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  1. 126

    [The assimilation of Italians and their descendants in Argentine society (1880-1925)] La asimilacion de los italianos y sus descendientes en la sociedad argentina (1880-1925).

    Nascimbene MC

    STUDI EMIGRAZIONE/ETUDES MIGRATIONS. 1996 Sep; 33(123):417-42.

    The impact of massive immigration in the post-1870 period produced major changes in...Argentine society. Integration of immigrant groups (Italians, Spaniards, the French and others) was nevertheless fiercely opposed by local elites. The essay is firstly concerned with size and development of immigration flows; secondly it deals with the characteristics of local reaction against the immigrants; thirdly it reveals how, in spite of the latter, the Italians' integration did take place in the Argentine middle classes. Finally, a particular case-study is presented, in connection with integration of immigrants and their descendants in the national army. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) (EXCERPT)
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  2. 127
    Peer Reviewed

    Public knowledge and perceptions about unplanned pregnancy and contraception in three countries.

    Delbanco S; Lundy J; Hoff T; Parker M; Smith MD

    Family Planning Perspectives. 1997 Mar-Apr; 29(2):70-5.

    A 1994-95 survey of men and women aged 18-44 years in the US, Canada, and the Netherlands revealed considerable differences in public knowledge and perceptions about unplanned pregnancy and contraception. The proportion who believe that unplanned pregnancy is a "very big problem" is 60% in the US, 36% in Canada, and 6% in the Netherlands. Americans are more likely than their Canadian or Dutch counterparts to cite societal problems as significant factors in the rate of unplanned pregnancy; higher proportions of Americans also cite the cost of contraceptives (52% vs. 46% of Canadians and 34% of the Dutch) and an inability to obtain methods (66%, 51%, and 33%, respectively). In all three countries, adults are generally well informed about the relative effectiveness of commonly used contraceptives, but Americans are more skeptical about method safety and effectiveness. For example, 17% think the pill is "very safe," compared with 21% of Canadians and 40% of the Dutch; and whereas 64% of Americans consider the pill "very effective," 73% of Canadians and 90% of the Dutch give it this rating. Health care professionals are the most frequently cited source of contraceptive information, but only 51-63% of adults have ever discussed contraception with such a practitioner. (author's)
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  3. 128

    [Women's opinions on circumstances under which hospitals should perform abortions] Opiniao das mulheres sobre as circunstancias em que os hospitais deveriam fazer abortos.

    Osis MJ; Hardy E; Faundes A; Alves G; Balarezo G

    CADERNOS DE SUDE PUBLICA. 1994 Jul-Sep; 10(3):320-30.

    Little is known about the opinion of Brazilian women on induced abortion. One objective of a study carried out in the region of Campinas, Sao Paulo State, was to learn whether women agreed as to specific circumstances under which hospitals should provide abortions. A total of 1838 women of childbearing age who had been pregnant at least once were interviewed. Single women and those who had had at least one induced abortion were the ones who most agreed that hospitals should perform abortions under the circumstances presented. The circumstances most accepted were rape, the woman's life being at risk, and fetal malformation. A smaller percentage of women were in favor of abortion when the reasons affected the woman but could not be observed in a direct and objective way by others. (author's modified) (summaries in ENG, POR)
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  4. 129

    The bankruptcy of the models: myths and realities of AIDS in Brazil.

    Daniel H

    In: Sexuality, politics and AIDS in Brazil: in another world?, [by] Herbert Daniel and Richard Parker. London, England, Falmer Press, 1993. 33-47. (Social Aspects of AIDS)

