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A community-based bacteriological study of quality of drinking-water and its feedback to a rural community in western Maharashtra, India.
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition. 2008 Jun; 26(2):139-150.A longitudinal study of the bacteriological quality of rural water supplies was undertaken for a movement towards self-help against diseases, such as diarrhoea, and improved water management through increased community participation. Three hundred and thirteen water samples from different sources, such as well, tank, community standpost, handpumps, percolation lakes, and streams, and from households were collected from six villages in Maharashtra, India, over a one-year period. Overall, 49.8% of the 313 samples were polluted, whereas 45.9% of the samples from piped water supply were polluted. The quality of groundwater was generally good compared to open wells. Irregular and/or inadequate treatment of water, lack of drainage systems, and domestic washing near the wells led to deterioration in the quality of water. No major diarrhoeal epidemics were recorded during the study, although a few sporadic cases were noted during the rainy season. As a result of a continuous feedback of bacteriological findings to the community, perceptions of the people changed with time. An increased awareness was observed through active participation of the people cutting across age-groups and different socioeconomic strata of the society in village activities. (author's)
[Unpublished] 1978 Oct.  p.The objective of Botswana's "Our Land" project was to involve the public, and particularly the rural population, in both learning about and voicing their opinion on land-use policies. Initiated in 1975, the media involved were radio, print, flipcharts, and interpersonal communication. The government had developed a land-management policy based on the practices of stock controls, fencing, paddocking, early weaning, salt-and-bonemeal feeding supplementation, and rotational grazing to reverse land degradation. A supplementary goal was to preserve some of the values and features of the traditional land-tenure system as well as to protect the interests of the individuals who own few or no cattle. This educational campaign was created to explain and obtain feedback on land zoning policies and other aspects of the land-management program. There were 4 phases to the "Public Consultation:" a 2-month national speaking tour in the autumn of 1975 with the President and his ministers attending more than 100 community meetings to explain public policy and to field questions from villagers; briefings and seminars for government officers and others held over the July 1975-February 1976 period; a trial-run, the "Radio Learning Group Campaign," and analysis and use of the public responses culled during the Radio Learning Groups, which took place in 1976 and 1977. The Radio Learning Group Campaign included a pilot project, leadership courses, materials preparation, radio broadcasts, and followup radio programs based on responses to earlier broadcasts. Some vital information on the land-zoning proposals and their implications was broadcast to roughly 3200 listening groups averaging 16 members each. Each group, which had a discussion leader, met twice weekly for 5 weeks to discuss the broadcasts and the specially prepared materials. Following each program, group leaders sent a report about the group discussion to the campaign organizers who used the information to develop land-use plans to prepare "answer" programs for broadcast. 3510 groups were established, falling short of the goal of between 4000-5600 groups. The "Public Consultation" revealed that Botswana's population recognizes the problem of overgrazing, identifying the presence of too many cattle as the major cause. A large majority favor the principle of granting exclusive leasing rights to grazing land and want such grazing land situated in the sand-velds where population density is low.
[What is the environment? Viewpoints of the Mafa farmers of the Mandara mountains] Qu'est-ce que l'environnement? Les points de vue des paysans mafa des monts Mandara.
In: Regulations demographiques et environnement. Actes des VIes Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM, 22-24 septembre 1997 - Paris, sous la direction de Laurent Auclair, Patrick Gubry, Michel Picouet, Frederic Sandron. Paris, France, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, 2001 Feb. 67-73. (Etudes du CEPED No. 18)Environment can be defined through a theoretical reflection aimed to distinguish the natural environment from the human or social environment, with both environments acting upon each other. However, that reflection also leads to the consideration of some not necessarily pertinent factors. Another approach consists of taking stock of the main environmental concerns confronting the studied population. In adopting this latter strategy, not only the natural and social environments will be identified, but also all development-related problems linked to the situation challenging the population. This second approach was used in the study of water and environmental problems conducted in 1995 upon a representative sample of 869 subjects in a region of 21,000 inhabitants of Mafa country in the Mandara mountains of extreme northern Cameroon. Research was conducted in a population observation zone, where several demographic and economic studies had previously been conducted. The zone is described, followed by consideration of how to ask the population about its environmental problems, as well as the predominance of the social environment. The annex includes a list of reasons given by research subjects upon their choice of residence.
