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  1. 1

    Study of the invoiceless condom market in Turkey. Draft report.

    ZET Market Research Services

    [Unpublished] 1990 May. [3], 72 p.

    A study was conducted to aid in developing a contraceptive social marketing project for Turkey. While the project will promote birth control pills, condoms, and possibly IUDs, this study aimed to help guide exclusively in designing the marketing strategy of the project condom brand. Specifically, it was undertaken to obtain an estimate of the overall size of invoiceless condom sales in Turkey, to better understand the nature and quality of products passing through these unofficial channels, and to better understand how and why this distribution system works. Study results are based upon interviews of 105 respondents in 4 cities, including condom importers, wholesalers, and street vendors. Condoms for Turkish markets overall are largely imported legally by 5 principal firms. Illegal imports comprised only 1% of legal supplies in 1989. 81% of street vendors then secure condoms for public sale from wholesalers who purchase directly from importers or large wholesalers. An estimated 150 such street vendors are in Turkey, selling a total 94,650 condoms/week to largely middle-income, married men aged 20-35 years. Together, street vendor sales account for 13% of the nation's commercial condom market. Customers are thought to generally prefer purchasing from vendors due to their lower prices, higher brand variety, and greater sense of privacy. Vendors, on the other hand, are able to undercut pharmacy condom prices while realizing a larger average profit margin. Study findings suggest that street vendors will not be a source of competition, but that their presence and activity must be reckoned with in developing and conducting the project. Specific project design recommendations are provided in the report.
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  2. 2

    Retail audit of the Turkish condom market. Draft report.

    ZET Market Research Services

    [Unpublished] 1990 Apr. [2], 103 p.

    This study was conducted to help guide the design of the marketing strategy component of a condom brand for a contraceptive social marketing project in Turkey. Specifically, it was undertaken to estimate category sales, brand sales, market shares, prices, inventory practices, type of outlets, and distributor coverage of the Turkish commercial condom market; and to better understand retailer margins, pricing structures, inventory practices, and in-store placements and promotions of condom products. Baseline information will therefore be obtained on the nature of the condom market before the introduction of the project product. The audit was conducted in 150 urban pharmacies over 6 cities. Pharmacies were found to be the major retial outlets for condoms, with over 90% of those audited selling condoms over the study period. 17-25 million/year are sold through these channels at the average price of 390TL/condom. High profit margins exist at each level of distribution. Jellia held the largest market share at 58%, with inadequate distribution generally observed for the major brands. Condoms were visible in 49% of selling pharmacies, though advertisement materials were found in only 2% of audited pharmacies. Some pharmacists are reluctant to display condom advertisements for fear of offending conservative customers. Finally, pharmacies generally do not maintain large inventories of condoms. Recommendations applicable to the development of the project are included in the report.
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  3. 3

    Democracy and gender: a practical guide to USAID programs.

    Hirschmann D

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Gender in Economic and Social Systems Project [GENESYS], 1993 Feb. [5], 56 p. (GENESYS Special Study No. 9; USAID Contract No. PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00)

    This reference manual, while considered to be of wider interest, was intended primarily to facilitate incorporation of a gender analysis into the design, implementation, or evaluation of any of the policy, programs, or projects of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) Democracy Initiative (DI). The introductory portion of the manual contains general information on USAID's DI, the 1991 policy paper that launched the DI, and how the DI has been interpreted by USAID Bureaus. Part 1 describes aspects of the use of this guide, its purpose, sources, underlying logic, and likely adaptations. Part 2 considers key preliminary issues such as why gender analysis is crucial; the importance of gaining an understanding of local culture and religion; integration versus segregation of gender components; the necessity of including gender analysis in all essential steps of the DI; and the necessity of including women and women's groups in the choice of appropriate, representative individuals and institutions for DI consultations and negotiations. The third part of the manual considers ways to incorporate gender concerns with the following components of the DI: administration of justice/legal reform, strengthening civil society, civil-military relations, the country political/democratic assessment, democratic values, decentralization of government, elections, governance, human and civil rights, leadership training, the mass media, political party support, private sector development, public opinion polling, representative institutions, and trade unions. Part 4 looks at the issue of which democracy indicators USAID should choose to measure progress and the necessity of including gender concerns in the analysis of impact and performance indicators.
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  4. 4

    Condoms: is the media revolution for real?

    Harvey PD

    In: Condoms in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The proceedings of a conference held in February 1987 in Atlanta, Georgia, sponsored by the American Social Health Association, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, and Family Health International. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, American Social Health Association, 1989 Dec. 55-6.