    Physicians, scientists, journalists, and politicians announced the coming of AIDS to Brazil long before its arrival. Indeed, the Brazilian press carried important pieces on the subject since 1982. The press fueled most of the public debate on HIV/AIDS, playing up the more striking and enigmatic side of the epidemic. AIDS was depicted as a mystery, something beyond the technological capacity of the modern world, with death as its most distinguishing feature. Brazil had its first public case of AIDS in 1983, followed by a torrent of press on what was referred to as a gay cancer or gay plague. None of the media attention and related debate, however, resulted in the taking of preventive measures. The author argues that an inappropriate ideological model was adopted early in the epidemic which has guided Brazil's responses up to the present. The author discusses the features of that model. The main characteristic of the predominant model of AIDS generated in Brazil is that AIDS is a disease of gay men or the very poor, but definitely a disease of others.
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  5. 130

    Editorial: our view of adolescent sexuality -- a focus on risk behavior without the developmental context [editorial]

    Ehrhardt AA

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1996 Nov; 86(11):1523-5.

    Current US policies related to the sexuality of children and adolescents reflect a profound ambivalence. The widely held belief that sex education will promote sexual promiscuity is an example of the failure to conduct an impartial assessment of the issues related to child development and sexual behavior. At present, fewer than 10% of US children receive comprehensive sex education--a deficiency that has contributed to rates of teen pregnancy in the US that exceed those in other countries with comparable cultures and economies. US government policy reflects attempts to legislate morality through ineffective social welfare programs that punish recipients who bear a child. Behavioral research has taken a similar approach, presenting sexuality within the context of discussions of risk factors and negative consequences rather than examining its role in human development. Lacking is any consideration of sexual competence as a skill that children and adolescents must master through the acquisition of thoughtful information and experience. For example, it is possible that postponement of sexual behavior beyond the adolescent years has an adverse effect on normal human development. Moreover, a narrow focus on fear and disease threatens to lead to increased rates of sexual distortions and interpersonal problems for the current generation of young people.
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  6. 131

    Entry and exit: Canadian immigration policy in context.

    Thompson JH; Weinfeld M


    Immigration and the multicultural population that results from it are contentious issues in contemporary Canada....Critics of a liberal immigration policy charge that these newcomers threaten Canada's social harmony and challenge its cultural identity and that the country faces unprecedented economic and security problems because of uncontrolled immigration. Historical and contemporary evidence suggests, however, that the situation is neither unprecedented nor a crisis. Canada needs immigrants for the compelling reasons it has always sought them: for economic growth and to replace population lost by emigration to the United States. By any comparative yardstick, the Canadian experiments in immigration and multiculturalism have been a resounding success. (EXCERPT)
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  7. 132

    Contemporary American attitudes toward U.S. immigration.

    Espenshade TJ; Hempstead K

    INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1996 Summer; 30(2):535-70.

    This article aims to contribute to an understanding of contemporary American attitudes toward immigration....The paper uses data from a CBS News/New York Times poll conducted in June 1993. Respondents were asked whether they would like to see the level of immigration to the United States increased, decreased or kept the same. We test several hypotheses about factors influencing respondents' attitudes, including the importance of previously unexamined predictors. These new hypotheses relate to views about the health of the U.S. economy, feelings of social and political alienation, and isolationist sentiments concerning international economic issues and foreign relations. One important discovery is the close connection between possessing restrictionist immigration attitudes and having an isolationist perspective along a broader array of international issues. (EXCERPT)
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  8. 133

    Women on the frontlines: breastfeeding and human rights.


    In British Columbia, Canada, a mother was asked to stop breast feeding her 9-month-old son during a special lunch at her daughter's primary school. The mother refused and requested that a policy be created on breast feeding in elementary schools. In 5 months a policy was drafted, and the local newspaper became a battleground over breast-feeding rights. In another case, a woman who was asked to cease breast feeding at work has carried a 6-year dispute to the Supreme Court of British Columbia, which has agreed that the time and location of breast feeding in the workplace should be free from discrimination. These examples point to the fact that communities must promote and protect breast feeding as a natural activity. As one breast-feeding supporter wrote to a newspaper, "My suggestion for people who can't handle the sight of an innocent baby having its lunch is: go eat in the bathroom." The breast-feeding mothers with the courage to come out of the "watercloset" are to be commended.
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  9. 134

    Public opinion about, and media coverage of, population growth.