[The formation of adolescent unions in northeast Brazil] La formation des unions chez les adolescentes du Nordeste (Bresil).
CAHIERS QUEBECOIS DE DEMOGRAPHIE. 2000 Autumn; 29(2):287-306.Data are used from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Brazil in 1986, 1991, and 1996 to study recent trends in union formation among adolescents of the country's Nordeste region. Approximately 45.5 million people inhabit the mainly rural area. Nordeste has a 61% literacy rate, while 54% of households have running water, percentages marked lower than the national average of 85% for both rates. Fertility and mortality levels in Nordeste are among Brazil's highest, 74 infants die per 1000 live births, and the total fertility rate (TFR) is approximately 20% higher than the national average. Between 1986 and 1996, the proportion of female adolescents having children increased from 12% to 17% despite advances in education, urbanization, and access to media. It remains rather rare for never-married female adolescents to bear children, but approximately one-third of first births are the result of prenuptial conception. Early marriage and prenuptial conception by adolescents are thought to be socially unacceptable by one's peers. Results from a survey of men and women aged 15-24 in Salvador, a city in Nordeste, show the ideal marriage age for women to be 20-24 years. Beyond age, educational status was one of the most important determinant factors for first marriage during adolescence among women in Nordeste during 1986-96. Relatively better educated women had a greater tendency to assess and understand the advantages of delaying marriage to realize the future they desire.
HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING. 1996 Dec; 11(4):428-37.Health sectors are being restructured in many parts of the world to shift the financial burden of health care away from the public sector onto individual citizens. This paper describes a study conducted to investigate the willingness of patients and households to pay for rural district hospital services in northwestern Tanzania. Surveys conducted included interviews with 500 outpatients and 293 inpatients at 3 district-level hospitals, interviews with 1500 households, and discussions with 22 focus groups within the catchment areas of the primary health care programs of these hospitals. Information was collected on the willingness to pay fees for certain hospital services, willingness to become a member of a local insurance system, and exemptions for cost-sharing. The surveys found a considerable willingness among respondents to pay for district hospital services. However, most respondents favored a local insurance system over user fee systems, a finding which applied at all places and in all of the surveys. More female respondents favored a local insurance scheme. The conditions needed to introduce a local insurance system are discussed.
Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
[Unpublished] 1989 Oct. , 15 p.A preliminary investigation revealed a large gap between knowledge and practice in the area of family planning in Egypt. Informal opinion leaders have a lot of power and influence in the social system. This study examines the role that informal opinion leaders play in shaping the behavior of rural citizens in Egypt. Communication habits, awareness of the population problem, and how individuals make decisions concerning family planning are also explored. The study employed the use of 50 question interview schedule and 6 questionnaires designed to gather information about the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. It was intended to be representative of the entire country; 400 respondents from 15 different governorates were interviewed, 50% were males and 50% were females. The majority of the respondents were in the 20-40 age group (81.7%), while 3.9% were between 15 and 20 years and 14.4% were 45 years and above. 47% of the respondents were illiterate, 16.5% could read and write, 26.4% has intermediate certificates, and 65 were university graduates. Many of the respondents were housewives, government employees, and farmers. 71.1% of the sample was married. The findings of the study are organized into 6 sections. Section 1 examines communication behavior; exposure to mass media; preferences in radio, TV, journals, and magazines; and attendance at public family planning meetings. Section 2 explores level and sources of family planning information. The third section briefly discusses the priority concerns of the Egyptian public. Religion and family planning is the focus of section 4 and sources of informal consultation in matters of religion, health, and agriculture are reviewed in the fifth section. The last section of the findings examines the credibility of sources of information. The 2 tables in this section list the perceptions of respondents regarding who they consult and the characteristics of these sources. The findings generated several recommendations. It is suggested that communication messages intended to promote family planning should relate the positive effects that family planning has on the standard of living. The consequences of not practicing family in regard to standard of living should also be communicated. It is also recommended that directors of the information, education, and communication centers in the governorates develop a strong liaison relationship with local opinion leaders. A partnership between directors and leaders would give credibility to the messages being delivered by the center. Community meetings should also be organized to encourage discussion about population issues and give support to family planning activities. Finally, training courses for the opinion leaders was suggested.
