (60):4-5.Ipsos conducted a study of French subjects for Equilibres & Population designed to better understand the population’s awareness of maternal mortality worldwide, with regard to its causes and implications. 26% of the French correctly determined that about 10,000 women die weekly from maternal-related causes. People aged 15-19 years old are better informed on maternal mortality compared to the general population. More people of comparatively higher educational status correctly assessed the number of women affected by maternal mortality. The French readily identified the regions of the world where maternal mortality is most problematic. 66% of the French believe poverty to be the main cause of maternal mortality in developing countries, followed by the absence of proper pregnancy-related medical care (53%), unwanted pregnancies (28%), and a lack of education (27%). Both sex and educational status influence respondents’ ability to identify causes of maternal mortality. Moreover, the French believe that international institutions are best able to manage the problem in developing countries, followed by nongovernmental organizations. Half of France’s population reports being ready to directly and personally help reduce global levels of maternal mortality. Women and people aged 15-19 years old are the two subpopulations most interested in contributing personally. These groups believe that the French government should allocate more international aid to women’s health.
Community attitudes towards sexual activity and childbearing by HIV-positive people in South Africa.
AIDS Care. 2006 Oct; 18(7):772-776.While the ability to lead a healthy sexual life and to choose whether and when to have children are well-established features of reproductive health and human rights, issues surrounding sexual activity and childbearing among HIV-infected women and men have received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a semi-structured, cross-sectional survey at 26 primary health care clinics in South Africa to investigate community attitudes towards sexual activity and reproduction by HIV-infected individuals. Of the 843 women interviewed, slightly less than half (43%, n = 361) thought that people living with HIV/AIDS should remain sexually active if they choose, while 13% (n = 113) said they thought that people living with HIV/AIDS should have children if they wished to do so. In multivariate analysis, negative attitudes towards both sexuality and childbearing were persistently associated with not knowing someone infected with HIV (p = 0.001 and 0.043, respectively). These findings suggest that the sexual and reproductive health rights of HIV-infected women and men may be an important target as part of efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Health policies and services are required to reinforce the reproductive rights of HIV-infected individuals in South Africa and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is most prevalent. (author's)
[The formation of adolescent unions in northeast Brazil] La formation des unions chez les adolescentes du Nordeste (Bresil).
CAHIERS QUEBECOIS DE DEMOGRAPHIE. 2000 Autumn; 29(2):287-306.Data are used from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Brazil in 1986, 1991, and 1996 to study recent trends in union formation among adolescents of the country's Nordeste region. Approximately 45.5 million people inhabit the mainly rural area. Nordeste has a 61% literacy rate, while 54% of households have running water, percentages marked lower than the national average of 85% for both rates. Fertility and mortality levels in Nordeste are among Brazil's highest, 74 infants die per 1000 live births, and the total fertility rate (TFR) is approximately 20% higher than the national average. Between 1986 and 1996, the proportion of female adolescents having children increased from 12% to 17% despite advances in education, urbanization, and access to media. It remains rather rare for never-married female adolescents to bear children, but approximately one-third of first births are the result of prenuptial conception. Early marriage and prenuptial conception by adolescents are thought to be socially unacceptable by one's peers. Results from a survey of men and women aged 15-24 in Salvador, a city in Nordeste, show the ideal marriage age for women to be 20-24 years. Beyond age, educational status was one of the most important determinant factors for first marriage during adolescence among women in Nordeste during 1986-96. Relatively better educated women had a greater tendency to assess and understand the advantages of delaying marriage to realize the future they desire.
[IUD use at the Sidi Fateh urban community clinic: qualitative study] Utilisation du DIU au niveau du dispensaire urbain Sidi Fateh (etude qualitative).
Rabat, Morocco, Institut de Formation aux Carrieres de Sante, 2000. , 61,  p.Contraceptive prevalence across Morocco increased from 20% in 1980 to 60% in 1997, with a corresponding decline in total fertility from 6 children per woman in 1975 to 3 per woman in 1997. Morocco's National Family Planning Program has achieved great success in reducing prevailing levels of fertility, but the program's particular promotion of the oral contraceptive pill has led to the disproportionate use of the latter at the expense of longer-acting hormonal and barrier methods. Findings are presented upon IUD use at Sidi Fateh urban dispensary, based upon questionnaires, personnel observation, and interviews with consultants on the relevant attitudes and behaviors of clients and service providers. Although 48.12% of the 133 married women surveyed know a range of modern contraceptive methods, their knowledge is superficial and very general beyond what they know about the particular method they employ. 66.3% use oral contraception, although most are unsatisfied due to the pill's side effects, but believe that they have no other contraceptive option. 63.9% of women oppose IUDs because of the method's side effects and negative rumors about its use. Likewise, 30.7% of husbands have negative attitudes about the IUD. Women's opinions of the IUD improve with rising educational status. The general population of IUD users is satisfied with its method choice, finding the IUD to be reliable, reversible, and of long-term effect without the need for daily administration. However, the adverse experiences of a few women with the method creates concerns and fear of the IUD among users and potential users. Obstacles and constraints to IUD use, personnel competence, and client satisfaction on family planning consultations are discussed.