    Simon RJ

    In: The state of humanity, edited by Julian L. Simon. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Blackwell Publishers, 1995. 619-27.

    The author of this monograph chapter states that during the period of the mid-1960s to the end of the 1970s population growth issues were newsworthy coverage in the US and coverage increased dramatically in the New York Times. The Washington Post, in the 1970s, covered population issues differently from the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. During the 1980s, the Times and the Journal reduced the coverage of the negative effects of population growth, and the Post increased its negative coverage. During the 1980s, coverage declined in the Times and to some extent in the Post. The Journal maintained the same level of coverage. National opinion polls indicate that the general public has been concerned about population growth issues over the past 45 years. Most people believe that both world population growth and US population growth are too high. Increased population size is associated in the public's mind with increased energy consumption, increased air and water pollution, and too many immigrants in the US. In 1971, 41% of those polled thought population growth was a major problem, and 27% thought it was somewhat of a problem. 19% viewed it as a potential problem. 25% believed it would affect their quality of life and 29% believed in its potential to affect their life. 27% thought it could affect the quality of their life, but were unconcerned. 65% in 1971 considered that US population growth was a serious problem. 57% accepted present US population size as appropriate and 22% desired a smaller population size. During 1947 and 1974, public opinion shifted in the direction of greater concern about population growth and its negative consequences. In 1991, 65% believed overpopulation to be a serious problem. During 1976-88, concern about overpopulation declined. Increased concern appeared in 1988 and peaked in 1991. Environmental concerns also increased during 1974 and 1991.
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  10. 135

    ASHA poll: most NC voters favor condom education in schools.

    STD NEWS. 1996 Fall; 4(1):1, 8-9.

    North Carolina law currently requires local school districts to hold public hearings if they want to expand their sex education curriculum beyond discussion of abstinence. A poll of voters commissioned by the American School Health Association revealed that this legislation is not reflective of citizens' beliefs. 65% of the 829 respondents believed schools should educate students about condoms as a way to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). School-based condom education was favored by more than 60% of respondents in each subgroup (men, women, Whites, Blacks) and geographic area of the state. More respondents learned about STDs from the mass media (39%) than in school (28%); other knowledge sources included health providers (11%) and family members (8%). The survey further found that 70% of registered voters favored the promotion of condoms and other contraceptives on television and radio programs.
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  11. 136

    Newsroom guide to abortion and family planning. 2nd ed.

    Anderson DE

    Washington, D.C., Communications Consortium Media Center, 1996. [9], 128, [3] p.

    This guidebook for news reporters and editors provides quick access to basic information on the historical events, political acts, and policy decisions shaping current family planning (FP) and abortion issues as well as references to further resources for in-depth research and reporting. The first part of the guide contains an overview of who has abortions and why, how FP services are implemented in the US (including information on where abortions are performed, teenage contraception and abortion, sex education, and school-based clinics), political factors, public opinion as expressed in the polls, the actions of all three branches of the federal government which had a reproductive health impact, and a rundown of abortion laws and activity in the states as of early 1996. The second part of the guide deals with policy issues such as 1) abortion restrictions and their impacts, 2) the impact of research and development (RU-486, Norplant, Depo-Provera, other abortifacients, and fetal tissue research), 3) reproductive health and the Christian Right, and 4) international issues pertaining to developing countries (world abortion laws; abortion in developing countries; population stabilization, FP, and US foreign policy; and the impact of US domestic politics on foreign population assistance). The book ends with a quick reference which includes a listing of abortion rights advocates and opponents, a glossary of terms, references, an index, and a foldout which illustrates FP history at a glance.
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  12. 137

    [Words of Isis Duarte in presenting the text, "The Political Culture of Dominicans, between Authoritarianism and Democracy"] Palabras de Isis Duarte en la presentacion del texto "La Cultura Politica de los Dominicanos, entre el Autoritarismo y la Democracia.

