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Your search found 12 Results

  1. 1

    Threat or opportunity? Sexuality, gender and the ebb and flow of trafficking as discourse.

    Saunders P; Soderlund G

    Canadian Woman Studies / Les Cahiers de la Femme. 2003 Spring-Summer; 22(3-4):16-24.

    Levels of public concern in the U.S. over trafficking in women and children have peaked twice in the last century: between 1907 and 1913 during the controversy over “white slavery” and again in the 1990s with the rising concern over global sex trafficking. It is not surprising that trafficking—-a phenomenon so closely linked to notions of movement and mobility—-would emerge as a major social issue during these two periods. The first and last decades of the twentieth century both witnessed seismic demographic shifts. Nearly 1,000,000 people immigrated to the U.S. per year between 1905 and 1914. After World War I immigration declined sharply, partly due to restrictive new citizenship laws. The U.S. would not see similar levels of immigration until 1989, the inaugural year of an eleven-year wave of heightened migration (Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services). The two periods under scrutiny share additional features in common: facilitated by the introduction of new technologies—-railroad and new communications technologies respectively—-capital expanded during both periods, seeking out inexpensive labour and new markets for its products and services. Not surprisingly, informal and illicit markets flourished as well, including the gun, drug, and sex trades. Increased migration led to domestic anxieties over immigration during both periods. Early twentieth-century reform movements were largely a middle-class response to the dramatic expansion of the U.S. urban population. Many of the new immigrants arriving on U.S. shores hailed from eastern and southern Europe and were largely Catholic, Jewish, and atheist, precipitating a wave of xenophobia among the slightly-more-rooted Protestant populations. Likewise, the collapse of communism in Eastern-bloc countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s intensified the movement of people on a global scale. This global shift coupled with increased migration to the U.S. from the south resulted in a resurgence of anti-immigrant sentiment in the U.S. and abroad. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Time to tackle stigma.

    International HIV / AIDS Alliance

    Alliance News. 2001 Dec; (12):[3] p..

    Increasing attention is being paid to the role of stigma as a major contributory factor in the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS is especially powerful and pervasive because the disease is usually closely associated with such fundamental issues as life and death, sex and sexuality, and morality. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    New international inventory on knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and practices.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS. Social and Behavioural Research Unit

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, Social and Behavioral Research Unit, [1990]. [4] p. (WHO File: Data on Social Issues; Report No. 2)

    The Social and Behavioural Research Unit has prepared its second international inventory of Knowledge, Attitude, Behaviour, and Practices surveys. The report reviews 80 projects drawing upon both published and unpublished materials dealing with 7 major study groups: adolescents and young people, the general public, health care workers, homosexual/bisexual men, drug injectors, prostitutes, and other groups. For each of these the inventory classifies the project concerned by selected key features such as when and where it was undertaken, sampling strategy used, and methodology and conclusions. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    KABP inventory and findings: report number 1.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Global Programme on AIDS. Social and Behavioural Research Unit

    [Unpublished] [1989]. [3], 25 p.

    The World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS has put together this inventory and review of AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and risk behaviors (KABP) to provide updated information on research findings to researchers, IEC (information, education, and communication) planners, and national AIDS prevention and control staff. The studies in this inventory were all published between January 1, 1989 and March 1, 1989. Each of the inventory's six parts addresses a specific population group: adolescents and young people, the general public, health care workers, homosexual/bisexual population, intravenous drug users, and prostitutes (both male and female). In those cases where a published study has information on more than one of the groups, the inventory includes that study in each of the appropriate sections. In each section, the studies are in chronological order, according to the date the study was conducted. The first column lists the complete bibliographic reference to allow the reader to refer to the original publication. A code has been assigned to the first column for each study to designate what primary type of study it is. These codes denote a KABP study (or at least one of the elements), a study focusing on sexual practices, a methodological study, an epidemiological study, a counseling study, a health promotion study, and a qualitative study. The second column lists the date of the study. The third column provides the site of the study. Most of the sites are in the US. Other sites are in both developed and developing countries. The fourth and fifth columns list the population studied and the size of the sample, respectively. The method of data collection is revealed in the sixth column. The methods are interview, telephone interview, questionnaire, and medical (physical or laboratory examination). The last column provides a brief summary of the major findings.
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  5. 5

    Reporting AIDS in Kenya: a personal report. Guidelines for journalists have been issued in the UK. What about Africa?

    Hanssen N

    AIDS ANALYSIS AFRICA. 1993 Nov-Dec; 3(6):1.

