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Seattle, Washington, University of Washington, Seattle Population Research Center, 1998 Jan. 25 p. (Seattle Population Research Center Working Paper No. 98-6)In 1972, East Lansing Michigan adopted the first public policy banning discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Since then, hundreds of cities and counties and a few states have followed suit. These laws and policies have banned discrimination in private employment, government employment, housing, public accommodations, education, and credit. Recent federal attention focused on these policies as the Supreme Court ruled that states could not selectively ban local governments from adopting sexual orientation protections (Romer v. Evans, 1996) and the U.S. Senate turned down a federal antidiscrimination policy by one vote (Employment Nondiscrimination Act vote, 1996). This paper tells the story of the diffusion over time and space of local antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation. Over time, the rate of new adoptions could be influenced by previous adoptions or by changes in public opinion or political conditions. Neighboring jurisdictions may influence adoptions because policy-makers or citizens learn about policies from near-by jurisdictions or because political interest group organization efforts spill over into nearby areas. Alternatively, policies may be adopted in close jurisdictions because they are similar in economic or demographic characteristics. Adoptions by encompassing jurisdictions could dampen the demand for local policies. Previous research has investigated the effects of political and demographic determinants on the passage of these policies. No studies have yet investigated the geographic and temporal diffusion of the antidiscrimination laws. (excerpt)
Public communication campaigns in the destigmatization of leprosy: a comparative analysis of diffusion and participatory approaches. A case study in Gwalior, India.
JOURNAL OF HEALTH COMMUNICATION. 1998; 3(4):327-44.Findings are presented from a study conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of diffusion and participatory strategies in health campaigns and the effect of caste upon the dependent variables of knowledge, perception of risk, and behavioral involvement thought to contribute to the destigmatization of leprosy in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Multivariate analysis identified significant difference between the communication treatments upon the dependent variables. The discriminant analysis procedure used to locate the source of the difference identified cognitive-affective and behavior-affective dimensions as significant discriminant functions. Participatory treatment showed higher knowledge and lower perception of risk upon the cognitive-affective dimension, and higher behavioral treatment upon the behavior-affective dimension, but the diffusion treatment showed only lower self-perception of risk upon the behavior-affective dimension. This study found that participatory strategies which promote dialogue and interaction and incorporate people's knowledge and action component result in increased knowledge, lower perception of risk, greater behavioral involvement, and, therefore, destigmatization.
[Residential segregation among the `Aussiedler' population in the Federal Republic of Germany] Kleinraumliche Wohnsegregation von Aussiedlern in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
ZEITSCHRIFT FUR BEVOLKERUNGSWISSENSCHAFT. 1998; 23(1):55-69.Residential segregation among the `Aussiedler' [ethnic German immigrant] population in Germany has been an issue of growing interest.... Yet, there is a significant lack of empirical evidence about problems related to it. This article contributes to the understanding of the appearance, the causes, and the consequences of the socio-residential segregation of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe within selected German cities. Segregation is explained in terms of the ways by which this group gains access to the housing market. Especially, institutional factors, such as the modes of distribution within the public housing sector, are shown to be substantial to it. In spite of high degrees of spatial concentration, the intensity of internal social relations of this group does not reach the level of other equally segregated minorities. (EXCERPT) (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE)