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  1. 1

    Social, economic and health impact of the Community Based Integrated Rural Development (CBIRD) project: an evaluation report.

    Mahidol University. Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]. Community Based Integrated Rural Development Evaluation Project

    Nakhon Pathom, Mahidol University, IPSR, 1988 Aug. xvi, 77 p. (IPSR Publication No. 130)

    This study evaluated the impact (post-program) of the Community-Based Integrated Rural Development project among 40 project and 10 non-project villages during 1984-88 in Nang Rong District, Burirum Province, India. The summary of findings indicates that changes occurred in the economic and social infrastructure in all villages during the observed period. Improvements were evident in the access to electricity, in more paved roads, and in the possession of consumer durables. Sanitation improved. The number of community development groups, such as rice and fertilizer fund groups and women's groups, increased in both project and non-project areas. An increased number of household members worked in factories. Changes occurred in the percentage of households having one or more members engaged in a variety of economic activities. New farm and non-farm activities appeared. The trend was moving away from a subsistence economy. Levels of participation in income generation activities varied from moderate to high depending upon the activity. Adoption of agricultural technology varied depending upon the familiarity to villagers and level of investment. Technologies most likely to be adopted required smaller investments and were more familiar. Improvements were evident in health and nutritional status and greater in project villages. Both village types showed contraceptive use among married women aged 15-49 years to be about 68%. Fertility declined. Prenatal care services increased from 60% to 88% in project villages and 58% to 74% in non-project villages. Use of modern health service units increased, and the percentage of units using trained health personnel for delivery increased. Immunization increased and was greater in project villages. Local villagers, who were directly or indirectly involved in the project, rated the project highly and suggested continuation of those components that were less costly. One criticism was that some income generation schemes may not have helped poor families. Recommendations were made to expand coverage, particularly for income generation that attracts large numbers of people. Market outlets should be improved. The pattern of private and government cooperation might be used as a model for other development activities.
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  2. 2

    Findings from the "Straight Talk" radio program listeners survey.

    Imani MR

    [Unpublished] 1998 Feb. [2], 19, [2] p. (USAID Contract No. 623-0133-C-00-4027-00 DISH)

    This report presents the findings from a public opinion survey among listeners to the Ugandan "Straight Talk" radio program in 1997. The survey included 71 of 145 respondents who had listened to the radio show, written a letter to the program with a return address, and were unmarried. The radio show targeted unmarried youth. Analysis differentiated between those who preferred to listen to the program in English (49.3%) compared to those who preferred to listen in Lugandan or Runyankole. 78.9% of respondents were male, and about 85% of respondents were aged 12-32 years. 78.9% listened to the program weekly. 47.9% listened more often than they did the previous year. 46.5% listened with a friend, and 36.6% listened alone. 70% reported learning something. Most reported learning about AIDS prevention, followed by abstaining from sex, self growth, sexually transmitted disease prevention, the importance of condoms, and family planning. 97% reported behavior change as a result of listening. 33.8% reported abstaining from sex or delaying sex due to the program. 80.3% reported discussing the show with their friends. Most (49.3%) liked "Kafunda Stage" the best, followed by letters (33.8%). "Kafunda Stage" was a 10 minute drama about a group of youth living together and their struggles with daily life. The "Straight Talk" weekly show includes 30 minutes devoted to music, listeners' letters, announcements of events for youth, and a 10-minute episode of "Kafunda Stage." Listeners liked the music the least. 52.1% reported that the radio show had the most information. 31.0% reported that listenership would increase with a time or day change, or with the change to a bi-weekly format.
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  3. 3

    [Educational information on family planning, sex education and related subjects for a telephone "hot line"] Informacoes educativas sobre planejamento familiar, orientacao sexual e temas correlatos por telefone-"hot line".

    Pandolfi AP; Passos EP

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the II Congreso Latino-Americano de Planificacion Familiar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 20-24, 1989. [6] p.

    In 1982 the idea of setting up a telephone hotline to provide family planning and contraceptive information was conceived at the pilot clinic of BEMFAM (Civil Society of Family Welfare in Brazil) in Porto Alegre, and a secretarial telephone was utilized. A 1979 law prohibited the dissemination of messages or information on contraceptive methods, but BEMFAM launched an effort to alter this prohibition. There was an announcement in the newspaper Zero Hora about this service functioning 24 hours a day every day including holidays. A national debate with newspaper headlines about the deleterious effect of inculcating contraceptive education in youths followed the commencement of the hotline, but the positive reaction outweighed the negative comments, and as a result even the penal restriction was modified. During the first weeks of the line's operation, volume exceeded 10 calls/hour. As expansion was necessitated, a new line about the pill was introduced followed by lines on tubal ligation, vasectomy, and sexually transmitted diseases. Information was also provided for a few hours a day on the abstinence method, on diaphragms, condoms, and spermicides, on adolescent contraception, on marital infertility, on frigidity, on menopause, on the prevention of gynecological cancer, on AIDS on pregnancy, and on other topics. The local telephone company also listed these hotline numbers in the telephone directory. Later on, updated telephone equipment with display allowed accurate data collection for statistical purposes. During the 7 years of its functioning the hotline accomplished its stated goals by disseminating information about family planning, cancer prevention, venereal diseases, and other aspects and issues of public health.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    The health guide scheme--the Mysore District, India: the community's perspective.