    Duarte I


    The National Survey of Political Culture and Democracy (DEMOS-94), under the auspices of the Project for the Assistance of Democratic Initiatives funded by USAID, assessed the situation of democracy in the Dominican Republic during the period of 1978-92, including the knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and practices of citizens with respect to democracy. When asked a question about the intervention of the Catholic Church in politics, 46.0% of respondents disagreed with such intervention and 29.0% found it justifiable only in moments of great crisis. Although 6 out of 10 Dominicans had faith in the Church, only 2 of every 10 respondents agreed with its direct intervention in politics. Regarding the presence of Haitians in the country and the voting rights of their children and grandchildren, 46.0% said that Haitian should be repatriated because there is the threat that they would swamp the country, while 53.5% said that the two groups should live together peacefully. Regarding the voting rights of various categories of people, 84.3% said that Dominicans living abroad should have the right, 34.6% said that the military and the police should have the right, and 69.6% said that the children and grandchildren of Haitians should have such a right. These findings indicate that there is a general acceptance of civic rights including for Dominicans of Haitian origin.
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  13. 138

    What women don't know about contraception.

    Shields WC

    HEALTH AND SEXUALITY. 1996 Fall; 5(1):6-7.

    Women need accurate information about the various forms of contraception from which they may choose. Findings from four recent national telephone surveys conducted among reproductive-age women in the US since 1993, however, indicate that women in the US are not well informed or are misinformed about oral and other forms of contraception. Brief summaries are presented of the following surveys: the 1993 Gallup Organization follow-up survey conducted for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of 995 women's views on contraception, the 1995 Lou Harris and Associates telephone poll conducted for the American Medical Association of US women's attitudes and perceptions about reproductive health matters, the January 1996 Kaiser Family Foundation survey of 279 women's perceptions about contraception, and the Health Benefits of Contraception, ARHP survey of 280 women. The second part of this latter survey will be completed later in 1996. The common theme in the four surveys is that women do not have enough accurate information about contraception. Reproductive health professionals need to take advantage of every opportunity to provide such information, correct misperceptions, improve their counseling skills, and spread the word about the health benefits of contraception.
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  14. 139

    Effects of public opinion on abortion policies and use in the American states.

    Wetstein ME; Albritton RB

    PUBLIUS: THE JOURNAL OF FEDERALISM. 1995 Fall; 25(4):91-105.

    Ample evidence exists to link public opinion and public policy in regard to health issues and abortion in the US. In order to determine the impact of policies (which reflect public preferences) on citizen behavior, research was undertaken to test the following hypotheses: 1) in the presence of public support for abortion, policy-makers will impose fewer restrictions; 2) in the presence of public support for abortion and fewer restrictions, access will be greater; 3) in the presence of public support, fewer restrictions, and improved access, more abortions will occur; and 4) the impact of public preferences on policies will retain its significance when controls are applied to socioeconomic (and metropolitan) and religious variables. Data were analyzed from a 1993 abortion survey, with the ratio of abortions/1000 live births in each state in 1992 serving as the dependent variable. State policies were ranked on a nine-point scale of restrictiveness. Public opinion was measured using 1988 and 1990 responses to National Election Series Senate Panel Studies. Access was measured according to the percentage of counties in a state with abortion providers in 1992. Regression analysis of the data resulted in qualified support of all four of the hypotheses. It was found that religious fundamentalism influences abortion attitudes whereas states with large Catholic populations show an influence of the church on public policy. Further research is warranted into the relationship which exists among public preferences, public policy, and corresponding public behavior.
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  15. 140

    Norplant system insertion and removal rates in relation to negative media coverage among a low income, inner-city population.

    O'Hare D; Benedicto MA; Baker M; Nicholas N

    [Unpublished] 1995. Presented at the 123rd Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], San Diego, California, October 29 - November 2, 1995. 4, [2] p.

