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  1. 1

    [Public opinion and the labor force participation of married women with children] De publieke opinie ten aanzien van de tewerkstelling van gehuwde vrouwen met kinderen

    Dooghe G; van Loon F

    Bevolking en Gezin. 1981 Sep; (2):179-92.

    This article attempts to determine the nature and magnitude of the effects of some sociodemographic variables on the attitude towards labor force participation of married women with children. The analysis is based on a sample of 1765 individuals who are representative for Flanders. The independent variables taken into account are age, sex, family size, level of education, and religiosity of the respondent. The ideal family employment type (both husband and wife are employed full-time, husband is employed full-time, and wife part-time, only the husband is employed) and the present labor force participation of the woman were also taken into consideration as predictors. Multiple classification analysis and path analysis are used as statistical techniques. The attitude towards labor force participation of married women with children is influenced most strongly by the current employment of the wife herself and mainly by the ideal family type. Families in which both husband and wife are employed full-time show the most favorable opinion towards female employment, as well as respondents whose family type consists of 2 full-time working spouses. The educational level of the respondent is positively and family size negatively related to a favorable attitude towards female labor force participation. Sex, age, and religion of the respondent proved to be unimportant. As treated in this analysis, the main indirect effects consist of the influence of family size and the level of education of the respondent on the attitude towards female employment via the female employment and of the current labor force participation of the woman via the perception of the ideal family type. (author's) (summary in ENG)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Trends and patterns in the attitudes of the public toward legal abortion in the United States, 1972-1978.

    Moldanado SA

    Research in Nursing and Health. 1985 Sep; 8(3):219-225.

    The attitudes of the public toward legal abortion in the US were studied for the period 1972-78. Purposes of the study were to: 1) analyze the trends and patterns in attitudes toward legal abortion in that period; 2) assess the possible effect of selected demographic, socioeconomic, religious, and fertility variables on attitudes towards legal abortion; and 3) determine the relationship between attitudes toward abortion and attitudes toward selected related issues such as premarital sex, sex education in public schools, birth control for teens and for anyone who desires it, and woman's role in the home, business, and politics. The independent variables found to have an effect on attitude toward abortion were: age, sex, marital status, geographic region, size of place, education, occupational prestige, women's employment status, religious preference, denomination, strength of religious preference, frequence of attendance at religious services, number of siblings, number of children, number of children expected in the future, and ideal family size. The data were drawn from the General Social Surveys (GSS) conducted by the National Opinion Research Center each year between 1972-78. A total of 10,652 respondents completed the interviews. Attitudes toward abortion were derived from combining the responses to 6 items which required the respondents to indicate whether or not it should be possible for a pregnant woman to obtain a legal abortion. Using the Guttman scalogram analysis, responses to the abortion items were tested for scalability and were found to scale well. The single largest group of respondents approved for legal abortion for all of the 6 reasons mentioned and the next largest group approved it only for the hard reasons (woman's health, rape, and possible child deformity). Trends in attitudes toward legal abortion were analyzed by percentage distribution. 2 major shifts in trend were noted in the attitudes of the public toward legal abortion in the abovementioned period. In 1973, the percentage of approval rose considerably for each of the 6 reasons. In 1978, the 2nd shift occurred when the percentage of approval declined sharply for all but the reasons of woman's health and rape. Both shifts followed important judicial and congressional decisions made in the US with respect to the abortion issue. Generally speaking, younger, white, never-married respondents, and those who lived in the Pacific, Mid-Atlantic, and New England regions, and in the large central cities were slightly more favorable toward abortion than were their counterparts. Education proved to be the most important socioeconomic variable in explaining the variability of attitude toward abortion. Jews showed the most favorable attitude and Catholics the least favorable attitudes toward abortion. Those who came from small families, or who had small families themselves, or who favored small family size ideal were more favorable toward abortion than those connected to larger families. Significant positive associations were found between attitudes toward premarital sex, sex education in public schools, availability of birth control information for teens, woman's role in the home, business, and politics, and attitudes toward abortion. Variability in attitudes toward abortion among white adults in the US between 1972-78 was best explained by the frequency of attendance at religious services combined with the variables of education, family size ideal, attitude toward available of birth control information to teens, attitude toward sex education in public schools, and attitude toward women's role in the home, business, and politics. (author's modified)
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  3. 3

    Involuntary sterilization in Germany from 1933 to 1945 and some consequences for today.

    Pfafflin F; Gross J

    International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. 1982; 5(3-4):419-23.

    An examination of the aftermath of the law, passed by the German Reichstag in 1933 and providing for the involuntary sterilization of persons with hereditary disease, lead the authors to the conclusion that the tradition that gave rise to the Nazi movement continues into the present but in a more sublimated form. The Law on the Prevention of Hereditary Diseases in Future Generations mandated the sterilization of persons with inborn mental deficiences, schizophrenia, manic-depressive insanity, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, hereditary blindness or deafness, and severe physical deformities. The courts frequently extended the law to include gypsies, alcoholics and other persons defined as antisocial. As a result of nonpublic hearings in specially designated Heredity Health Courts, presided over by a judge and 2 medical experts, it was estimated that 200,000-350,000 persons were involuntarily serilized between 1933-1945. In 1945 the law was repealed, but unlike other Nazi legislation this law was viewed as having been lawfully enacted and orders issued under the law remained valid. retrials could be obtained by the victims, but the retrials determined only whether the legal provisions of the 1933 law had been met. Many victims do not seek retrials because they are ashamed of being sterilized and branded as having a hereditary disease. In recent years, compensations have been awarded to the victims but only if they are willing to come forward and apply. The medical and psychiatric experts are still caught up in the same thought patterns that brought the law into reality as evidenced by their willingess to develop retrial reports using criteria from the 1933 law. Furthermore, when the authors sought access to the case files one of te Heredity Health Courts in Hamburg, they were refused permission for 2 years despite their willingness to protect the identity of victims. The authors attributed these difficulties to the fear of exposure by experts and judges who were involved in these cases. The authors no have access to the files and are examining the cases. Their findings will be reported at a later date.
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