    Clay RM

    Medical Anthropology. 1985 Winter; 9(1):49-56.

    In order to make health services more accessible at the village level, the State of Karnataka began a Primary Health Care (PHC) Program involving Health Guides (HGs). These are local villagers who are trained in basic health services and who work in their own village. This research was conducted among village community members living in the Mysore District, where HGs had been working for 1 year. A total of 240 household members were interviewed using pretested, semi-structured survey instruments in 30 selected villages. Results indicate that 70% of the household members surveyed were aware of the HG scheme, and 58% said the HG was always or often available to them. According to the official guidelines set down by the State of Karnataka, the village community was requested to recommend 2 or 3 persons considered suitable by them to become HG candidates. However, survey results indicate that 99.6% had not been involved in the selection process in any way. When asked what the 4 most important functions of the HGs were, the household members responded overwhelmingly (98.3%) that the sole function was treating minor ailments. More of the household members surveyed went to the HGs to receive medical services than to any other persons. Of those who made HG contact, 52.2% reported that they were very satisfied and 44.4% said they had been partially satisfied by the medical services they had received. The vast majority of the community reported that they felt very little work was being done in the area of prevention (soakage pits, sanitary latrines, water supply, family planning and immunization). But these items were not perceived to be very important and seem to have little impact on the community's acceptance of the HG scheme and on its further continuation and expansion. A large majority of those interviewed wanted the HGs to visit their homes more often for health-related services. 20% of the community household members said they would be in favor of financing the HG honorarium or the HG drug supply, currently provided by the Government of India and the State of Karnataka. Finally, 92.1% felt the HG scheme should be continued in their area and 91.7% felt it should be expanded to other areas of the State. Suggestions are offered regarding ways to improve the community participation in this pilot area. Examples include regular home vistis by the HGs to all households using complete up-to-date household surveys; pictorial signs aroung the village area to advertise HG services; spending more time during training sessions on preventive aspects of the HG job and the adequate explanation of the philosophy of the HG scheme, with particular stress on the importance of preventive and promotive services. Such steps will ensure relevancy of the programs, ensure success of immediate activities, and pave the way for long-term changes in the communities themselves.
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  5. 5

    Family Welfare Programme in India: policies, organization, strategies and evaluation.

    Veerabhadriah MM

    In: Report of the seminar on Regional Consultation on Updating the Motivation Strategy, 1st to 4th October 1979. Colombo, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Indian Ocean Regional Office, 1979? 133-54.

    This overview of the family welfare program in India begins with a discussion of the imbalance between birth and death rates brought about by improved control of communicable diseases which has led to rapid population growth in most of the developing world. The evolution of India's population policy is briefly outlined, and changes in policy in the various 5-year plans are indicated. The salient features of the present population policy are listed. The organization of the family welfare program at the national headquarters and the state and union territory level is described. Family planning activities at the postpartum centers, the role of voluntary organizations, and research and training activities are discussed. The motivational strategy attempts to resolve ambivalence concerning the use of family limitation measures. A climate favoring family limitation is developing, aided by the use of mass media to restore credibility to the program following the recent setbacks. Strategies to desensitize the topic of birth control in the public mind are listed. Efforts to reach the people directly will be stressed. The organization and aims of orientation camps for village leaders are described. Some successful strategies tested in Bangalore are discussed. The aims, methods, and results of existing evaluation studies are indicated.
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  6. 6

    Survey data as historical documents: a rationale for secondary analysis.

    Back KW

    In: Godwin, R., ed. Comparative policy analysis: the study of population determinants in developing countries. Lexington, Massachusetts, D.C. Heath, 1975. p. 157-172

    During the past 20 years, which have been a period of change in the acceptance of fertility control, a number of public opinion surveys were conducted in many countries. While these studies were often limited by the methodology used, they may still be viewed as historical documents that are indicative of general social conditions, which may in turn be represented as a set of abstract variables. The techniques of scale analysis, multivariate analysis, and clustering are the tools appropriat e for this task; rank order of size or approximate order of magnitude is the result to be achieved. An example is given using 2 sets of multinational surveys, one by USIA and the other by CELADE.
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  7. 7

    Mass media and human services: getting the message across.

    Brawley EA

    Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1983. 240 p. (Sourcebooks for Improving Human Services Vol. 2)

    An attempt is made to demonstrate how human service public relations, public education, and prevention activities can be carried out through the media. Initially, the book presents some evidence that more public education efforts on the part of human service workers are necessary and what kinds are possible. It then provides specific guidelines, strategies, and tools for carrying out a variety of public education activities, all of which are within the capabilities of the average human service practitioner, either as an individual or as a member of a human service organization or group. Attention is directed to organizing for action and planning media resources as well as working with the print media and opportunities in radio and television. A chapter is devoted to evaluation mechanisms, documenting success in achieving media coverage as well as evaluating the quality and impact of the media messages. Any effort to promote public understanding of social issues, community problems, human service programs, and the concerns and activities of human service workers can be enhanced significantly by the appropriate use of the mass media.
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