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NURSING TIMES.. 1998 Oct 28-Nov 3; 94(43):52-3.While references to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can be found back as far as biblical times, women have traditionally taken most of the blame for the spread of such diseases. There is no evidence to suggest that men were blamed or stigmatized in the same way as women until the panic over AIDS in the 1980s shifted some of the blame to groups such as gay and bisexual men, IV drug users, and Africans. Throughout history, heterosexual men have escaped blame for STIs. Maybe it is this latter population subgroup which should be targeted in future sexual health promotion programs. This paper reviews the history of blame for STIs dating from the book of Leviticus, in which men with urethral discharge are urged to wash after copulation, to female prostitutes during the past 400 years, and recent groups with the advent of HIV/AIDS.
SEXUAL HEALTH EXCHANGE. 1998; (3):4.Two decades of Family Planning Association of Hong Kong (FPAHK) advocacy of husband-wife communication and cooperation in family planning led Hong Kong's population to finally accept the notion of male responsibility in family planning. Recent surveys have documented high rates of male contraceptive use. The FPAHK established its first clinic to provide men with birth control advice and services in 1960, then set up a vasectomy clinic and installed condom vending machines. Working against prevailing traditional beliefs that childbearing is the exclusive domain of women and that vasectomy harms one's health, the FPAHK began campaigns to motivate men to take a positive and active role in family planning and to correct misinformation on vasectomy. Successful FPAHK efforts to stimulate male support for family planning include the 1977 "Mr. Family Planning" campaign, the 1982 "Family Planning - Male Responsibilities" campaign, and the 1986-87 "Mr. Able" campaign. Although these campaigns ended in the 1980s, men may now be counseled on contraception at 3 of the 8 FPAHK-run birth control clinics.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1998 Summer; 32(2):451-70.In the growing US debate over immigration policy since the 1980s, it is often argued that immigration must be restricted in order to protect Black Americans from competition with newly arrived immigrants. Findings are reported upon Black Americans' attitudes toward immigration policy. An extensive review of more than 50 Black newspapers and magazines, from January 1994 to June 1996, uncovered attitudes both in favor of and against restricting immigration. The majority of articles in the Black press on immigration, however, were nonrestrictionist. The Black political leadership is also against restricting immigration. Furthermore, a review of the 14 most recent national opinion polls on immigration available to the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research as of July 1996 found that while many Blacks favor restricting immigration, all US Blacks should not be characterized as restrictionist, especially when compared with Whites. Historical attitudes among US Blacks dating back to before the abolition of slavery are discussed.