    A Norwegian journalist reports on his experiences covering the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Kenya. Denial by the government has resulted in reduced figures. President Daniel Arap Moi refuses to admit that the epidemic has become national in scope. The public broadcasting services carry little information about the epidemic. A study indicating that 25/1700 prostitutes in Nairobi were positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been met with skepticism by the public, who question the survey (what was the relationship between researchers and prostitutes, were the prostitutes paid to risk their lives, why was the study carried out in Africa). Some believe the 25 positive women are 'immune' because of a similar gene pattern. There are 750,000 HIV positive adults and 30,000 AIDS cases in Kenya, including a large number of cases among street urchins. Most AIDS cases are sent home to die because of the short supply of hospital beds (45,000). One of these was Ruth Kasuki, a 36-year-old mother of three and AIDS educator and counselor in Kenya, who is now deceased. In an interview conducted shortly before her death, she criticizes the government for its denial and predicts disastrous results. Ms. Kasuki also blamed the extramarital affairs of men for the spread of AIDS among Kenyan women. 8% of women receiving antenatal care are estimated to have HIV; in Nyanza Coast and Nairobi the estimate reaches 12%. Ms. Kasuki also cited the negative attitude of the clergy.
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  6. 6

    The Africa syndrome. India confronts the spectre of a massive epidemic.

    McDonald H

    FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1992 Feb 20; 28-9.

    As the AIDS epidemic and HIV transmission in India increasingly resembles that observed in sub-Saharan Africa, Indian society's arrogant perception of invulnerability to the pandemic is proving to be considerably ill-conceived. The dimensions of the epidemic have multiplied greatly since AIDS was 1st identified among prostitutes in Madras, with the trends observed in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu being especially ominous. AIDS has forced Indian society and research professionals to acknowledge the existence of domestic prostitution, homosexuals, and drug users. While only 103 AIDS cases and 6,400 HIV infections have been officially identified, it is clear that these cases represent only a tiny fraction of the true extent of the epidemic in India. The government will therefore spend up to US$7.75 million on an anti-AIDS program aimed at ensuring secure blood supplies, and checking heterosexual transmission through education and the promotion of condoms. The program also targets IV-drug users and truck drivers for education and behavioral change. India is the 2nd country after Zaire to accept foreign loans for such a purpose. It will receive US$85 million over 5 years from the World Bank in addition to supplemental funds from the WHO and the U.S. Weak attempts, however, have been made to test blood supplies, with only 15% being tested in Tamil Nadu. A large gap also remains between health educators and needy target groups. Finally, while some top officials realize the need for immediate action against AIDS, broad public awareness and coping will come only after AIDS mortality begins to mount in the population.
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  7. 7

    Motor-park people shift gear.

    Nnoli C

    WORLDAIDS. 1992 Jan; (19):10.

    White, U.S. homosexual males were primarily affected in the early stages of the AIDS pandemic. Some Western researchers argued, however, that the syndrome originated in Africa. Strong political and social response to this notion resulted in only an anemic response to the growing AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. Nonetheless, the Stop AIDS Organization finally launched the Motor Park AIDS Education Program (MPAEP) in 1988, for health and education outreach to populations at risk of STDs and HIV infection. Specifically targeted are long-distance truck drivers, their young male assistants known as motor boys, and the barmaids, prostitutes, and homeless juveniles who frequent motor parks where these drivers rest while on the road. Many of these long-haul drivers have unprotected casual and commercial sex, both homosexual and heterosexual, take drugs, and suffer high rates of STDs. Marginalized, 75% illiterate, and speaking a variety of languages, these populations tend to be largely ignorant of the incurable nature of AIDS. Over 45% of motor park populations are estimated to be infected with an STD, or to have a future re-infection. These drivers are optimal vectors for the spread of HIV both internationally and within Nigeria. MPAEP workers work 6 days/week in the larger interstate motor parks to reach out to their predominantly male customers. They meet a host of primary health needs, and refer STD clients for testing and treatment. Drug use and homosexuality are 2 topics of discussion especially taboo in African society which have nonetheless been vigorously researched by MPAEP. Many drivers are unacknowledged bisexuals who have sex with their motor boys. Workers therefore explain the need to use condoms in same-sex activity without specifically mentioning homosexuality. Many Nigerians deny the existence of HIV and AIDS, are reluctant to speak about sex, and consider MPAEP workers to be intruders. Despite opposition in Muslim- dominated Northern Nigeria, however, program efforts continue.
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  8. 8
    Peer Reviewed

    African women and AIDS: negotiating behavioral change.

    Ulin PR

    Social Science and Medicine. 1992 Jan; 34(1):63-73.

    Data from eastern and central sub-Saharan Africa suggest that women in countries of the region are increasingly at risk for HIV infection. Poverty, malnutrition, uncontrolled fertility, complications of childbirth, and sex behavior associated with male/female rural-urban migration are contributory factors. While much may go into preventing the transmission of HIV, the cooperative participation of both sex partners is certainly required. Further, while campaigns may educate both men and women of the need to limit the number and choice of sex partners, and use condoms during intercourse, they may fail to recognize the highly unfeasible nature of these behavioral changes for the majority of sub-Saharan African women. Marginally included in the development process, and poorly empowered to make decisions regarding male or female sexuality, women are largely subject to the sexual demands and economic rewards of their male sex partners. Husbands and/or other sex partners may strongly resist or refuse to employ condoms during sexual intercourse. Social expectations and/or economic necessity, however, often dictate a woman's compliance with the man's choice despite her desire to use a condom. HIV transmission and the risk to women and children, national development and the status of women, accommodation to economic scarcity, altering high-risk behavior, symbolic approaches to behavior change, and methodological issues in the study of these issues are discussed. Research is then proposed on understanding the meaning of AIDS, the context and norms of decision making, the norms of sexual behavior, the gatekeepers of sexual behavior change, the economic determinants of sexual risk, womens perceptions of control, and gender-sensitive strategies for reducing the risk of AIDS. Such research will provide a better understanding of how women perceive and respond to AIDS prevention interventions, and will constitute a necessary 1st step toward increasing male participation in protecting themselves and their families.
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  9. 9

    Reaching out. India: beyond the monsoon.

