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Community attitudes towards sexual activity and childbearing by HIV-positive people in South Africa.
AIDS Care. 2006 Oct; 18(7):772-776.While the ability to lead a healthy sexual life and to choose whether and when to have children are well-established features of reproductive health and human rights, issues surrounding sexual activity and childbearing among HIV-infected women and men have received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a semi-structured, cross-sectional survey at 26 primary health care clinics in South Africa to investigate community attitudes towards sexual activity and reproduction by HIV-infected individuals. Of the 843 women interviewed, slightly less than half (43%, n = 361) thought that people living with HIV/AIDS should remain sexually active if they choose, while 13% (n = 113) said they thought that people living with HIV/AIDS should have children if they wished to do so. In multivariate analysis, negative attitudes towards both sexuality and childbearing were persistently associated with not knowing someone infected with HIV (p = 0.001 and 0.043, respectively). These findings suggest that the sexual and reproductive health rights of HIV-infected women and men may be an important target as part of efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Health policies and services are required to reinforce the reproductive rights of HIV-infected individuals in South Africa and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is most prevalent. (author's)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):167-173.This part of the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study describes findings related to Canadian women's familiarity with, opinions about, and use of various contraceptive methods. Familiarity was almost universal for oral contraceptives and condoms, but less than 60% of women aged 15 to 44 were familiar with the other methods. Respondents had the most positive opinions about oral contraceptives (64% of women had a "very favourable opinion"), were less positive about male sterilization (40%), condoms (37%), and female sterilization (31%) and even less so for each of the other methods cited (less than 15% in all cases). Condoms and oral contraceptives were the most widely used methods among sexually active women using contraception (44% and 43% respectively). These findings confirm the central place of oral contraceptives and condoms in the contraceptive awareness and practices of Canadian women. (author's)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):195-198.Two-thirds of the women in the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study are familiar with sterilization as a method of birth control, and they generally think highly of this method. Among women who have been sterilized or whose partners have undergone vasectomy, rates of satisfaction are very high. The rate of sterilization, 23% overall, includes 10% of women who have had the operation, and 14% of their partners. The increasing use of male sterilization is appropriate, given the low morbidity attached to this procedure. This operation should continue to increase in prevalence, as 75% of women who have decided on future sterilization wish their partner to have the operation. (author's)
Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):189-193.Condoms are not only an effective method of contraception, they are also an effective way to reduce STD/HIV risk. Most Canadian women (91%) are aware of condoms as a method of birth control and most women (75%) have a favourable opinion of condoms. Overall, 21% of Canadian women report that condoms are their current method of contraception. Unmarried women (64%) were more likely than married women (31%) to have used condoms in the previous six months. Condom use is often inconsistent and about 25% of Canadian women carry the misperceptions that monogamy and getting to know and trust your partner eliminates the need to use condoms for STD/HIV prevention. These findings indicate a need to continue efforts to provide Canadians with effective STD/HIV prevention education. (author's)
NIDI/CBGS PUBLICATION. 1994; (30):51-71.The main aim of the present paper is to present data about the impact of increased genetic risk upon reproductive decision-making....The first part of this paper summarizes the results of a number of large follow-up studies evaluating the effect of genetic counseling on family planning decisions. The second part of the paper focuses on prenatal testing for congenital handicaps. After a theoretical discussion of this controversial and rapidly changing topic, the results of a recent study in Flanders [Belgium] are summarized, evaluating community attitudes towards prenatal testing. (EXCERPT)
Motivation and legitimation: living conditions, social control and the reproductive regimes in Belgium and France from the 16th through the 19th century.
Brussels, Belgium, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, 1989. 46 p. (IPD Working Paper 1989-2)The economic, political, and social records of Belgium and France from the 16th through the 19th century were analyzed, and the influence of material living conditions, strategies of property transmission, and attempts by elites to alter popular culture on nuptiality and marital fertility during the period are detailed. Reasons for France's early marital fertility decline are compared with Belgium's more delayed transition. It is stressed that rising household income is not the only path the change. There are many paths to marital fertility transition. Historical analysis reveals that classic factors believed to lead to demographic transition do not explain the first half of the French fertility decline. Demographic transition is also possible as a result of economic and political crises forcing ideological overhaul. Explaining the nature of these alternate paths to change, the role of institutional actors such as religious and political agencies in competing for power and influence to impose and defend their ideologies is pointed out. These are active and dynamic agencies capable of altering strategies when required. Such agencies have had a significant impact on the course of demographic history in the 2 countries examined. Models of demographic change must incorporate the effect of these institutional agencies. The need for joint motivation and legitimation in effecting transition is discussed.
