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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Development of a brief scale to measure AIDS-related stigma in South Africa.

    Kalichman SC; Simbayi LC; Jooste S; Toefy Y; Cain D

    AIDS and Behavior. 2005 Jun; 9(2):135-143.

    Although there has been progress in AIDS stigma research, there are no multi-item AIDS stigma scales that have been shown reliable and valid in Africa. The current research reports the development of the nine-item AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. Research conducted in five South African communities (N = 2306) found the scale internally consistent, a = 0.75 and time stable over 3 months, r = 0.67. The scale was also reliable in three different languages (English, Xhosa, and Afrikaans). Correlations showed that the AIDS-Related Stigma Scale was moderately inversely correlated with years of education and AIDS knowledge. In addition, individuals who stated that HIV positive persons should conceal their HIV status had higher AIDS-Related Stigma Scale scores. Also supporting the scale’s construct validity, individuals who refused to report whether they had been tested for HIV scored higher on the AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. (author's)
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  2. 2

    Demand for public health services in Mumbai.

    Dilip TR; Duggal R

    Mumbai, India, Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes [CEHAT], 2003 Jun. [8], 51 p.

    This study report is based on a need-assessment survey conducted in connection with the BMC's plant to set up a municipal general hospital in one of its ward. The study area is unique in the sense that it is the most populous ward in Greater Mumbai, and yet, it does not have a single public hospital within its limits. Data was collected from 1,035 households spread across three health-post areas around the proposed hospital site. The study was able to bring out the utility of public health care services in the area, and to find out how the population copes with their health care needs when public health care services are not available in their locality. It is to be noted that this is a predominantly lower middle class and lower class population, which resides in the study area. In spite of not having a public hospital, for ailments reported during the reference period, about 30 per cent of the patients had sought inpatient care services from the public sector outside the locality, and about 15 per cent had sought outpatient care services from BMC facilities. Though travel time and travel costs were higher, because of financial reasons the public were still seeking health care from public health care outlets outside their locality. Analysis shows that non-availability of a public hospital was forcing about 44 per cent of the households to seek inpatient care services from the private sector, even if they were interested in seeking care from the public sector. Even the outpatient care services that were currently available in the area seemed to be inadequate, as 67 per cent of the households were having their need for outpatient care services unmet. When the poorest of the poor were left with no alternative but to seek care from public health care facility in other wards, others were "managing" with the services in the private sector where out-of-pocket expenses of treating an ailment was several times higher than that in the public sector. A majority of those who were currently "managing" their inpatient care needs through private hospitals, were willing to shift to the public health care system if made available in the locality. (author's)
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  3. 3

    Time to tackle stigma.

    International HIV / AIDS Alliance

    Alliance News. 2001 Dec; (12):[3] p..

    Increasing attention is being paid to the role of stigma as a major contributory factor in the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS is especially powerful and pervasive because the disease is usually closely associated with such fundamental issues as life and death, sex and sexuality, and morality. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    [Masculine identity and reproductive health in Morocco: the feminism of common men. Khenifra] Identite masculine et sante reproductive au Maroc. Le feminisme des hommes ordinaires. Khenifra.

    Dialmy A

    [Rabat, Morocco], Ministere de la Sante, LCPS-MERC, 2000 Sep. 54 p.

    In a bid to determine to what extent ordinary Moroccan men embrace reproductive health rights for both sexes, research was conducted to assess the degree to which such men in Morocco harbor feminist attitudes. Study subjects were 760 low-mid-level, male public servants sampled in Oriental-Rif, Moyen-Atlas, Rabat, Agadir, Tanger, and Tetouan in the departments of agriculture, national education, interior, health, and equipment. Study findings are presented from men sampled in Moyen-Atlas, or Khenifra.
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  5. 5

    [Masculine identity and reproductive health in Morocco: the feminism of common men. Rabat] Identite masculine et sante reproductive au Maroc. Le feminisme des hommes ordinaires. Rabat.

    Dialmy A

    [Rabat, Morocco], Ministere de la Sante, LCPS-MERC, 2000 Sep. 54 p.

    In a bid to determine to what extent ordinary Moroccan men embrace reproductive health rights for both sexes, research was conducted to assess the degree to which such men in Morocco harbor feminist attitudes. Study subjects were 760 low-mid-level, male public servants sampled in Oriental-Rif, Moyen-Atlas, Rabat, Agadir, Tanger, and Tetouan in the departments of agriculture, national education, interior, health, and equipment. Study findings are presented from men sampled in Rabat.
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  6. 6

    [Masculine identity and reproductive health in Morocco: the feminism of common men. Agadir] Identite masculine et sante reproductive au Maroc. Le feminisme des hommes ordinaires. Agadir.

    Dialmy A

    [Rabat, Morocco], Ministere de la Sante, LCPS-MERC, 2000 Sep. 50 p.

    In a bid to determine to what extent ordinary Moroccan men embrace reproductive health rights for both sexes, research was conducted to assess the degree to which such men in Morocco harbor feminist attitudes. Study subjects were 760 low-mid-level, male public servants sampled in Oriental-Rif, Moyen-Atlas, Rabat, Agadir, Tanger, and Tetouan in the departments of agriculture, national education, interior, health, and equipment. Study findings are presented from men sampled in Agadir.
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  7. 7

    [Masculine identity and reproductive health in Morocco: the feminism of common men. Oujda] Identite masculine et sante reproductive au Maroc. Le feminisme des hommes ordinaires. Oujda.

    Dialmy A

    [Rabat, Morocco], Ministere de la Sante, LCPS-MERC, 2000 Sep. 58 p.

    In a bid to determine to what extent ordinary Moroccan men embrace reproductive health rights for both sexes, research was conducted to assess the degree to which such men in Morocco harbor feminist attitudes. Study subjects were 760 low-mid-level, male public servants sampled in Oriental-Rif, Moyen-Atlas, Rabat, Agadir, Tanger, and Tetouan in the departments of agriculture, national education, interior, health, and equipment. Study findings are presented from men sampled in Oriental-Rif, or Oujda.
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  8. 8

    [Opinion survey on family planning, urban population] Enquete d'opinion sur la planification familiale, milieu urban.

    Morocco. Ministere de la Sante Publique. Division des Statistiques

    Rabat, Ministere de la Sante Publique, Division des Statistiques, 1971. 132 p

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  9. 9

    [IUD use at the Sidi Fateh urban community clinic: qualitative study] Utilisation du DIU au niveau du dispensaire urbain Sidi Fateh (etude qualitative).

    Hayyani F; Adri I

    Rabat, Morocco, Institut de Formation aux Carrieres de Sante, 2000. [15], 61, [17] p.

    Contraceptive prevalence across Morocco increased from 20% in 1980 to 60% in 1997, with a corresponding decline in total fertility from 6 children per woman in 1975 to 3 per woman in 1997. Morocco's National Family Planning Program has achieved great success in reducing prevailing levels of fertility, but the program's particular promotion of the oral contraceptive pill has led to the disproportionate use of the latter at the expense of longer-acting hormonal and barrier methods. Findings are presented upon IUD use at Sidi Fateh urban dispensary, based upon questionnaires, personnel observation, and interviews with consultants on the relevant attitudes and behaviors of clients and service providers. Although 48.12% of the 133 married women surveyed know a range of modern contraceptive methods, their knowledge is superficial and very general beyond what they know about the particular method they employ. 66.3% use oral contraception, although most are unsatisfied due to the pill's side effects, but believe that they have no other contraceptive option. 63.9% of women oppose IUDs because of the method's side effects and negative rumors about its use. Likewise, 30.7% of husbands have negative attitudes about the IUD. Women's opinions of the IUD improve with rising educational status. The general population of IUD users is satisfied with its method choice, finding the IUD to be reliable, reversible, and of long-term effect without the need for daily administration. However, the adverse experiences of a few women with the method creates concerns and fear of the IUD among users and potential users. Obstacles and constraints to IUD use, personnel competence, and client satisfaction on family planning consultations are discussed.
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  10. 10

    Local organisation, democracy and urban youth -- a case study in Zambia.