    Kavi AR

    AIDS ACTION. 1991 Sep; (15):4.

    Bombay has a teeming and mobile, yet comparatively invisible, population of approximately 600 male prostitutes who ply their trade on and from Chowpatty beach. These men, aged 12-50 years, masturbate and/or perform fellatio for male clients in exchange for financial reward ranging from US$0.75 - $2. Unprotected penetrative anal sex also takes place, though it is generally not acknowledged by the prostitutes. These men and their clients are therefore in great need of information and access to condoms for the practice of safer sex. Both self- and social denial of the practice of anal sex must, however, be overcome. To this end, Bombay Dost, the 1st openly gay organization in India, distributes condoms and information to gay men on railway platforms, and in public toilets and parks. These efforts are unfortunately not welcomed by the prostitutes of Chowpatty beach for fear that acceptance of the intervention would imply their practice of anal sex and a more substantial degree of homosexuality within their subpopulation. Recruiting and training men as health educators from their ranks may be a viable, effective promotion approach. Any interventions must also understand the friendly and supportive, yet competitive, relationships within this community.
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  10. 10

    Women and AIDS. What shall we do with these Uruguayan girls?


    A dilemma exists over who should care for, and where to place 4 delinquent female runaways with AIDS. These girls have also engaged in prostitution, crime, and are addicted to drugs, thus prompting society to view them more as dangerous adults than aberrant adolescents. While they are presently in the hands of the National Institute for Minors (Iname), organizations in Uruguay are ill-equipped to face such challenges presently by these and other HIV+\AIDS adolescents. Discussion of the issue and society's views is suggested. The views of a few civil servants from Iname are briefly presented in the text. They generally disagree with incarceration of such youths, and recommend there placement in a semi-open environment supported by specially trained doctors, psychologists, psychiatrists, and nurses. Ideally, a home-like setting is preferred where these young women and others in similar situations may undergo treatment while carrying on with their lives.
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  11. 11

    AIDS in India: constructive chaos?

    Chatterjee A

    HEALTH FOR THE MILLIONS. 1991 Aug; 17(4):20-3.

    Until recently, the only sustained AIDS activity in India has been alarmist media attention complemented by occasional messages calling for comfort and dignity. Public perception of the AIDS epidemic in India has been effectively shaped by mass media. Press reports have, however, bolstered awareness of the problem among literate elements of urban populations. In the absence of sustained guidance in the campaign against AIDS, responsibility has fallen to voluntary health activists who have become catalysts for community awareness and participation. This voluntary initiative, in effect, seems to be the only immediate avenue for constructive public action, and signals the gradual development of an AIDS network in India. Proceedings from a seminar in Ahmedabad are discussed, and include plans for an information and education program targeting sex workers, health and communication programs for 150 commercial blood donors and their agents, surveillance and awareness programs for safer blood and blood products, and dialogue with the business community and trade unions. Despite the lack of coordination among volunteers and activists, every major city in India now has an AIDS group. A controversial bill on AIDS has ben circulating through government ministries and committees since mid-1989, a national AIDS committee exists with the Secretary of Health as its director, and a 3-year medium-term national plan exists for the reduction of AIDS and HIV infection and morbidity. UNICEF programs target mothers and children for AIDS awareness, and blood testing facilities are expected to be expanded. The article considers the present chaos effectively productive in forcing the Indian population to face up to previously taboo issued of sexuality, sex education, and sexually transmitted disease.
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  12. 12

    Declaring world war on AIDS.

    MacSween S

    DIMENSIONS IN HEALTH SERVICE. 1989 Sep; 66(6):34-5.

    There were over 10,000 delegates from all over the world at the 5th International Conference on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Montreal, Canada. A continuing debate throughout the conference by gay rights and AIDS support groups criticized an international obsession with scientific methods in fighting the epidemic. They indicated little financial and moral support from policy makers for health workers and those in high risk groups. Developing country representatives indicated the major threats of AIDS exposure includes huge numbers of street children, the growing numbers of migrant workers, the rapid expansion of cities, widespread prostitution and homosexuality, inadequate sanitation, and lack of health care resources. In West African cities there are a large number of prostitutes that have AIDS and are uneducated and poor. Researchers on sex behavior indicated that 1 of 3 white middle class males will have sexual activity with a prostitute once in his lifetime, 1 of 4 male college students between 17-22 years of age has had anal sex, and 3 of 4 persons, whether heterosexual or homosexual have had a sexual with the gender opposite to that of their normal partner. The risks for health care workers to not appear to be higher than normal except in the states of New York, Florida, and California where high risk populations are present. Some health care workers may not take precautions because of time constraints and less than 10% of paramedics surveyed took proper precautions at any time.
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