[Natality and family models in Council of Europe countries and in France] Natalite et modeles familiaux dans les pays du Conseil de l'Europe et en France.
REVUE FRANCAISE DES AFFAIRES SOCIALES. 1987 Jan-Mar; 41(1):113-30.The author compares public opinion on fertility and family issues in selected European countries using responses to a 1986 opinion survey conducted for the Council of Europe. Consideration is given to attitudes concerning fertility levels and family size, fertility decline, family policies, employed women and family life, family formation, marriage, cohabitation, and divorce. Discrepancies between attitudes and observed behavior are noted; similarities in opinion among the countries are described in terms of family and fertility norms. In addition to the tables of comparative data, several tables contain data for France alone.
[The place of the child in French society since the sixteenth century] La place de l'enfant dans la societe francaise depius le XVIe siecle.
In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Paris, France, Seuil, 1986. 247-57. (Communications No. 44)The author traces developments in the value placed on children and childhood in French society from the sixteenth century to the present. These developments are seen as factors underlying changes in contraceptive use and reproductive behavior in France. (ANNOTATION)
Washington, D.C., Center for Population Options, 1984. 2 p. (Center for Population Options: The Facts.)Most public opinion polls indicate public support for sexuality education programs, yet the issue is still controversial since opposition groups contend that information and education cause promiscuty. 36% of 1st premarital pregnancies occur in the 1st 3 months of sexual activity, before most young women have ever visited a family planning center or sought effective contraception. A 1978 Gallup poll of 13-18 year olds showed that only 31% had received any contraception instruction, although 43% had received some sex education in school. A 1984 review of studies indicates that although 60-75% of students receive some sexuality education by the time they graduate from high school, fewer than 10% of students participate in a comprehensive program of 40 hours or more. 75% of adults approved of sex education in 1981, 67% said they believed that sex education provides a healthy view of sexuality, and 12% believed that sex education encourages sexual activity among teenagers. A 1976 national survey found that among 15-19 year old women, those who had taken a sex education course were 40% more likely than those who had not taken such a course to know when pregnancy is most likely to occur. A 1979 survey indicated that young people who had taken sex education were no more likely to have sexual intercourse than those who had never taken a course. However, sexually active young women were less likely to have been pregnant if they had taken a sex education class. A 1977 evaluation concluded that the sex education programs studies increased students' knowledge of sexual topics, but generally did not have a significant impact on sexual behavior or pregnancy rates.
Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1980. 246 p. (Sage Library of Social Research Vol. 100)This book's objective is to describe the circumstances surrounding adolescent pregnancy, demonstrate the need for social support, and describe how these supports might be offered. It contains 2 basic thrusts. The early chapters describe the adolescent pregnancy problem and the parallels between the development of the adolescent pregnancy and the potential child maltreater. What follows from this description is the author's sense of methods which will help to reduce the risks generated by participation in either, or both, of these environments. The information presented in this volume suggests that the time for joint study of child maltreatment and adolescent pregnancy has arrived. The demand for correlational study of these 2 social situations is viable for 4 interrelated reasons: both child maltreatment and adolescent pregnancy are social phenomena which demonstrate a dramatic increase in reported incidence in the past 25 years; both child maltreaters and adolescents who have experienced pregnancy appear to share multiple demographic or situational variables, i.e., minority overrepresentation, low income, low education, and high unemployment; the development of the maltreating event and the adolescent pregnancy reveal an unusual similarity, and the intergenerational aspects of both problems could well be strongly related to the snowball effect that these problems have on each other; and if the problems of child maltreatment and adolescent pregnancy are found to be symbiotic in their support of each other, rather than independent responses to a uniform social context, the direction of prevention efforts in these 2 areas could produce beneficial reductions in the rates of both problems. The best hope for the provision of prevention services in adolescent pregnancy rests within an alteration in public fears and misconceptions related to welfare dependency, contraceptive use, sexual education and information, and possibly even a general view of the adolescent in society. There is no question that contraceptive programming for the adolescent can serve as a vital preventive measure. The cornerstone of this service returns the perspective to education. Preventive services must include education for contraception, education for appropriate decision making, and education for survival of a parent and child. The community-based multidisciplinary system for the adolescent pregnancy or parent has been demonstrated to be the most effective model for programming today. It is also the most difficult program to find or or develop. Services to adolescents must begin as soon as community standards will permit them to be initiated to prevent the occurrence of the problem. Only when a collage of services in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation realms is available for the individual adolescent can it be said that a meaningful program exists.
Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)
Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners. 1984 Nov; 34(268):600-2.The immediate responses of physicians and patients to adverse publicity about the possibility of cancer among women using combined oral contraceptives (OCs) were studied in 2 separate locations: the main family planning clinic in the city of Aberdeen, and a provincial general practice of 10 doctors based in the Peterhead Health Centre. A press release was issued 1 day prior to publication of 2 articles in the Lancet of 22 October 1983, reporting possible risks of breast and cervical cancer in some patients on combined OCs. For the 20 workdays immediately after publication, the 16 participating doctors at both locations collected survey data on the ages of patients and outcomes of consultations for all patients who expressed concern about the OCs. In the family planning clinic, 207 consultations with clinic doctors were prompted by anxiety over the pill and accounted for 24.8% of the workload over the 20 days. In the practice, 73 women (7.8% of all the pill users) who attended over the 20 days expressed concern about OCs. The general practitioners reported lower than expected levels of patient response, whereas the family planning clinic required extra sessions to accomodate the temporary upsurge in demand. At each consultation, the doctor either changed the type of pill, changed the method of contraception, or offered reassurance only. At the family planning clinic and practice respectively, the 1st outcome choices were a change of pills for 58.5% and 39.7% of patients, a change of method for 14.0% and 2.7%, and reassurance only for 27.5% and 57.5%. The mean age of patients was 25.1 years at the family planning clinic and 25.6 years at the health center. This limited study suggests that the predicted "pill scare" did not occur at the Peterhead Health Centre, while in contrast the family planning clinic reported a marked increase in workload including inquiries from the press and local radio stations. Factors accounting for the general practitioners' more conservative responses to patients with pill-related anxiety may have included differences in the type of patient seen; the greater time constraints on the general practitioners, whose patients were booked at 6-minute intervals compared to 12-minute intervals in the clinic; or the continuity of care provided by the general practitioners.
London, England, Population Concern, 1984 May. 64 p.This publication highlights some of the major popular misconceptions of population. It is divided into 5 sections: 1) population growth; 2) United Kingdom 3) food; 4) family size; and 5) planned parenthood. Misconceptions of population growth include lack of concern about birth rates, and poverty. It is unreasonable to assume that social and economic development will automatically curb the high levels of population growth in less-developed countries. Population policy should be formulated and implemented as an integral part of socioeconomic planning. In discussing Britain's population misconceptions, chart is used to show the ratio of numbers of children and old people to the working age population. Population matters in Britain are often presented as if population and the national economy were Siamese twins. There is anxiety that if the population stops growing the nation will somehow stagnate. Charts present total food production in the UK and imports and exports. Food concerns include hunger and an unequal distribution of food. World food production is presented along with food losses, and available food divided by the population. Total food production figures are given for the US and Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, Latin America, the Near East, Far East, Asian centrally planned economics, USSR and Eastern Europe, less-developed countries, and more-developed countries. Concerns about family size include the relationship of poverty to large families, child labor, effects of family composition on reproductive behavior, and infant mortality. Many people believe that reduction of infant mortality automatically leads to reduction in family size. Certain groups feel that women do not want fertility control programs, and that unsafe methods of contraception are being pushed at them--chiefly by men. The monograph includes many photographs.
[The problems connected with the unfulfilled wish to have children] Zur Problematik der unerfullten Kinderwunsche
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1983; 9(3):401-11.The advocates of a pronatalist policy use as their major point of argument that the true desire for children [is] greater than the actually prevailing number of children would indicate. Consequently, it should also be in the interest of society to remove the barriers which impede the realization of the wish to have children. The article deals with this contention in a critical manner and questions the correctness of the argument. It is suggested that the results of opinion polls relating to the desire for children convey false impressions and that in view of modern life-styles and goals, it is difficult to find reasons for having several children. "The author nevertheless advocates a general improvement in the situation of families who have several children. Although this should contribute only little to changes in today's reproductive behaviour, such a policy might after all in the long run still have a favourable influence on...values." The geographic focus of the paper is on the Federal Republic of Germany. (summary in ENG, FRE) (EXCERPT)