Comparison of knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions between teachers and guardians regarding the emergency contraceptive pill in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Nursing and Health Sciences. 2006 Mar; 8(1):27-35.Teachers and guardians (parents or authorized persons) are expected to collaborate in educating female students about emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) but it is unknown whether they have similar perspectives on ECPs. This study aimed to compare their knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions regarding ECPs. Questionnaires were distributed to 720 female teachers and guardians of eight randomly selected high schools and vocational schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand. There were significantly more teachers who knew about the existence of ECPs than guardians. More guardians reported some accurate information regarding ECPs than did teachers. More teachers than guardians believed that the use of ECPs was not morally wrong. Both teachers and guardians had similar experience with ECP use and similar agreement in teaching female adolescents about ECPs. The teachers and guardians had some different opinions on teaching barriers. It is suggested that both teachers and guardians are suited to teach female adolescents about ECPs, but they need preparation in different aspects. (author's)
China Population Today. 2001 Dec; 18(6):11.As AIDS take its toll in China, public awareness of AIDS is increasing and attitude toward AIDS is becoming more tolerant. Officials with the Beijing Public Health Bureau announced that the number of HIV carriers now reaches 2/10,000 people. The city has a permanent population of over 10 million. A recent survey of 200 households in Beijing found that 57% of those polled said they would understand and care for AIDS patients regardless of the cause; 44% were sympathetic; 39% indicated, however, that they would be discriminatory in dealing with AIDS patients: those who contracted the disease because of sexual immorality do not deserve care, while those who did so through blood transfusion deserve more understanding and attention. The same survey also found that the 97% of Beijingers said society at large should pay attention to AIDS; 86% of those surveyed were aware that December 1 is the international AIDS Day; and 70% of Beijingers follow closely AIDS reports. Regarding causes for AIDS, 42% of those polled attributed AIDS contraction to a lack of knowledge of self- protection, 36% to a lack of awareness of self-protection, and others to a degradation of morals. 70% of respondents believed that publicity could enhance public awareness of self-protection, thereby reducing the likelihood of contracting AIDS. Interestingly enough, 90% of those polled said they were not afraid of AIDS, believing that it is easy to prevent the disease. In particular, 54% believed that so long as they abstain from sexual promiscuity, they will not catch AIDS; another 36% believed that AIDS could be prevented if they were armed with an adequate knowledge of self-protection and take precautions. (full text)
In: Enquete Demographique et de Sante, Mauritanie, 2000-2001, [compiled by] Mauritania. Office National de la Statistique, [and] ORC Macro. MEASURE DHS+. Nouakchott, Mauritania, Office National de la Statistique, 2001 Dec. 185-208.Force-feeding, a practice existing almost exclusively in Mauritania, involves forcing young girls to eat large amounts of food in order to become fat and, in keeping with Mauritanian society’s cultural values, pretty and ready to marry. Force-feeding occurs in response both to this society’s perception of beauty and the desire to manifest the social status of a woman’s family, since obesity is a sign of family wealth. Old Mauritanian society valued excessive obesity to such an extent that a social proverb argued women occupied a place in the heart equal to their volume. However, the Mauritanian government is now trying to organize population awareness campaigns upon the adverse effects upon women of force-feeding. Beyond affronting women’s rights, and in addition to the suffering induced by force-feeding itself, this practice has adverse consequences upon women’s entire lives, including eventual problems with mobility, social participation, and higher risks of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Results of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Mauritania during 2000-01, are presented upon the knowledge and practice of force- feeding, as well as related opinions and attitudes.
South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2006; 12(1):16, 18.The past 10 years have seen major advances in health care policy and services that support sexual and reproductive rights in South Africa. Significant milestones include the legalisation of termination of pregnancy (TOP) and the provision of free public sector services for maternal and child health (MCH) and contraception. At the same time the HIV epidemic has expanded rapidly during the last decade, and today an estimated 29% of women of reproductive age (15 - 49 years) in South Africa are HIV-infected. Despite these parallel developments, little attention has been paid to the way in which advances in sexual and reproductive rights in South Africa are extended to HIV-infected individuals. (excerpt)
Patrifocal concerns in the lives of women in academic science: continuity of tradition and emerging challenges.
