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  1. 101

    Sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. Fact sheet.

    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003 Jun. 4 p. (Facts. Fact Sheet)

    Each year, there are approximately fifteen million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the U.S., and this country has the highest rate of STD infection in the industrialized world. By age 24, at least one out of every four Americans is believed to have contracted an STD, and an estimated 65 million Americans are now living with an incurable STD. Research suggests that women are biologically more susceptible to STD exposure than men. While STDs, including HIV, affect every age group, people under 25 account for roughly two-thirds of all new STD infections: 42 percent occur among those aged 20-24 and 25 percent occur among 15-to-19-year-olds. CDC data also show higher reported rates of STDs among some racial and ethnic minority groups, compared with rates among whites – possibly reflecting overall health disparities as well as greater use of public health clinics by minority populations. (excerpt)
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  2. 102

    Talking points for Bill Gates, UN Media Leaders Summit on HIV / AIDS, January 15, 2004. 8-10 minute remarks.

    Gates B

    [Unpublished] 2004. 4 p.

    The media have played a crucial role in highlighting the most important issues of our time—civil rights, apartheid, political oppression. Yet HIV/AIDS may be the greatest challenge of all. You have played a remarkable role already. In fact, the media had a great influence on my own commitment to fight diseases in the developing world. Early on, when my wife, Melinda, and I were thinking about our philanthropy and how we could have the greatest impact with our resources, my father sent me a clip from a newspaper about preventable deaths in poor countries. I remember reading a chart that listed the world’s deadliest diseases. One disease I had never even heard of— rotavirus—was killing literally half a million kids each year. I thought: That can’t be true, that’s got to be a typo. If a single disease was killing that many kids, we would have heard about it—it’d be front-page news. But it isn’t. As Melinda and I have become more engaged in global health issues over the past decade, one thing has become clear: not enough is being done about the millions of preventable deaths each year from diseases like AIDS or malaria. In part, that’s because people aren’t aware of what is happening. We don’t see these issues covered enough in newspapers, radio and television. (excerpt)
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  3. 103

    Emergency contraception in California. Findings from a 2003 Kaiser Family Foundation survey.

    Salganicoff A; Wentworth B; Ranji U

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Feb. 22 p.

    While women are the direct users of emergency contraception, men play an important role in reducing unintended pregnancies, making it important to understand their familiarity with and attitudes toward emergency contraception. This survey is one of the first that examines men’s knowledge and attitudes. This survey also provides insight into teenagers’ experiences with emergency contraception, which differ somewhat from those of their adult counterparts. This report has two major sections. Section I presents survey findings on knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception among Californians of reproductive age. Section II discusses the experiences of Californians in obtaining and using emergency contraceptives. The conclusion summarizes the key survey findings and identifies remaining challenges to increasing public awareness of emergency contraceptives in order to reduce unintended pregnancy. (excerpt)
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  4. 104

    AIDS at 21: media coverage of the HIV epidemic 1981-2002.

    Brodie M; Hamel E; Brady LA; Kates J; Altman DE

    Columbia Journalism Review. 2004 Mar-Apr; (2 Suppl):1-8.

    HIV/AIDS took the U.S. by surprise in the 1980s, and it continues to be a health epidemic with unique characteristics. As a news topic, HIV/AIDS has not only been a health story, but also one about arts, culture, taboo, sexuality, religion, celebrity, business, and politics on the local, national, and global stage. Media coverage of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has, at times, helped shape the policy agenda, while also reflecting current policy discussions, debates and important events. In many cases, the news media have served as an important source of information about the epidemic for the public. In an October 2003 survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation, 72% of the U.S. public said that most of the information they get about HIV/AIDS comes from the media, including television, newspapers, and radio. (excerpt)
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  5. 105

    Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Americans on HIV / AIDS. Part Three – Experiences and opinions by race / ethnicity and age. Summary and chartpack.

    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Aug. [43] p.