    Schlyter A


    This case study focuses on the experience of young women and men in Lusaka's George compound (Zambia) during the political transition, and their views on the transition and the organization of their community. It outlines how, in one party system, the local party organization was seen as the lowest level of local government and explores how youths in different positions have different experiences and draw different conclusions. More than 40 young men and women were interviewed, essay writings were organized in secondary schools, and figures from the 1990 census have been elaborated for this study. Based on data collected, it is concluded that the dominant attitude among the youth in George compound is disappointment in the promises of democratization, disinterest in politics, and cynicism. The study also showed that variations in views were closely related to the variations of living conditions. Moreover, the political transition has not changed gender relations. Nevertheless, there are signs of a growing understanding of the new system of multi-partyism and of an engagement with ideas about local organization.
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  11. 11

    [Violence in the family: survey] Violencia en la familia. Encuesta.

    Asociacion Mexicana contra la Violencia hacia las Mujeres

    ESTE PAIS. 1996 Jul; (64):20-5.

    The Mexican Association Against Violence Towards Women (COVAC) surveyed 3300 men and women aged 18-65 in Mexico City and nine other cities in 1995 to assess public opinion regarding domestic violence. 17% of respondents were of high socioeconomic status, 33% of middle status, and 50% of low status. 61% of respondents stated that children are the family members most frequently abused physically or mentally, 21% identified mothers, and 10% other female family members. 96% of respondents considered physical and mental mistreatment to be forms of violence. 70% considered physical mistreatment and psychological damage to occur very frequently. 21% knew of someone who was abused in the preceding 6 months. 74% of the abused persons were women. 52% were mothers and 30% were daughters. Of the abused males, 21% were 13-17 years old and 71% were 5-24 years of age. 69% were sons and 12% were fathers. Only 20% of cases were reported to any authority. 46% of the cases reported led to jailing of the aggressor. 43% of the cases were not reported for fear of provoking greater violence. 83% of respondents approved of separation of the aggressor from the family if necessary. 90% approved of seeking orientation or legal protection from an authority, and 94% approved of shelters for abused women and children. 54% knew of the existence of some legal mechanism to confront violence even though there is no legislation in Mexico specifically against domestic violence.
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  12. 12

    Impacts of modernisation and urbanisation in Bangkok: an integrative ecological and biosocial study.

    Poungsomlee A; Ross H

    Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR], 1992 Aug. [3], vi, 71 p.

    The findings in this impact report are preliminary. The research aim is to assess comprehensively the ecological and social impacts of modernization and urbanization in Bangkok, Thailand. Specific aims include 1) studying the human urban population and the biophysical environment through use of an integrative ecological and biosocial methodology (Boyden et al.); 2) examining the changing interrelationships between the biophysical environment, human population, societal activities, and societal arrangements; 3) developing an integrated and comprehensive framework; and 4) exploring social processes that lead to quality of life improvements. Data collection occurred during 1989-90. This first exploratory report provides a literature review and preliminary findings from the analysis of focus groups and other statistical background data in selected communities. Focus group discussions were conducted in Phaya Thai, Bangkok Noi, and Taling Chan districts from the inner, middle, and outer zones, respectively. The seven communities represented middle class groups, slum groups, an old housing group, a canal community of agriculturalists, and an agriculture-based community. Background descriptions are provided of the early settlement of Bangkok, the modernization process, the Bangkok economy, land use changes (changes from agriculture to human settlement, high-rise buildings, slums), environmental conditions (transportation, air pollution and noise, water quality, and solid waste and toxic substance disposal), and health and crime conditions. Community views are reported for transportation, pollution, land use, and social and economic problems. The combination of environmental and economic conditions is viewed by the public as impacting on housing, lifestyles, stresses, the means of adaptation, and health. The analysis revealed that environmental problems/solutions usually reflected the views of elites and inner city residents. Public participation in urban solutions is viewed as hampered by societal hierarchies, patronage, and the Buddhist-influenced relaxed acceptance. Economic conditions appeared to determine both the capacity of people to solve problems as well as to adapt to change. The Thai sense of fun and the Thai capacity for creativity and regeneration were successfully tapped in the family planning model and some other past programs.
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Student opinions of condom distribution at a Denver, Colorado, high school.