Indian Journal of Gender Studies. 2003 May-Aug; 10(2):279-305.This paper examines the social milieu of women academic scientists, parental influence in decision making in regard to the career of their daughters, parents’ expectations, importance of marriage and the criteria involved therein. The support of parents and spouse are vital for the success of women scientists. Nevertheless, the “dual burden” has an impact on professional work, and the consequent redefinition of “success” is clearly a product of patrifocal social structures and ideology. (author's)
International Journal of STD and AIDS. 2004 Jan; 15(1):56-60.One thousand individuals in the age group 18± 69 were selected for a multistage nationwide random sample. Of the interviewees 68.3% were of the opinion that the risk of AIDS, in Portugal, is considerably high and 37.1% stated that they had feared being infected by the HIV; 28.0% established a connection between being afraid and the fact that AIDS is a serious/incurable disease; 31.5% believed that there are risks inherent to the health services; only 7.8% expressed fear of AIDS because of an infected partner. Only 42.6% regarded extra-marital sexual relations as either partially or totally acceptable. Sexual relations between youths were seen as totally acceptable by 11.9% and partially acceptable by 51.1%. Homosexual relations between men were seen as either totally or partially acceptable by 38%. Of the interviewees, 7.8% thought that recent treatments can definitely cure AIDS and 6.5% believed that with recent treatments HIV transmission would no longer be possible. (author's)
Population Review. 2007; 46(2): p.How does population size affect social life? In accord with Durkheim's classic argument about the shift from the rigid "mechanical" solidarity of small societies to the more differentiated and interdependent "organic" solidarity of large societies, data from 30 nations and 19,568 respondents shows that the citizenry of large societies prefer more inequality in earnings than do citizens of small societies, net of the level of economic development. One reason for this is that citizens of large countries support larger rewards for education and occupational success. In most societies, the actual level of inequality is close to the ideal level, or a little higher. Data are from the World Inequality Study, which pools data from many excellent international survey projects; analysis is by OLS and multi-level regression. (author's)
[Masculine identity and reproductive health in Morocco: the feminism of common men. Oujda] Identite masculine et sante reproductive au Maroc. Le feminisme des hommes ordinaires. Oujda.
[Rabat, Morocco], Ministere de la Sante, LCPS-MERC, 2000 Sep. 58 p.In a bid to determine to what extent ordinary Moroccan men embrace reproductive health rights for both sexes, research was conducted to assess the degree to which such men in Morocco harbor feminist attitudes. Study subjects were 760 low-mid-level, male public servants sampled in Oriental-Rif, Moyen-Atlas, Rabat, Agadir, Tanger, and Tetouan in the departments of agriculture, national education, interior, health, and equipment. Study findings are presented from men sampled in Oriental-Rif, or Oujda.
[Masculine identity and reproductive health in Morocco: the feminism of common men. Agadir] Identite masculine et sante reproductive au Maroc. Le feminisme des hommes ordinaires. Agadir.
[Rabat, Morocco], Ministere de la Sante, LCPS-MERC, 2000 Sep. 50 p.In a bid to determine to what extent ordinary Moroccan men embrace reproductive health rights for both sexes, research was conducted to assess the degree to which such men in Morocco harbor feminist attitudes. Study subjects were 760 low-mid-level, male public servants sampled in Oriental-Rif, Moyen-Atlas, Rabat, Agadir, Tanger, and Tetouan in the departments of agriculture, national education, interior, health, and equipment. Study findings are presented from men sampled in Agadir.
[Masculine identity and reproductive health in Morocco: the feminism of common men. Rabat] Identite masculine et sante reproductive au Maroc. Le feminisme des hommes ordinaires. Rabat.
[Rabat, Morocco], Ministere de la Sante, LCPS-MERC, 2000 Sep. 54 p.In a bid to determine to what extent ordinary Moroccan men embrace reproductive health rights for both sexes, research was conducted to assess the degree to which such men in Morocco harbor feminist attitudes. Study subjects were 760 low-mid-level, male public servants sampled in Oriental-Rif, Moyen-Atlas, Rabat, Agadir, Tanger, and Tetouan in the departments of agriculture, national education, interior, health, and equipment. Study findings are presented from men sampled in Rabat.