    Condom advertising on the radio and in many of the mainstream print publications in the US remains extremely controversial. The spread of HIV/AIDS, however, has increased the acceptability of such advertising. Moreover, condoms are now occasionally mentioned on prime-time television programs. AIDS has had an impact upon advertising and it seems clear that advertising will have an impact upon AIDS and other STDs. Sustained condom advertising should substantially increase condom use if not bring about widespread changes in American heterosexual behavior. Although the acceptance of condom advertisements has slowed after the initial wave of progress in 1986, the trend toward the liberalization of advertising with regard to condoms should continue. The author stresses that condom advertising is for an entire product line which should increase the total market demand for condoms. The effect of the sustained condom marketing campaign in Bangladesh is noted. The author also points out that even if the media accepts condom advertising, there will be no massive marketing effort. With total condom sales in the US probably no greater than $200 million per annum, it is unrealistic to expect condom manufacturers to spend more than $5 million per year on advertising. In comparison, the cigarette industry has an annual advertising budget of $2 billion. It is clear that condom advertising will be able to provide only a very small fraction of the media coverage needed to effectively boost condom demand and use. Finally, overly stringent and cumbersome instructions on condom use must be revised to encourage routine use.
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  5. 5

    The state of the environment, 1985.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, France, OECD, 1985. 271 p.

    The 1985 state of the environment is presented in terms of the progress and concerns, the pressures on, and the responses to the state of the environment. Concern is expressed for the condition of the air, inland water resources, the marine environment, forest resources, wild life resources, solid waste, and noise. The policy agenda is defined and includes past problems identified in 1979 as well as new concerns. The economic and international context in which these problems should be considered is established. The pressures on the environment are reflected in the following sectors: agriculture, energy, industry, and transportation. Responses pertain to the government, enterprises, and the public. The objective is to help member states define, implement, and evaluate environmental policies, and to include environmental concerns decision making. Member countries of the Group on the State of the Environment have 17% of the world's population and account for 69% of the gross domestic product and world trade and 75% of forest product imports. Achievements are identified as reduced urban air pollution by sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide; improved water quality; decreased oil tanker accidents and oil spills; improved management of municipal waste, reduced use of DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury compounds; and improved protection and management of some species of game, flora, and fauna. Progress has been unevenly distributed throughout the member region, by level, problem, and country. Air quality problems pertain to sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide and fluorocarbon emissions. Urban areas are still problematic. Remaining problems for inland waters the marine environment, and for hazardous substances are also identified. Progress has been slow, as has economic growth, but nonetheless environmental policies must be strengthened. New pollution concerns are identified as "new" pollutants, diffuse emission of pollutants, multiple exposure, and cross-media pollution. Natural resource concerns are interdependent with economic development and involve water, land, wildlife, and forest resources. The 3 major longterm risks are related to health, to the environment from industrial accidents, and to the environment from natural disasters. Profound structural changes are ahead. More accurate environmental data is needed based on existing systems and relevant to policy makers. The public is supportive of environmental policy and has a right to know.l
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  6. 6

    Family planning goes public.

    Merritt AP

    INTEGRATION. 1992 Jun; (32):41-3.

    The Center for Family Orientation (COF), a private family planning agency with clinics in 8 provinces of Bolivia, initiated a bold, scientifically planned, and successful mass media campaign in 1986. As late as 1978 the Bolivian government had been hostile to COF. The Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services helped COF determine that the Bolivian public and its leaders were open to more information about family planning. Bolivia, the poorest Latin American country, then had 7 million people, expected to double in 27 years. There are 2 distinct indigenous groups, the Aymara and the Quechua, and Spanish-speaking people, centered in the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz, respectively. Only 4% of couples use modern family planning methods. Initial surveys of 522 opinion leaders, 300 family planning users, focus groups of users, and a population survey of 1300 people in 8 provinces showed that 90% wanted modern family planning services. Radio was chosen to inform potential users about COF's services, to increase clinic attendance, and to involve men. To obtain support from public leaders, 10 conferences were held. The 1st series of radio messages focused on health benefits of family planning and responsible parenthood; the 2nd series gave specific benefits, information on child spacing, breast feeding, and optimal ages for childbearing. Besides 36,800 radio spots broadcast on 17 stations, booklets, posters, calendars, promotional items, and audiotapes to be played in public busses, were all designed, pretested, and revised. New acceptors increased 71% during the 11-month campaign. Success of the project influenced the start of the National Reproductive Health Project and new IEC efforts planned through cooperation of public and private institutions.
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  7. 7

    The use of private sector marketing research techniques in CSM projects in the developing world.

    Tipping S

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the IIDSS Conference, August 18-20, 1989. [15] p.