    The Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Americans on HIV/AIDS was designed and analyzed by researchers at the Kaiser Family Foundation. Fieldwork was conducted by telephone by Princeton Survey Research Associates between March 15 and May 11, 2004, among a nationally representative random sample of 2,902 respondents 18 years of age and older. The survey included an oversample of African American and Latino respondents (a total of 800 African American and 439 Latino respondents were interviewed). Results for all groups have been weighted to reflect their actual distribution in the nation. The margin of sampling error for the survey is plus or minus 2 percentage points. For results based on White respondents the margin of sampling error is plus or minus 3 percentage points; for African Americans it is plus or minus 4 percentage points; and for Latinos it is plus or minus 6 percentage points. For results based on subsets of respondents the margin of error is higher. Note that sampling error is only one of many potential sources of error in this or any other public opinion poll. This is the third of three phases in which the full survey and in-depth analysis has been released. The first release (Part One, June 2004) focused on findings related to Americans’ views of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. The second release (Part Two, June 2004) focused on Americans’ views and experiences with HIV testing. This release (Part Three) represents a more in-depth report on Americans’ views and experiences with HIV, with a focus on differences between and among key subgroups of the population. (excerpt)
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  6. 106

    Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Americans on HIV / AIDS. Part One -- Global HIV / AIDS. Summary and chartpack.

    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Jun. [22] p.

    The broad foreign policy context within which Americans view the global HIV epidemic hasn’t changed much in the past few years. Most Americans think the U.S. currently spends too much on foreign aid in general, and a strong majority believes the U.S. should address problems at home first rather than spending more money on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. In discussing Americans’ views of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, and what they think about the role of the U.S. in helping solve this global problem, it’s important to set the context with their views on foreign aid in general. More than six in ten adults (62%) think the U.S. currently spends too much on foreign aid, while about one in five (18%) say it spends about the right amount, and one in ten (10%) say the U.S. spends too little on foreign aid (Chart 1). Responses to this question have been similar since 2000. When asked about the largest areas of spending by the federal government, half the public (49%) incorrectly identifies foreign aid as one of the two largest areas of federal spending (Chart 1). Half the public (53%) agrees with the statement that the U.S. is a global leader and has a responsibility to spend more money to fight HIV/AIDS in developing countries. However, when forced to choose, three in ten (30%) say they agree more strongly with this statement, while, perhaps not surprisingly, six in ten (62%) say they agree more with the statement that the U.S. should address problems at home first rather than spending more money to fight HIV/AIDS in developing countries (Chart 2). (excerpt)
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  7. 107
    Peer Reviewed

    Development of a brief scale to measure AIDS-related stigma in South Africa.

    Kalichman SC; Simbayi LC; Jooste S; Toefy Y; Cain D

    AIDS and Behavior. 2005 Jun; 9(2):135-143.

    Although there has been progress in AIDS stigma research, there are no multi-item AIDS stigma scales that have been shown reliable and valid in Africa. The current research reports the development of the nine-item AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. Research conducted in five South African communities (N = 2306) found the scale internally consistent, a = 0.75 and time stable over 3 months, r = 0.67. The scale was also reliable in three different languages (English, Xhosa, and Afrikaans). Correlations showed that the AIDS-Related Stigma Scale was moderately inversely correlated with years of education and AIDS knowledge. In addition, individuals who stated that HIV positive persons should conceal their HIV status had higher AIDS-Related Stigma Scale scores. Also supporting the scale’s construct validity, individuals who refused to report whether they had been tested for HIV scored higher on the AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. (author's)
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  8. 108

    The Programme's communication strategy focuses on target groups.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction

    Progress in Human Reproduction Research. 1996; (37):2-8.

    Research can never be an end in itself. Its role is to assess if change is needed and, if it is, to determine just what change is required and how it can best be brought about. That is why the communication of research results is so important. Various groups need research findings, and need them quickly, so that they can act on the findings to bring about change. The Programme has always placed a good deal of emphasis on communication but, because of the growing importance of this area of influence, it has adopted a new information dissemination and communication strategy for the present biennium 1996-1997. The strategy is target-oriented and thus enables the Programme to focus its information and communication activities on those areas where they will have maximum impact. (excerpt)
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  9. 109
    Peer Reviewed

    CNN vs ABC: a debate not worth continuing!

    Viravaidya M; Atkinson J

    Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2004 Dec; 19(4):3-5.

    The debate between the protagonists of the Condoms, Needles and Negotiating Skills (CNN) and the Abstinence, Be Faithful and Use Condoms (ABC) approaches could go on forever. It is time for the proponents on each side to put aside their differences and begin working together to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. To claim that either approach is superior to the other is to fail to recognize the potential benefits that each approach can have for various individuals, communities and cultures. We must recognize that all individuals are different. It is therefore foolish to limit ourselves by this "either-or" way of thinking. (excerpt)
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  10. 110
    Peer Reviewed

    Life and death decisions.

    Bane A; Brown L; Carter J; Cote C; Crider K

    International Social Work. 2003 Apr; 46(2):209-219.

