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  1. 1
    075719

    The UN role in ecological security and sustainable development.

    Soedjatmoko

    Development. 1989; (4):52-5.

    The Brundtland Commission on Environment and Development has contributed the critical concept of sustainable development. The objective at present for developing countries is to deal with the limits of the global life support system's capacity to absorb the impact of human activity. In each country and in a cooperative global effort, attention must be given to the impact of global warming for the survival of mankind. Development must follow the priority of human survival. Carbon dioxide emissions which have a substantial impact on global warming need to be limited or held constant. It has been suggested that sharp limits would require a sharp reduction in economic growth for both developing and developed countries. A collective effort is needed which aims to increase energy efficiency globally, to reduce destructive energy sources, and to develop alternative energy generation and technology. Scientific cooperation is needed for understanding the impact of weather changes on agricultural patterns and animal life. Notwithstanding the problem of safe technologies, population growth must also be curbed. Migration flows already reflect the income disparities. The gap between rich and poor must be narrowed. A mandate has been proposed for expansion of the UN Security Council to include environmental crises, and to replace the mandate of the Trusteeship Council with maintenance of the global environment. A constraint is the lack of representation of Third World countries in economic summits. The Group of 5 or 7 is concerned with the coordination of the economies for their respective countries. International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank issues can be de facto vetoed by the Group of 5 or 7. Longterm economic and political sense dictates a more cooperative arrangement in the UN with developing countries, such as occurs within the IMF. There is a lack of accountability to any body of the global economy and the priority access of giant corporations. National, cultural, and religious continuity is desired. Nongovernmental organizations must be included in the UN network and regional bodies. With the decline in world detente, regional and indigenous conflicts will emerge. The question is how prepared is the UN or the world to make the necessary changes.
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  2. 2
    091100

    The population question in developing countries.

    Pathak GS

    In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 11-6.

    The rapid growth of population around the world has become the focus of international concern. This conference, which focuses on the theme of population growth and human development, uses a 3-fold perspective to understand and analyze population issues. 1st, human solutions to the population problems, which are essentially the problems of ordinary men and women who have their own private histories and recognizable identity as members of a family group, are recommended. 2nd, no population policy can be effectively formulated and implemented in isolation. It is always as an integral part of the total socioeconomic development strategy of the country. 3rd, the conference, which was organized by a voluntary organization with assistance from the UN and other international organizations, is a sign of the increasing realization that population problems cannot be solved except through international cooperation. A basic concern of the developing countries of Asia is to bring about a decline in fertility rates. Governments and voluntary organizations have collaborated in various action programs designed to promote the kind of social atmosphere that is required for responsible decision making in voluntary family limitation. The experience of most of the developing countries of Asia with respect to the sociocultural changes, which are thought to be conducive to the small family norm, has not been encouraging. Fertility control has been imposed from the top, and has not been understood by the common people, who are often illiterate and influenced by the customs of tradition. Through social education, public opinion, and legislation, the problems of excessive population can be conquered.
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  3. 3
    266277

    Report on national seminars on population and development, June-July 1979.

    Sri Lanka. Ministry of Plan Implementation. Population Division

    Colombo, Sri Lanka, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Division [1980]. 64 p.

    The Ministry of Plan Implementation organized a series of seminars for leaders of public opinion as a prelude to the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development which was held in Sri Lanka from Aug. 28 to Sept. 1, 1979. The objectives of these seminars were to raise public awareness and concern on the linkages between population and development and to forumlate basic guidelines for the briefing of the Ceylon Parliamentary delegation to the International Conference. These seminars consisted of reports on: population and development medical personnel; population and development nongovernment organizations; seminar report on population development-ayurvedic physicians; population and development government agents and senior government officials; population and development mass media personnel and population and development parliamentarians. The series of seminars, deliberations and discussions surfaced the problems confronted in the organization of population and family planning activities in Sri Lanka. Dennis Hapugalle stressed the need for sterilization programs in rural areas and qualified physicians. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, as a nongovernment organization concentrates on information, education, and research in family planning, in cooperation with the government's clinical services. Its programs consist of clinical services for family planning and subfertile couples; information education services; community level programs; population education for youth; women's development activities; nutrition programs; training programs, environmental and population laws; and research. A. W. Abeysekera spoke of the role of the mass media in the diffusion of knowledge as well as the difference between development and growth. Growth relates to national income and can be defined as an increase in aggregate output. Development includes changes in social structure and allocation of resources. Deficiencies in the delivery of services were discussed by Neville Fernando. Family planning services should be given very high priority.
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