    The Maternity, Infant Care - Family Planning Projects (MIC-FPP), a service division of the Medical and Health Research Association of New York City, Inc., provides comprehensive family planning care to approximately 17,000 low-income postpartum and family planning patients annually in 10 inner-city clinics. In October 1993, the Norplant contraceptive system was added to the MIC-FPP formulary of available contraceptives in their clinics. Prior to that date, many women had requested Norplant, explaining that they had heard about it from satisfied friends both in the US and their countries of origin. 117 women requested and received Norplant between October 1, 1993, and July 31, 1994. Only 45 women, however, requested and received Norplant during the subsequent ten-month period of August 1, 1994, to May 31, 1995. Moreover, during August 1, 1994, to May 31, 1995, 52 of these 162 women requested removal of the system. Negative media coverage in the popular press is most likely responsible for the decline in use of Norplant over the period. Indeed, it seems that the popularity, acceptance, and rejection of a contraceptive method is often more strongly influenced by mass media than by other factors such as age, country of origin, prior pregnancies, pregnancy terminations, or number of children.
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  16. 141

    [Immigration from bordering countries into Argentina in the 1990s, myths and realities] L'immigration des pays limitrophes dans l'Argentine des annees 90, mythes et realites.

    Maguid A


    The population growth that occurred in Argentina, between 1870 and the middle of this century, was due to the massive immigration current, mainly coming from Europe....Due to recent increases in unemployment indices, poverty and other social problems, some sectors put the neighbouring countries' immigration as the cause of these phenomena, and some xenophobic manifestations started to appear....This paper [aims] to show the distance between reality and the attitude of those who perceive these recent immigrants as a menace to job opportunities for the native population. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) (EXCERPT)
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  17. 142

    Condoms: is the media revolution for real?

    Harvey PD

    In: Condoms in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The proceedings of a conference held in February 1987 in Atlanta, Georgia, sponsored by the American Social Health Association, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, and Family Health International. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, American Social Health Association, 1989 Dec. 55-6.

    Condom advertising on the radio and in many of the mainstream print publications in the US remains extremely controversial. The spread of HIV/AIDS, however, has increased the acceptability of such advertising. Moreover, condoms are now occasionally mentioned on prime-time television programs. AIDS has had an impact upon advertising and it seems clear that advertising will have an impact upon AIDS and other STDs. Sustained condom advertising should substantially increase condom use if not bring about widespread changes in American heterosexual behavior. Although the acceptance of condom advertisements has slowed after the initial wave of progress in 1986, the trend toward the liberalization of advertising with regard to condoms should continue. The author stresses that condom advertising is for an entire product line which should increase the total market demand for condoms. The effect of the sustained condom marketing campaign in Bangladesh is noted. The author also points out that even if the media accepts condom advertising, there will be no massive marketing effort. With total condom sales in the US probably no greater than $200 million per annum, it is unrealistic to expect condom manufacturers to spend more than $5 million per year on advertising. In comparison, the cigarette industry has an annual advertising budget of $2 billion. It is clear that condom advertising will be able to provide only a very small fraction of the media coverage needed to effectively boost condom demand and use. Finally, overly stringent and cumbersome instructions on condom use must be revised to encourage routine use.
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  18. 143

    [How to look at a problem of everyone. Vocabulary and prejudices. Contribution toward a critical analysis of messages about the AIDS epidemic. 2nd ed.] Como mirar un problema de todos. Vocabulario y prejuicios. Aportes para un analisis critico de los mensajes sobre la epidemia del SIDA. 2o edicion.

    Orlov L

    Buenos Aires, Argentina, Iglesia Evangelica Luterana Unida (Argentina), 1995 Jul. 11, [1] p.