    Genetics is a relatively new science with a wide range of applications that lead to an even broader range of issues. Since Darwin (1859) proposed his theory of evolution in Origin of the Species, scientists have been trying to locate the biological structures for the transmission of traits from generation to generation. The 20th century yielded considerable fruit in this endeavor. In fact, a complete map for this transmission process is close at hand. On 26 June 2000 Craig Venter, President Bill Clinton and Francis Collins announced the completion of an initial sequencing of the human genome (Hamilton and Regalado, 2001; Collins and McKusick, 2001; Collins, 1999; National Research Council, 2000). Called the Human Genome Project, this has already identified the genes determining Huntington's chorea, polycystic kidney disease, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia and various other genetic diseases (Hodgkinson et al., 1990; Varekamp et al., 1990; Wertz et al., 1992). The purpose of the Human Genome Project is to identify, prevent or cure genetic abnormalities. As this research progresses, many preventions and cures for hereditary diseases seem to be within reach, although identification of these diseases is often the only recourse at this time (Hamilton and Noble, 1983; Paul, 1997; Von Wartburg and Liew, 1999). Currently, genetic screening is becoming increasingly available to the public (Fertel and Reiss, 1997; Rauch, 1988; Schroeder, 1991; Young and Robinson, 1984). History suggests that as testing procedures are made available, they are rapidly introduced to the American public. For example, shortly after the test for polio was discovered it was administered to millions of American children. (excerpt)
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  11. 111

    The polls-trends: abortion.

    Shaw GM

    Public Opinion Quarterly. 2003 Fall; 67(3):407-429.

    This article presents public opinion data from the late 1980s to 2003 on several key aspects of abortion that have comprised the central points of debate on this issue. These include the morality of abortions, whether they should be legal, proposed constitutional amendments that would ban abortion, and support for abortion access under various specific circumstances. Several arguably second-tier issues-federal funding, spousal and parental notification, and waiting periods-are also tracked over the past decade to fill out this overview of recent public opinion trends on abortion. Because of space limitations, this collection of poll trends comprises only a portion of the available data. Various survey organizations have also asked related questions, including questions on the perceived linkage between the demand for abortions and sexual promiscuity, perceptions of why women most often seek abortions, feelings of guilt after having an abortion, support for sex education in schools, positions of the Roman Catholic Church on abortion, federal funding for abortions for poor women, as well as variations on many of the questions presented here. Among the findings from those questions is that support for abortion is largely dependent on the perceived motivations and circumstances of women who seek the procedure. Support for abortions in cases of an unwanted gender or because the pregnancy may interfere with a woman's career tends to be very low, for instance, even though general support for abortion, as gauged by questions that do not present specific circumstances, remains, more often than not, the majority position. (excerpt)
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  12. 112

    Electoral politics and abortion.

    Shrage L

    Dissent. 2003 Fall; 67-73.

    Most Progressives would say the abortion debate is intractable because it reflects the huge gap between conservative Christian and secular humanist values. I'd like to offer another theory one not incompatible with this one, but a supplement to it. The abortion debate is intractable at this time because the two major political parties in the United States exploit this issue to pursue electoral majorities. Republicans use the abortion issue to forge coalitions with right-wing and fundamentalist Christian voters. Democrats use it to attract women voters. Neither party will risk modifying its rigid position for fear of alienating the constituencies that the abortion issue has helped attract. Opinion surveys over the past thirty years, however, indicate that the majority of Americans support some abortions as well as some restrictions. Most voters, that is, fall between the positions represented by those who refuse to recognize any problems with the legal status quo and those who want to change it radically. (excerpt)
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  13. 113

    Premarital pregnancy and native opinion. A note on social change.

    Schapera I

    Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. 1933 Jan; 6(1):59-89.

    In his recent writings on the subject of marriage and kinship, Malinowski has repeatedly emphasized what he terms the 'principle of legitimacy'. By this he means the rule, found in all human societies, that a woman has to be married before she is allowed legitimately to conceive. 'Roughly speaking, an unmarried mother is under a ban, a fatherless child is a bastard. This is by no means only a European or Christian prejudice; it is the attitude found amongst most barbarous and savage peoples as well.' Where prenuptial intercourse is regarded as illicit and immoral, marriage is obviously the essential prelude to the birth of legitimate children, i.e. children having full social status in the community. But even where prenuptial intercourse is tolerated, this tolerance does not extend to liberty of conception. The unmarried boys and girls may indulge freely in sex, but there must be no issue. An unmarried mother will be subjected to punishment and become the object of scorn, her child possibly killed or aborted, while often the putative farther is also penalized unless he marries the girls. Almost universally, a child born out of wedlock has a different status from the legitimate offspring, usually very much to his disadvantage. Facts such as these show that the group of mother and child is considered in the eyes of the community, and that the sociological position of husband and father is felt to be indispensable. (excerpt)
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  14. 114

    Birth control in popular twentieth-century periodicals.