    Fanburg JT; Kaplan DW; Naylor KE

    JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1995 May; 65(5):181-5.

    Students at a high school in urban Denver, Colorado, in October 1992 initiated and helped conduct a school-wide survey on student opinions about making condoms available in their school. Students simultaneously and anonymously completed the survey. Only 994 of the school's 1330 enrolled students, however, had the opportunity to complete the survey due to the absenteeism of students, attendance at physical education class during the block, or the teacher's failure to administer the survey. 336 enrolled students simply did not receive a survey. Moreover, only 931 completed surveys figure in the final analysis since 63 were excluded due to illegibility or ambiguities in the responses. A larger percentage of students in the lower grades responded to the survey, corresponding to increased attrition as students advance in school and a higher absenteeism rate for upperclassmen. 85% of the surveyed students replied that condoms should be distributed in their school. 76% noted that making condoms more accessible will neither increase nor decrease the frequency of sexual activity among teens. Proponents of in-school condom distribution pointed to the ability of condom use to prevent the spread of AIDS and other STDs, and unwanted pregnancy as the most important reasons to support condom distribution, followed by the belief that increased condom availability will prompt more students to use them when having sexual intercourse. The embarrassment and financial cost of having to buy condoms were also cited by 24% and 17% of students, respectively, as reasons for making condoms available in school. 45% of students feel that condoms should be distributed from machines in bathrooms, 42% from the school nurse, 8% from other students, and 5% from teachers. 61% of condom distribution opponents were female. 59% of the opponents, while claiming to not be against condoms, believe that school is just not appropriate point of distribution for them. Other opponents believe that condom distribution will stimulate the incidence of sexual activity, that individuals should not have sex until they are older or married, that distributing condoms is religiously wrong, that condom distribution would be wasteful since some people do not use condoms every time they have intercourse, and that it would be embarrassing to procure condoms at school. Students in lower grades tended to be more conservative with their beliefs.
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  14. 14

    Abortion rates in the American states: the impacts of opinion and policy on abortion utilization.

    Wetstein ME

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1993. [16], 228 p. (Order No. 9400674)

    Verification of the significant impact of public support for abortion on both abortion access and abortion rates was provided through the application of interrupted time series design, multiple regression analysis, and causal modelling techniques to survey data from the US states. National statistics fail to demonstrate a statistically significant impact on US abortion rates of 3 major policy changes: the Roe vs Wade decision, the prohibition of Medicaid funding for abortion, and the anti-abortionist Reagan-Bush presidency. On the other hand, and consistent with the trend toward state control over abortion policy, disaggregation revealed substantial policy-abortion rate correlations in most states. Attitudes toward abortion, which remain remarkably constant over time, are largely dependent (70% of variance explained) by 5 factors: percent Christian, percent Catholic, percent Mormon, percent urban, and socioeconomic status. In states where public opinion on abortion is predominantly liberal, there tend to be fewer restrictions on abortion and a greater likelihood that the state will provide Medicaid funds. In the bivariate analysis, state scores on abortion opinion accounted for 18% of the variance in the policy index. For every 1 point drop in support for abortion, there is an increase of 1 in the number of restrictions on the procedure. Higher socioeconomic status, greater metropolitan populations, and larger Catholic populations tend to produce stronger public support for abortion, while states with large Christian or Mormon populations have more conservative opinion poll findings. While Catholicism is associated with support for abortion and a larger number of abortion facilities, it is also linked to more abortion policy restrictions--a contradiction that may reflect divisions between the Church leadership and membership. There is a need for additional research on aggregate public opinion variables and their relationship with abortion policy and abortion rates, especially at the state level.
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  15. 15

    AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    Chatterjee A

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Aug; 17(4):20-3.

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.
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  16. 16
    Peer Reviewed

    Design and implementation of a citywide breastfeeding promotion program: the New York City approach.