    Principles that should be respected in speaking about AIDS are proposed, and a critical analysis is offered of the latent prejudices in messages concerning AIDS according to three different models, the medical, ethical-juridical, and liberating. All discussions about AIDS should respect social and cultural pluralism, personal autonomy, and intimacy and confidentiality. The medical model predominates in Argentina. Death, illness, and statistics are stressed along with detailed classifications of symptoms. The permanent association of AIDS and death serves several purposes, including justification of mediocre treatment and disregard of the most elemental human rights of AIDS patients. Educational programs in this model are authoritarian. The constant references to death, illness, and symptoms constitute use of terror as a means of prevention. Efforts at prevention are based on a vision of "others" as threats. Assistance to the ill is almost exclusively pharmaceutical. In the ethical-juridical model, AIDS is viewed as a punishment for unspeakable moral transgressions, and the ill are described as victims. The medical diagnosis of AIDS is transformed into a judgment of the moral character of the patient. Education in this model is intended to identify those affected so that they can be isolated and marginalized. Society is conceived as a dichotomy of healthy and good versus sick and bad. The seropositive are viewed as outsiders for whom no responsibility need be felt. The integrating or liberating model is based on life, hope, and solidarity. The focus is not on the number of ill but on the need to maintain health. Obsessive interest in the origin of the epidemic is replaced by concern about its future course. Education and prevention programs recognize that human beings are multifaceted. The model seeks to displace fear from educational messages. AIDS patients are viewed as total persons, and not as clusters of disembodied symptoms.
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  19. 144
    Peer Reviewed

    Student opinions of condom distribution at a Denver, Colorado, high school.

    Fanburg JT; Kaplan DW; Naylor KE

    JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1995 May; 65(5):181-5.

    Students at a high school in urban Denver, Colorado, in October 1992 initiated and helped conduct a school-wide survey on student opinions about making condoms available in their school. Students simultaneously and anonymously completed the survey. Only 994 of the school's 1330 enrolled students, however, had the opportunity to complete the survey due to the absenteeism of students, attendance at physical education class during the block, or the teacher's failure to administer the survey. 336 enrolled students simply did not receive a survey. Moreover, only 931 completed surveys figure in the final analysis since 63 were excluded due to illegibility or ambiguities in the responses. A larger percentage of students in the lower grades responded to the survey, corresponding to increased attrition as students advance in school and a higher absenteeism rate for upperclassmen. 85% of the surveyed students replied that condoms should be distributed in their school. 76% noted that making condoms more accessible will neither increase nor decrease the frequency of sexual activity among teens. Proponents of in-school condom distribution pointed to the ability of condom use to prevent the spread of AIDS and other STDs, and unwanted pregnancy as the most important reasons to support condom distribution, followed by the belief that increased condom availability will prompt more students to use them when having sexual intercourse. The embarrassment and financial cost of having to buy condoms were also cited by 24% and 17% of students, respectively, as reasons for making condoms available in school. 45% of students feel that condoms should be distributed from machines in bathrooms, 42% from the school nurse, 8% from other students, and 5% from teachers. 61% of condom distribution opponents were female. 59% of the opponents, while claiming to not be against condoms, believe that school is just not appropriate point of distribution for them. Other opponents believe that condom distribution will stimulate the incidence of sexual activity, that individuals should not have sex until they are older or married, that distributing condoms is religiously wrong, that condom distribution would be wasteful since some people do not use condoms every time they have intercourse, and that it would be embarrassing to procure condoms at school. Students in lower grades tended to be more conservative with their beliefs.
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  20. 145

    ["Us" and "them": European and North American attitudes to immigration] Nous et "eux": l'Europe et les Etats-Unis facea a l'immigration.

    Livi-Bacci M

    POLITIQUE ETRANGERE. 1994 Autumn; 59(3):661-70.