    Barnes RL

    Family Coordinator. 1970 Apr; 19(2):159-164.

    Spurned as a subject unfit for even private conversation, let alone the pages of a magazine, in the early twentieth century, birth control is now discussed openly in every kind of communications medium. In the early years of the birth control movement, however, only journals which enjoyed some kind of financial security would dare include such an inflammatory subject. As Americans encountered economic difficulties in the 1930s and adopted a more enlightened view of sexual relations, birth control became an acceptable topic, even to those who opposed the practice. Public acceptance of and interest in the issue has been reflected in periodical coverage of the subject. (author's)
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  15. 115
    Peer Reviewed

    Are league tables controlling epidemic of caesarean sections in South Korea?

    Kim C; Ko SK; Kim KY

    BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2005 May; 112:607-611.

    Objective To assess the impact of the publication of hospital caesarean section rates on the reduction of these rates in South Korea, and explore associated factors contributing to the decrease. Design Observational study. Setting South Korea. Sample Two hundred and sixty-three hospitals in South Korea. Methods The caesarean section rates of 263 hospitals, before and after the release of caesarean section rates to the public, were obtained. The factors influencing the reduction in hospital caesarean section rates were also explored using multiple logistic regression. Main outcome measure Hospital caesarean section rates. Results After the release of information in 2000, the total (clinic and hospital) caesarean section rates in 2000 and 2001 decreased to 38.6% and 39.6%, respectively, from 43.0% in 1999. Caesarean section rates for hospitals were 45.9%, 42.7% and 44.6% in 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Hospitals with the highest baseline caesarean section rates (OR 9.4, 95% CI 4.2- 21.0) and highest number of deliveries (OR 8.1, 95% CI 2.1-31.1) were significant factors contributing independently to a decrease in caesarean section rates. Market share, competition, characteristics of revenue generation and ownership did not significantly influence the change of rates. Conclusion The public release of information on caesarean section rates in Korea has reversed the ever-increasing trend in these rates. Hospitals with pre-existing high caesarean section rates or a larger number of deliveries were influenced by the information release and could be the main targets for interventions to decrease these rates. (author's)
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  16. 116

    Toward understanding the problems of early marriage.

    Avery CE

    Family Life Coordinator. 1961 Apr; 10(2):27-34.

    Adult group discussion of early marriage presents certain difficulties to the leader-difficulties which may be shared by the teacher when students as they often do, outwardly reflect parental attitudes. To cope with these difficulties, leaders and teachers must examine rather carefully the psychology of their audiences with respect to this topic and plan strategy accordingly. In other words, leaders and teachers need to have some notion of what is probably going on in the minds of discussants, consciously or unconsciously, and how these mental or emotional processes can be channeled toward worth-while ends. The present essay is an attempt to aid in this task. In the first place, it must be assumed that the response of citizens to the marriage explosion among youngsters who, a generation or so ago, would have been considered children, is highly emotional and largely disapproving. Witness almost any issue of any newspaper or magazine, countless sermons, radio and T-V programs; and PTA sessions throughout the land. This disapproval shows itself in three general ways. (excerpt)
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  17. 117
    Peer Reviewed

    Listening to consumers and HIV vaccine preparedness.

    Duan N

    Lancet. 2005 Mar 26; 365:1119-1121.

    As the HIV/AIDS pandemic rages globally into a third decade, one of our best hopes for reversing the pandemic is the development, evaluation, and dissemination of safe and effective preventive HIV vaccines. An important challenge on this arduous journey is the recruitment of volunteers for trials of such vaccines. Edward Mills and colleagues’ recent article is an important milestone in this Herculean battle. They provide a comprehensive systematic review of existing studies on barriers to participation in HIV vaccine trials. They identify several key barriers to participation in HIV vaccine trials: safety concerns, mistrust of clinical research, and fear of social discrimination. They recommend that vaccine trialists use these findings to anticipate and mitigate barriers to trial participation. (excerpt)
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  18. 118
    Peer Reviewed

    Fighting to close the condom gap in Uganda.