    The author explains the operations of and rationale behind the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project of the Futures Group. Using indigenous private sector company commercial channels in developing countries, SOMARC helps develop advertising campaigns and other marketing approaches to sell branded condoms, oral contraceptives, vaginal foaming tablets, and sometimes IUDs. Commercial marketing research techniques are employed in these exercises, and include developing and evaluating advertising and marketing strategies, designing and testing advertising messages, and selecting and improving product names and packaging for their contraceptive products. Although technical assistance is generally required in most countries, local companies are nonetheless depended upon to develop and manage the projects overall. The importance of brand image research in reaching target markets is discussed, followed by examples of testing and evaluating marketing strategies, product names, package testing, and advertising messages.
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  8. 8

    American physicians and birth control, 1936-1947.

    Ray JM; Gosling FG

    Journal of Social History. 1985 Spring; 18(3):399-411.

    The transition from resistance to acceptance of birth control in the US can be characterized as a 3 stage process, with each period facing its own issues and choices. The 1st stage -- the fight over birth control in the early 20th century -- has been documented by historians like James Reed, Linda Gordon, and David Kennedy. A 2nd stage, approximately the years from 1936-60, has not been fully explored although the period was crucial in shaping the current system of contraceptive health care. This discussion focuses on this transitional period, particularly its 1st decade, 1936-47. Physicians' attitudes, as revealed through American Medical Association (AMA) policy and a national survey conducted in 1947, are considered in relation to reported data on clinic and private practice. This evidence reveals that despite the liberalization of laws and public opinion in the mid-1930s, contraception did not become widely available until after 1960 -- the beginning of the 3rd stage in the history of American contraception -- and that the restriction of birth control information during the period was traceble in large part to the medical profession. Analysis of the 1936-47 decade, particularly with regard to the concerns of doctors, provides a framework for understanding the forces that affected contraceptive health care in the mid 20th century and suggests conditions that continue to shape the politics of birth control. In 1936, when the AMA's committee on contraception submitted its 1st report, it was clear that legal and public opinion had moved decisively toward more liberal attitudes concerning birth control. In 1937 the AMA passed a qualified endorsement of birth control, indicating that the organized medical profession as represented by the AMA held views on birth control at the beginning of the 2nd stage that were more conservative than those of most middle-class Americans. Its conservatism was challenged by lay groups who threatened to circumvent standard office practice if physicians failed to modify their views. Public opinion and behavior thus had a demonstrable effect on medical attitudes. 10 years after the AMA resolution a suvey found that more than 2/3 of physicians approved of contraception for any married women who requested it. The 1937-47 period witnessed 2 important changes in medical attitudes toward contraception: the profession's public, though cautious, endorsement of birth control; and the apparent adoption of liberalized standards for the prescription of contraceptive materials. The period also was a time of tremendous growth for the new birth control clinics that offered services to women who could not afford private care. Available evidence suggests that physicians' attitudes toward contraception, and particularly toward birth control clinics, were more important than either laws or public opinion in limiting the availability of those contraceptives considered most efficient (and most compatible with sexual pleasure) between 1936-60.
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  9. 9

    Social marketing: dimensions of power and politics.

    Jones S

    European Journal of Marketing. 1982; 16(6):46-53.

    The effective us of marketing strategies by nonprofit organizations necessitates involvement in political activities, i.e., mobilizing power to influence others. Most nonprofit groups and marketing experts who work for nonprofit groups are not sufficiently aware of the value of using the tactics of politics to win support for their causes. The experiences of a voluntary group which used politics and power to develop a program aimed at assisting unemployed black youth were presented. The group wanted to establish a workshop to provide training for hard core unemployed youth. The group needed to raise funds to set up the workshop. The 1st step was to identify a target group of potential donors, and then to develop a strategy for selling their product, i.e., the worthiness of the workshop project. The group decided to direct its fund raising activities toward organizations in the community rather than individuals. The market was segmented, and the product was presented differently to differ groups. Initially, the voluntary group was powerless. Political tactics were subsequently used to legitimate the group and its product. A network of influencial sympathizers, primarily clergymen and politicians, was established. This network helped the group garner the support of the targeted donor organizations. The threat of sanctions was used to gain support for the project, but sanctions were applied with considerable care. For example, the support of local politicians was obtained partially by implicitly threatening them with the possibility of bad publicity if they failed to promote the project. Voluntary organizations are not immune to internal conflict and competition. In introducing a marketing perspective into a voluntary organization, internal politics must be taken into account. In the case presented here, the marketer had to decide who in the organization to align himself with and then develop strategies to increase his influence and the influence of his allies. In organizing and operating the workshop it was sometimes necessary to engage in the political strategies of negotiation and compromise to settle conflicts arising out of the differing perspectives of the project's donors and clients (the unemployed youth). In summary, a group which seeks to exert changes in the attitudes, values, and behavior of another group must involve itself in the political tactics of negotiation, bargaining, legitimizing, and manipulating. Marketers are advised to accept as clients only those nonprofit organizations with which they share common values. They may then abandon their customary role of dispassionate expert and adopt the more effective role of committed power broker.
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