    This work compares attitudes toward immigration in Europe and North America. Europe has adopted and reinforced a restrictive immigration policy since the 1970s, but family reunification and asylum for refugees have replaced labor migration to maintain the flow of newcomers over the past two decades. Illegal immigration has increased in countries such as Italy and Spain where immigration is a recent phenomenon. Migratory pressure from the former Soviet block, violence against immigrants in Germany and elsewhere, the crisis of social protection systems, economic recession and increasing unemployment have pressured European governments to reinforce their closed door policy. In the US, restrictions against immigration have relaxed greatly since adoption of the Immigration Reform and Control Act in 1986. Over 800,000 immigrants have been admitted annually to the US in recent years. The factors explaining the different immigration policies in North America and Europe are not economic or demographic, but stem rather from history, social structure, the functioning of the labor market and social mobility. North America, more than Europe, has a positive view of immigration as contributing to the vitality and renewal of the culture and promoting development by broadening experience and knowledge. Immigration is regarded in Europe as, at best, a necessity in times of labor shortage and economic expansion. European countries tend to perceive themselves as totally formed and not requiring further cultural contribution. Homogeneity in culture, language, and religion is valued. Social mobility is possible in North America through professional success, but in the older and more hierarchical societies of Europe, social status is determined by birth and family or other connections. Since the early 1990s, public opinion toward immigration has become less favorable on both sides of the Atlantic, with increasing proportions favoring limitation. The positive perception of immigration in America and the work of pressure groups have thus far blocked restrictionist measures. In Europe, restrictive policies are in perfect harmony with public opinion.
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  21. 146

    The census and privacy.

    Bryant BE; Dunn W

    AMERICAN DEMOGRAPHICS. 1995 May; 17(5):48-54.

    The authors discuss "how Americans' anger and suspicion toward government could hurt the quality of federal statistics....Research shows rising public alarm over threats to privacy and confidentiality. These fears adversely affect people's perceptions of the Census Bureau....Without the help of strong privacy legislation in other arenas, their fears are likely to affect the accuracy and ultimate cost of the next census." (EXCERPT)
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  22. 147

    Abortion in the United States and Canada: a comparative study of public opinion.

    Chandler MA; Cook EA; Jelen TG; Wilcox C

    In: Abortion politics in the United States and Canada: studies in public opinion, edited by Ted G. Jelen and Marthe A. Chandler. Westport, Connecticut, Praeger, 1994. 131-43.

    Differences in the political cultures of Canada and the US are reflected in the analysis of opinions on abortion law based on religious, attitudinal, and demographic factors. In general, individualism and religion have different manifestations in Canada versus the US, and country similarities obscure important cultural differences. Religious differences include the more religious affiliation in the US than in Canada or other industrialized countries, the greater religious practice and presence of US Protestant fundamentalism, and the strong tradition of the separation of church and state. Abortion laws are similar in invalidating acts of the legislature in the national Supreme Courts that limited access to abortion. However, in the US, the Roe decision established "rights" to legal abortion. In Canada, the Morgenthaler decision invalidated a section of Offenses Against the Person and did not outrule the possibility of future anti-abortion legislation. The US decision in Webster also established that the legislatures operate within judicially imposed limits. Data were obtained from the 1988 US National Election Study and the 1988 Canadian National Election Study. A variety of independent variables was used to explain attitudes toward abortion law: Catholicism and evangelical Protestantism, views of the Bible, frequency of church attendance, and the subjective importance of religion. Other variables pertained to the role of women in society (feminism and the role of women in business) and explanatory variables (education, gender, marital status, labor force participation, income, age, and parental status). Canadians supported abortion slightly more than US citizens (2.35 versus 2.25 on an index score). Demographic factors explained very little of the abortion attitudes in either country. Religious variables had the best explanatory power. Catholicism was related to opposition to legal abortion in the US, and evangelical Protestantism was related to legal abortion in Canada. Church attendance had a stronger effect in Canada, and biblical view and religious importance was stronger in the US. Religious variables in the US were weaker but more widespread. The individualism of US political culture and mistrust of government mediated the effect of religion. In the regional analysis, religion in the US acted as a point of criticism, while in Canada it acted as legitimation.
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  23. 148

    Technological change, sexuality, and family futures planning.

    Francoeur RT

    MARRIAGE AND FAMILY REVIEW. 1993; 18(3-4):135-54.