    Bass E

    Lancet. 2005 Mar 26; 365:1127-1128.

    20 million condoms will soon be airlifted into Uganda, after an emergency order issued by the government in early March, with funding from international donors. The new supplies will help to ease a crisis that has gripped the country for more than 5 months, ever since doubts were raised about the quality of “Engabu” brand condoms, which are free and account for 80% of the condoms distributed in Uganda each year. NGOs and donor groups have welcomed the airlift as a long-awaited step towards resolving the country-wide condom shortage. After immediate supplies are restored, however, Ugandan health agencies will face further challenges, including what to do with at least 20 million Engabu condoms that have been quarantined, re-establishing long-term supplies into the country, and how to restore public faith in condoms. The latter task may be complicated by disagreements about various components of the Ugandan prevention policy—”ABC” or abstinence, being faithful, and using condoms—says Ugandan MP Elioda Tumwesige, who chairs the parliamentary committee on HIV/AIDS. “This has come at a time of debate over what we should emphasise more. It could not have come at a worse time for condom promotion.” (excerpt)
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  19. 119

    A media handbook for HIV vaccine trials for Africa.

    Adeyemi Y

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2001 Feb. 42 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection Key Material; UNAIDS/01.05E)

    This handbook aims to equip scientists especially with ideas, skills, and knowledge on how to relate to the media and thereby reach both the general public and some specific groups. The handbook is not a communication strategy and does not address all aspects of communication and audiences that must be included in effective communication about vaccine trials. Many vaccine development and vaccine trials in humans have to be carried out with the expressed support and cooperation of national governments. Such cooperation usually manifests itself through regulations and monitoring by organizations such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA or equivalent national institutions. Consequently, there is a necessary collaboration between government and medicine (science) in the interests of public health. Ordinarily, that would be a good thing. But, ironically, in many countries, this is a collaboration between two 'institutions' whose popularity and public confidence have dwindled over the years, and their support for HIV vaccine trials does not readily translate into public confidence in those trials. (excerpt)
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  20. 120
    Peer Reviewed

    Response to Leonard S. Rubenstein.

    Roth K

    Human Rights Quarterly. 2004; 26:873-878.

    Leonard S. Rubenstein offers a thoughtful response to my article on how international monitoring and advocacy organizations that use a methodology of public shaming can best advance economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights. His article makes three basic points. First, he notes that such organizations can make useful contributions beyond exposing government misconduct and subjecting it to public opprobrium. Namely, he suggests that they can provide technical assistance to governments on implementing ESC rights and help with capacity building for national or local NGOs that seek such rights. Second, he contends that such international organizations need not be as concerned with advocating tradeoffs among competing ESC rights because fears of limited resources— a “zero-sum game”—are overblown. Third, he disagrees with my perceived preference for condemning “arbitrary” government conduct to the exclusion of violations of particular ESC rights. On the first point, I largely agree with him. On the second, I regretfully suspect he has an overly sanguine view of the problem. And on the third, I fear he has misunderstood me. (excerpt)
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  21. 121

    Emergency contraception: an important and underutilized contraceptive option.

    NARAL Pro-Choice America Foundation

    Washington, D.C., NARAL Pro-Choice America Foundation, 2004 May 10. 12 p.

    Although emergency contraception has been available and proven safe for more than 25 years, too few Americans are aware that contraceptive methods are available that can prevent pregnancy after sex. In fact, nearly three-quarters of women surveyed have not heard of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs), and only six percent of women aged 18 to 44 have used ECPs. Emergency contraception may be used when contraceptive methods fail, when they are misused or not used at all, and when women are sexually assaulted. Although emergency contraceptive methods are not a substitute for ongoing contraceptive use and do not protect against the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, these important and underutilized contraceptive options can reduce unintended pregnancy and the need for abortion. In fact, a 2002 study revealed that ECP use was likely responsible for up to 43 percent of the decline in the number of abortions in the U.S. between 1994 and 2000—with ECP use preventing over 50,000 abortions in 2000 alone. Emergency contraceptive pills are the most commonly used method of emergency contraception. ECPs are ordinary birth control pills that reduce a woman’s chance of becoming pregnant by up to 89 percent when taken within days of unprotected sex. ECPs do not cause abortion; rather they prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, fertilization, or implantation before a pregnancy occurs. In fact, ECPs do not work if a woman is already pregnant. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two dedicated ECPs – PREVEN and Plan B. The copper-T intrauterine device (IUD) can also be used as an emergency contraceptive. (excerpt)
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  22. 122

    Refusal clauses: dangerous for women's health.