Lancet. 2005 Mar 26; 365:1127-1128.20 million condoms will soon be airlifted into Uganda, after an emergency order issued by the government in early March, with funding from international donors. The new supplies will help to ease a crisis that has gripped the country for more than 5 months, ever since doubts were raised about the quality of “Engabu” brand condoms, which are free and account for 80% of the condoms distributed in Uganda each year. NGOs and donor groups have welcomed the airlift as a long-awaited step towards resolving the country-wide condom shortage. After immediate supplies are restored, however, Ugandan health agencies will face further challenges, including what to do with at least 20 million Engabu condoms that have been quarantined, re-establishing long-term supplies into the country, and how to restore public faith in condoms. The latter task may be complicated by disagreements about various components of the Ugandan prevention policy—”ABC” or abstinence, being faithful, and using condoms—says Ugandan MP Elioda Tumwesige, who chairs the parliamentary committee on HIV/AIDS. “This has come at a time of debate over what we should emphasise more. It could not have come at a worse time for condom promotion.” (excerpt)
AIDS and Behavior. 2005 Jun; 9(2):135-143.Although there has been progress in AIDS stigma research, there are no multi-item AIDS stigma scales that have been shown reliable and valid in Africa. The current research reports the development of the nine-item AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. Research conducted in five South African communities (N = 2306) found the scale internally consistent, a = 0.75 and time stable over 3 months, r = 0.67. The scale was also reliable in three different languages (English, Xhosa, and Afrikaans). Correlations showed that the AIDS-Related Stigma Scale was moderately inversely correlated with years of education and AIDS knowledge. In addition, individuals who stated that HIV positive persons should conceal their HIV status had higher AIDS-Related Stigma Scale scores. Also supporting the scale’s construct validity, individuals who refused to report whether they had been tested for HIV scored higher on the AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. (author's)
Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Feb. 22 p.While women are the direct users of emergency contraception, men play an important role in reducing unintended pregnancies, making it important to understand their familiarity with and attitudes toward emergency contraception. This survey is one of the first that examines men’s knowledge and attitudes. This survey also provides insight into teenagers’ experiences with emergency contraception, which differ somewhat from those of their adult counterparts. This report has two major sections. Section I presents survey findings on knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception among Californians of reproductive age. Section II discusses the experiences of Californians in obtaining and using emergency contraceptives. The conclusion summarizes the key survey findings and identifies remaining challenges to increasing public awareness of emergency contraceptives in order to reduce unintended pregnancy. (excerpt)
Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 18 p.African Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning. In the year 2000, more African Americans were reported with AIDS, and estimated to be living with AIDS, than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although African Americans represent approximately 12% of the U.S. population, they now account for an estimated 54% of new HIV infections and 47% of new AIDS cases. The AIDS case rate (per 100,000) among African Americans is more than eight times the rate among whites and more than twice the rate for Latinos. Moreover, AIDS is now the leading cause of death for African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44. The epidemic has also affected particular subgroups within the African American community. Although African American women represent only 13% of the U.S. female population, they account for almost two-thirds (63%) of AIDS cases reported among women in 2000. African American teens represent 15% of the teen population, yet comprise 64% of new AIDS cases reported among 13–19 year olds in 2000. In addition, in a recent multi-city study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV prevalence (the proportion of people living with HIV in a population) for young African Americans was 14.1%, compared to 3.3% for whites. Finally, there is growing evidence that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is increasingly concentrated in low-income communities in which people of color are often disproportionately represented. Such communities generally are faced with multiple other health and social issues and limited resources with which to respond to the epidemic. (excerpt)
Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 22 p.Latinos, who now comprise the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority in the United States, continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Although they represent approximately 14% of the U.S. population, Latinos accounted for 19% of new AIDS cases reported in 2000. The AIDS case rate (per 100,000) among Latino adults (30.4) was almost four times that for whites (7.9), and AIDS is now the fourth leading cause of death for Latinos between the ages of 25 and 44. The epidemic’s effect on different subgroups of Latinos is also striking. For example, the AIDS case rate among adult Latinas is 13.8 per 100,000, more than six times the rate for white women (2.2). And although Latino youth represent approximately 14% of U.S. teenagers, they accounted for 20% of new AIDS cases reported among those ages 13–19 in 2000. In addition, in a recent study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV prevalence (the proportion of people living with HIV in a population) for young Latinos was 6.9, compared to 3.3 for whites. Finally, there is growing evidence that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is increasingly concentrated in low-income communities in which people of color are often disproportionately represented. Such communities generally are faced with multiple other health and social issues and limited resources with which to respond to the epidemic. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Putting What Works to Work, 2004 Feb.  p. (Science Says No. 7)Who most influences teens' decisions about sex? Do parents or peers matter more? Should society strongly encourage adolescents to abstain from sexual intercourse? What do adults and teens think about topics such as contraception, virginity, and the influence of the media? Understanding Americans' attitudes about these topics helps point to strategies for addressing teen pregnancy prevention. To that end, the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy commissions annual surveys of adults and adolescents seeking answers to these and related questions. This Science Says brief summarizes some of the key findings from the National Campaign's 2003 survey. Data in this brief are drawn from the publication, With One Voice 2003: America's Adults and Teens Sound Off About Teen Pregnancy. The surveys were conducted via telephone in August and September 2003 with over 1,000 adults (aged 20 and over) and 1,000 adolescents (aged 12--19). All results are considered nationally representative. See the methodology section below for more information on how these surveys were conducted. (excerpt)