Lexington, Kentucky, University of Kentucky, Center for Developmental Change, 1985 Jun. vii, 141 p. (CDC Development Papers No. 21)An interdisciplinary study, which incorporates a community-based and multimethod approach in a rural, historically high fertility community of Southern Appalachia, was conducted to describe the current pattern of fertility regulation behavior among the study population and to discern the most significant factors associated with such regulation in this contemporary rural-mountain community. A 3-phase research design was used, combining an inventory of local public opinion about birth control and family planning services with a social survey and related ethnographic field studies on the fertility regulation behavior of individuals and specifically married couples living in the community. In addition, the research team conducted a county-wide survey consisting of interviews with 407 married women of childbearing age (15-45) in intact conjugal units and a follow-up study involving indepth interviews with 107 of the 407 women. The county community hospital and health department have played a major role in the provision and delivery of family planning services to community residents since at least the early to mid-1960s. There is general agreement among community leaders, health professionals, and survey respondents that family planning services are now widely available and accessible to individuals and families throughout the county. There is general community support for smaller families and the decision of young married couples to use birth control and to postpone childbearing for a period of time following their marriage. Also there is general community support for educational activities in secondary schools. Family has declined for several reasons since the 1970s, including a tendency to think of childbearing in terms of socioeconomic conditions and to consider the costs of raising and educating children. Active fertility management practices among married couples appear to be rooted primarily in biological, economic, and family considerations as well as increased knowledge of wives and husbands about birth control and greater availability and accessibility of modern contraceptive methods. 8 out of 10 couples with wives who are not currently pregnant are using a method of fertility management. About half of these couples have chosen sterilization. Almost 2/3 of the wives among couples who were sterilized were either pregnant or just had a baby when the couple first considered sterilization. It is concluded that the contemporary patterns of fertility regulation among married couples in the study community are strikingly similar to those found among most other American couples today.
[Demographic aging and local activities. Study carried out at the request of and with the cooperation of the Authority for Resource Development and Regional Action (DATAR)] Vieillissement de la population et activites locales. Etude effectuee a la demande et avec le concours de la DATAR
Paris, France, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED], 1985. viii, 318 p. (INED Travaux et Documents Cahier no. 109)This study of the impact of demographic aging on local economic activities in rural France is based on fieldwork and analysis in 3 arrondissements selected for their geographic, demographic, and economic diversity: Saint-Girons in the Pyrenees, in which 40% of the population was aged 65 or over, Rochefort on the Atlantic Coast, a traditional attraction for retired persons, and Forcalquier in Provence, which had a higher rate of population growth in the study period than the other areas. The 1st part of the volume consists of a comparative analysis of the relationship between demographic aging and local economic activity in the 3 areas, and also analyzes the process of demographic aging. The 2nd part examines the viewpoints of local authorities and others interviewed personally and by mail concerning problems resulting from demographic aging. During the period under study, 1962-75, the trend toward population aging was always greater in rural than in urban areas, and the rural population showed a tendency to concentrate in specific zones rather than dispersing throughout the sparsely populated territory. The aging trend was more marked in the more urban communes of rural areas. In all 3 arrondissements, overall contractions in the economically active population were always due exclusively to the rural communes, and when there were increases in the active population they were stronger in urban than in rural communes. Only a minority of communes in the 3 arrondissements had increased activity rates between 1962-75. The total active population tended to become younger during the study period because of both the entry of younger workers and the departure of older workers. Women played a preponderant role in the labor force changes in all 3 arrondissements, and the role of agriculture became less important in all 3. Saint-Girons was, in the view of its inhabitants, the arrondissement most lacking in resources and services to assure a good quality of life. Decision makers in all 3 areas expressed a need for new economic activities to revitalize their communities, but few were in favor of increasing the population of elderly as an "activity". Demographic aging appeared to hamper local activity by rendering the affected areas inhospitable to innovation and renewal.
Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)
American Journal of Public Health. 1985 Jan; 75(1):73-5.In this study of 1600 men ages 25-50 from semirural Guatemala, 3/4 had heard of vasectomy. Among these, 54% approved of it. However, the survey reveals a widespread lack of knowledge regarding the procedure, as well as negative perceptions or doublts about its effect on sexual performance, ability to do hard work, health, and manhood. 1/4 of the respondents who knew of vasectomy and who desired no more children expressed interest in having the operation, a finding which raises questions as to the potential (unrecognized) demand for vasectomy in other developing countries. (author's modified)
[Unpublished] 1978. Paper presented at National Workshop on Innovative Projects in Family Planning and Rural Institutions in Bangladesh, Dacca, Bangladesh, Feb. 1-4, 1978. 9 p.The concept of integration of family planning with other development programs has led to the innovation of a multisectoral approach to population control and family planning in Bangladesh. Population education through rural cooperatives is 1 such pilot project currently under implementation. Primary cooperatives are 1 of the few widespread, tangible, and viable rural institutions operating within the village. This paper summarizes the activities undertaken so far to create an awareness of the population problem among rural cooperative and other village leaders and to enlish their support in spreading the message of family planning. The Project has passed through the following stages: 1) The establishment of a viable working infrastructure; 2) The preparation for field activities by raising and formalizing support from locally relevant authorities. The Project team initiated a series of regular contacts through personal visits and correspondence; 3) The development and execution of a 4-month training module for the leaders (based on weekly classes) to achieve acceptability and committment by the leaders; to ascertain attitudes, values, and beliefs in order to gauge what motivational stimuli villagers will respond to; to discover links between previous experiences of change in response to the felt needs of communities and that of contemporary problems; to test various educational practices, materials and motivational approaches; and to help the cooperative manager to motivate his fellow members and counter arguments against family planning likely to be thrown at him. A description of the training sessions is provided. Phase 4 will consist of follow-up and Phase 5 will entail evaluation. The paper concludes with a detailed list of preliminary findings.
Ithaca, New York, Cornell Univ., Center for International Studies, Rural Development Committee, and South Asia Program, 1973. 61 p. (Rural Development Committee. Occasional Papers; No. 1)This report investigates the effects that different aspects of political economy have on the rural development of "Village India." More specifically it examines the consequences of a 1960 Indian Government decision to direct its rural development through 2 new local institutions: a cooperative economic system among Indian farmers and a new form of local self-government called "Panchayat Raj," or rule by Panchayats (local leaders). These 2 local institutions were created with the idea that local self-help and collective attacks on common problems coupled with cooperation between local agencies and the state government would improve the position of the farmer in Indian society. The evolution of government agricultural policy in India is examined. In particular, the author discusses the community development program initiated in India in 1952 and the reaction of the Indian community. 3 basic bodies of opinion are identified: The Civil Servants, The Gandhians and the Planning Commission economists. A description is given of the development of social and power structures of a "traditional" Indian village including the jajmani (landlord) system, the caste panchayat and the vilage panchayat. A picture is given of the current economic and political structure of India. Land is still the major source of economic power in India. The panchayat leader is not perceived by the Indian villages as having legitimate political authority or as their true representative. The villager sees the Pradhan as the conduit of private benefits. The outside world sees him as the leader of a progressive community. The villager might well wish that the panchayat leaders would act for the public good, but their experience is otherwise and the factional basis of electoral politics in the village inhibits such a stance.