    NARAL Pro-Choice America Foundation

    Washington, D.C., NARAL Pro-Choice America Foundation, 2004 Jan 1. 9 p.

    Refusal clauses (sometimes called “conscience” clauses) permit a broad range of individuals and institutions — including hospitals, hospital employees, health care providers, employers, and insurers — to refuse to provide, pay, counsel or even refer for medical treatment based on their moral or religious views. Refusal clauses were first enacted immediately after Roe v. Wade. In response to Roe, Congress adopted an amendment named after then-Senator Frank Church (D-ID), allowing individuals or entities that receive certain federal funds to refuse to provide abortion or sterilization if such services are contrary to their religious or moral beliefs. Following Congress’ lead, 45 states passed laws that permit certain medical personnel, health facilities, and/or institutions to refuse to participate in abortion, most of which were enacted shortly after Roe. In the years following, lawmakers enacted refusal clauses only in isolated circumstances. Recently, however, there has been a resurgence of legislative activity regarding such restrictions. In particular, anti-choice members of Congress have recently tried to enact a very broad refusal clause known as “the Abortion Non-Discrimination Act.” (excerpt)
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  23. 123

    SIECUS fact sheet: Public support for comprehensive sexuality education.

    Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States [SIECUS]

    SIECUS Report. 2004 Fall; 32(4):[3] p..

    When it comes to sexuality education, we often seem like a nation divided. Reading newspapers or listening to school board debates, one might think that adults cannot decide whether schools should provide comprehensive education about sexuality or take a strict abstinence-only-until-marriage approach. In fact, when asked, the vast majority of American adults, including parents and voters, supports comprehensive sexuality education, disapproves of the government's, investment in abstinence-only-until-marriage programs, and rejects popular myths that suggest teaching about sexuality encourages teens to be sexually active. Nevertheless, the government currently spends nearly $138 million per year for abstinence-only-until-marriage programs, in direct contradiction to public opinion. This fact sheet compiles the results of numerous national and statewide surveys, all of which show overwhelming support for a comprehensive approach to sexuality education. SIECUS hopes that this fact sheet will help advocates in their efforts to ensure that public policies keep pace with the desires of the American people. (excerpt)
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  24. 124

    From Mexico to Beijing and beyond: covering women in the world's news.

    Gallagher M

    New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 2004. [20] p.

    From Mexico City to Beijing, it seems that women returning home from the United Nations' four world conferences on women have felt compelled to try to set the record straight--to insist on the significance of events whose representation by the media did not match their own experiences. For instance, on their return from the 1975 Mexico City conference, the Ecuadorian delegation held a press conference to protest against the "distortion in the news" about the meeting. "Few events in the world today have had the importance of this Conference of International Women's Year," they told assembled journalists. "The spirit that animated the conference wasn't one of confrontation; it was a search for steps to secure equal rights and women's participation in decision-making." To its credit, the daily El Comercio-- which had prominently printed the infamous "grapple for the microphone" picture as part of a front-page lead story--did give page-one coverage to the delegation's criticism. This is rare. Normally, rebuttals from those frustrated by media coverage are tucked away on the inside pages, or in letter columns. (excerpt)
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  25. 125

    HIV / AIDS awareness campaign dispels common misconceptions surrounding methods of infection.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Bureau for Global Health

    Washington, D.C., USAID, Bureau for Global Health, 2003 Oct. (7) [1] p. (Success Stories -- HIV / AIDS)

    NEARLY 4 MILLION PEOPLE IN INDIA are infected with HIV—the second highest figure in the world. Staggering misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted and a reluctance to publicly discuss the disease fuel its spread. But an innovative and aggressive HIV/AIDS education and awareness campaign implemented in 12 major port communities across India is helping to dispel widespread myths surrounding HIV/AIDS and to open channels of communication, enabling those who are at high risk for infection to learn how to steer clear of the disease. The campaign—implemented by Population Services International, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development—features several components. In Mumbai, it revolves around Balbir Pasha, a fictional character the target audience of young, urban men can relate to, learn from, and empathize with. Balbir is portrayed in a series of identifiable, real-life sexual situations in which he runs the risk of contracting HIV. Scenarios concern the use of alcohol and “forgetting” to use a condom, the mistaken belief that having a regular partner (even a prostitute or casual partner) means one is safe from HIV/AIDS infection, and the misconception that if one’s partner looks healthy, he or she must be free of HIV/AIDS. (excerpt)
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