    Barber-Madden R

    FAMILY AND COMMUNITY HEALTH. 1990 Feb; 12(4):71-8.

    Breastfeeding has regained more popularity in the US since 1970, but there has been a definite disparity in its resurgence among minority, poor, and less educated mothers. This article outlines the history of breastfeeding prevalence in the US and New York City as an introduction to explaining the design and implementation of New York City's breastfeeding promotion program. In 1982, the Steering Committee to Promote Breastfeeding in New York City was generated and it designed task forces to address each of their defined barriers to breastfeeding promotion (e.g. lack of relevant data, centralized compilation, data analysis, health care professional education, inhibitory practices by hospitals and ambulatory services, public misinformation, and unsupportive public policy). The Research Task Force, Professional Education Task Force, Hospital Practices Task Group, Policy and Legislation Task Group, and Public Information Task Group were outlined and some policies, strategies, and practices they have enacted were described. Some of their accomplishments include: educational kits on breastfeeding for health care professionals, guidelines for work-site health and nutrition programs for pregnant and lactating workers, research on the economics of breastfeeding, breastfeeding information posters on the subway, and establishment in 1984 of a breastfeeding coordinator in each municipal hospital. These strategies demonstrate a successful model for breastfeeding promotion in large urban areas as seen by the rise in breastfeeding at the time of newborn discharge from New York City hospitals.
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  17. 17

    Finland's low fertility and the desired recovery.

    Auvinen R


    The fertility level in Finland, after decades of decline, has stabilized at 1.6; attitudes and practical obstacles to reversing this negative growth are presented. The low fertility in Finland has a long history and complex causation, but is now so entrenched as to be embedded in the culture. People, women included, think as individuals, and consider family development to be their private business. The small family is such an accepted cultural norm that political speeches about raising fertility are considered inappropriate. The lack of adequate affordable housing, the high taxation and indebtedness experienced by young people, and the lack of institutional support, especially day care are practical factors preventing childbearing. Many women are used to having a job and being independent, and do not relish taking on double labor. Others have had bad experiences with poor day care and housing arrangements with 1 child and do not want to repeat it with another. The breakup of traditional extended families has eliminated child care, but also raises the question how elderly people will be cared for. While there is an evident lack of political solutions to the problem of population structure, even larger is the problem of social renewal, of creating a new society where children will fit in.
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  18. 18

    Family planning in Colombia: changes in attitude and acceptance, 1964-69.

    Simmons AB; Cardona R

    Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)

    This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)
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  19. 19

    Attitudes toward population control in Santiago, Chile.

    Hall MF

    Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. 1975; 9(3):196-207.

    Chilean attitudes toward the national population's size and growth rate was explored by a special survey. The survey sample consisted of 1410 men aged 20-54 in urban Santiago, of whom 1030 were actually interviewed by 36 students from the University of Chile who based their interview on a prepared questionnaire including both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. The men were separated into 6 catagories on the basis of their education and socioeconomic status. The results clearly indicate that men in the lower socioeconomic categories tended to know less about the population's size and growth than their more affluent counterparts. Nevertheless, they more often felt that Chile had too many people, that recent population growth had been rapid, and that population growth should be reduced. (AUTHOR'S MODIFIED)
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  20. 20

    Urban Indian attitudinal response and behavior related to family planning: possible implications for the mass communication program.

    Poffenberger T

    Journal of Family Welfare. 1968; 14:31-38.

    In 1967 the Indian Institute of Public Opinion conducted a survey of 837 males and 163 females in 11 urban areas obtaining attitudes towards family planning and personal and national concerns. All in the sample were literate, with 72% having completed secondary school. 94% had heard of family planning and believed it was necessary for India. 58% know the location of a family planning clinic. Of those with 2 children, 94% said they did not want any more while 53% reported ever having practiced family planning. The average number of desired children was 2.9. The survey indicated that the family planning program has been successful in communicating awareness of family planning but that there needs to be greater emphasis on the communication of the relationship of controlling family size to individual and national fears regarding well-being, and for creating an awareness of the importance of reducting the family size norm to 2 children regardless of sex.
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