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Social, economic and health impact of the Community Based Integrated Rural Development (CBIRD) project: an evaluation report.
Nakhon Pathom, Mahidol University, IPSR, 1988 Aug. xvi, 77 p. (IPSR Publication No. 130)This study evaluated the impact (post-program) of the Community-Based Integrated Rural Development project among 40 project and 10 non-project villages during 1984-88 in Nang Rong District, Burirum Province, India. The summary of findings indicates that changes occurred in the economic and social infrastructure in all villages during the observed period. Improvements were evident in the access to electricity, in more paved roads, and in the possession of consumer durables. Sanitation improved. The number of community development groups, such as rice and fertilizer fund groups and women's groups, increased in both project and non-project areas. An increased number of household members worked in factories. Changes occurred in the percentage of households having one or more members engaged in a variety of economic activities. New farm and non-farm activities appeared. The trend was moving away from a subsistence economy. Levels of participation in income generation activities varied from moderate to high depending upon the activity. Adoption of agricultural technology varied depending upon the familiarity to villagers and level of investment. Technologies most likely to be adopted required smaller investments and were more familiar. Improvements were evident in health and nutritional status and greater in project villages. Both village types showed contraceptive use among married women aged 15-49 years to be about 68%. Fertility declined. Prenatal care services increased from 60% to 88% in project villages and 58% to 74% in non-project villages. Use of modern health service units increased, and the percentage of units using trained health personnel for delivery increased. Immunization increased and was greater in project villages. Local villagers, who were directly or indirectly involved in the project, rated the project highly and suggested continuation of those components that were less costly. One criticism was that some income generation schemes may not have helped poor families. Recommendations were made to expand coverage, particularly for income generation that attracts large numbers of people. Market outlets should be improved. The pattern of private and government cooperation might be used as a model for other development activities.
Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.