    There are many ways in which individual, societal, political, and religious agendas affect the interpretation and application of new knowledge and technology. The sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s is attributed to the introduction of the birth control pill without regard to the societal shifts in greater gender equality and the social acceptance of both male and female sexual fulfillment. China's fertility policies have tremendous social consequences. Gender equalists protest new findings of neurological differences between men and women. Interpretations of research on sexual relationships in marriage and gender orientations may be biased. Individual responsibilities must be exercised in deciding what the future will be. Humane choices must be made with the help of natural and social scientists revealing the hidden values and biases behind all research, possible technological applications, and future planning. Citizens must educate themselves so they can make humane and informed decisions. Social changes and changes in priorities are made smoothly with a public which is informed of alternative and possible scenarios. There is no justification for the low status in the US of preventive medicine, basic prenatal and perinatal health care, and family support. The potential for abuse of power and reproductive knowledge is real and can only be offset by critical and on-going dialogue involving everyone. The challenges of bias and social consequences are in contraceptive technology, reproductive technology, gender differences, and sexual relationships. For example, sexual attitudes have changed to the point where about 66% of Americans believe that there is nothing morally working with an extramarital affair. But outdated data on American sexual behavior interferes deleteriously with efforts to deal with AIDS. Attention should be directed to the on-going research of sexologists on gender orientations, those performing social research on patterns of sexual relationships, and the work of religious activists on changed sexual values.
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  24. 149

    A tale of four IUDs: newest devices billed as '90s sensations.

    FAMILY PLANNING WORLD. 1993 Jul-Aug; 3(4):19.

    Although the Chinese find the IUD quite suitable as a contraceptive (83% of IUD use worldwide), women and doctors in the US are not convinced of its safety. The US fiasco of the Dalkon shield during the 1980s has not been forgotten. An Ortho Pharmaceutical study in 1991 found that 55% of US women would never use an IUD. Many types of IUDs are now available, and the single coil stainless steel ring is the most widely used in China. A Family Health International (FHI) IUD researcher, Dr. I-Cheng Chi, reports that research over the past ten years on IUDs has been "unequivocally positive" and predicts the IUD's comeback. The four IUDs which are popular are the Copper T, the MLCu375 or Multiload made of polyethylene, the Nova T (copper with a silver core), and the LNG-20, which has a T-shape and a sustained source of levonorgestrel. Only the Multiload is not available in the US. The Nova T and the LNG-20 are relatively new devices. All devices are found in Dr. Chi's study to be safe and efficient, but each has some flaws. The LNG-20 has the longest efficacy, with 40% of the hormone intact at five-year removal. The LNG-20 may be effective for 10 years. The disadvantage is amenorrhea. The life span ranges from six to eight years for the Copper T, which may be effective for 10-15 years. Only the Nova T is rated appropriately at only five years use and may have reduced effectiveness after three years. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rates are low for all models. The PID rate for the Copper T is 0.59%, 0% for the Multiload, 1.06% for the Nova T, and 0% for the LNG-20. IUDs are generally prescribed for women in monogamous relationships and with children, but the Nova T may be used by young, nulliparous women because of the elasticity of the device. Population Action International reports that companies will research devices with sales over $50 million. IUD sales only total about $12 million. Norplant is considered in the US to have greater sales potential and fewer public relations problems.
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  25. 150

    The abortionist: a woman against the law.

    Solinger R

    New York, New York, Free Press, Macmillan, 1994. xi, 253 p.

    This book traces the career of a woman who performed 40,000 abortions between 1918 and 1968 on a professional, though illicit, basis to illustrate the ways in which anti-abortion laws put women at risk. The abortionist, Ruth Barnett, functioned without interference until anti-abortion fervor was fueled by politicians and other public officials eager to make a name for themselves during the post-World War II era. Despite being imprisoned, Barnett continued to perform abortions as long as she was physically able out of compassion for the women who were desperate to end their pregnancies. Barnett never lost a client. In the course of telling this tale, the workings of a West Coast abortion syndicate are revealed, details of the procedure followed by Barnett are provided, court cases and decisions are related, and the vagaries of public opinion are followed.
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