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London, England, London School of Economics, Department of Social Policy, . 33 p.Newspapers are arguably the oldest media, and despite a decline in relative importance in most developed countries, are still growing strongly in most democratic developing countries, forming one of the most widely available channels of information. Westoff and Rodriguez refer to the appeal of newspapers, particularly for ‘agencies committed to promoting behaviour change’ as rooted ‘in their wide coverage and in their potential cost-effectiveness,’ particularly in developing countries. Other forms of mass media are still very immature in most developing countries and access to these media is normally highly stratified by education, income and place of residence. The focus here is on the content of the daily newspaper, and not its production or consumption. What appears in print may be influenced by a very wide range of historical, social, political, economic and cultural factors and the meaning of newspaper content may alter between the producer or as it is understood by the reader (and then translated and re-communicated). A newspaper should not be seen in isolation, rather ‘as one set of social institutions, interacting with other institutions within the wider social system.’ The complex process of knowledge acquisition, absorption, retention and circulation by the consumer is acknowledged but not investigated here. It is not assumed that ‘people learn about an idea or behaviour from mass media and then immediately put it into practice.’ However, the impact of the press on people’s beliefs is ‘one of the most enduring concerns of mass communications research.’ (excerpt)
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1988; 15:6.This Hubei, China, Circular, issued near the end of 1988, provides the following: "The population growth situation in our country is grim. Since 1986, the natural population growth rate has risen continuously. To draw the prompt attention of the whole party and the entire people to the issue of our population, all localities must seriously unfold the activities of publicizing family planning (FP) this winter and next spring, in coordination with education in current affairs. It is necessary to publicize FP in an all-around way and with accuracy, and the activities of publicizing must be carried out effectively in a solid and deep-going way. In the rural areas, stress must be placed on areas where FP work is not carried out well and where there is a prevailing tendency toward early marriage, early child-bearing, and extra-budgetary births. In cities, publicity and education must be conducted especially among the transient population, individual households, and jobless households. During the period of publicity, large-scale street-corner publicity activities must be carried out in cities and towns so as to create strong public opinion and to combine the endeavor to publicize current affairs and policies with the effort to popularize knowledge about contraception and birth-control, to execute measures of contraception and birth control, and to establish FP associations in the countryside." (full text)
HYGIE. 1993 Mar; 12(1):5-9.This article describes four radio soap operas, which were produced as part of larger family planning campaigns in The Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. A summary is provided of the program evaluations of impacts on listenership, interpersonal communication, knowledge and attitudes, and behavior. All dramas are 15 minutes in length and were broadcast one or twice a week. The main characters are average men and women who must face the difficulties of raising large families or couples benefiting from small families. Modern and traditional values are contrasted. Evaluation includes a baseline survey, a follow-up survey, a survey of new acceptors, services statistics, interviews with listeners, and marketing surveys. All four dramas were popular. Audience feedback indicated people enjoyed the programs. Listenership was lowest in Nigeria, however low listenership could have been related to poor reception from rural battery operated radios or a power outage in urban areas. The program led to considerable discussion about family planning between friends and spouses. Discussion was widespread in Nigeria and Zimbabwe. Survey knowledge and attitude increases were evident in The Gambia. Knowledge and attitude changes affected both men and women and were greater among uneducated survey respondents. Results from other countries confirmed the changes in knowledge and attitude about family planning. The programs had a dominant impact on women. The findings are viewed as supportive of radio dramas as effective tools in attitude and behavior change about family planning. In The Gambia prevalence of contraceptives increased between the two surveys from 19.3% to 30.4%. Persons who listened to the radio dramas were most likely to use contraception than those who did not hear the shows. The program increased the number of new acceptors. The radio drama format was more effective in reaching men than pamphlets and motivational talks.
CHINA POPULATION TODAY. 1991 Dec; 8(6):2-3.Commentary is provided on the implementation of China's Three Priorities in strengthening family planning (FP) for population control. The Three Priorities issued by the Party Central Committee of China and the State Council refers to the emphasis on 1) "publicity and education rather than economic disincentives," 2) contraception rather than induced abortion," and 3) "day to day management work rather than irregular campaigns." The expectations are that leaders at all levels should be active, steadfast, patient, and down to earth. Improvements in management lead to more constant, scientific, and systematic FP. Family planning should be voluntary. The achievement is not just population control but better relations with the Party and cadres, which leads to social stability and unity. The directives have been well thought out and are to be resolutely carried out. It was stressed in April 1991 by the General-Secretary and the Premier that coercion would not be tolerated in FP work. The confidence of the masses must be relied upon. The success of FP is guaranteed with the practice of these directives. Constancy of education and publicity is the key work. There should be a strong population awareness and the awareness of available resources/capita, and also an understanding and firm command of the principles and methods of better implementation. FP has an effect both on the fundamental interests of the country and immediate personal interests. The task is expected to be difficult because traditional ideas are still strong. The country is just at the beginning stages of socialism. A social security system is not a reality and farmer's educational attainment is not high. Productivity in the rural areas is underdeveloped. There is a contradiction between childbearing intentions of some farmers and the government requirements of FP. In order for the people to understand government FP policy, painstaking and meticulous education must be carried out to explain why FP is indispensable and helps them overcome their difficulties. Their enthusiasm must be aroused. The key is the correct attitude toward the people. FP is a service. In an ideological revolution such as this FP approach social customs and practices will be changed. The process of implementing FP is the process of building socialist civilization.
[Unpublished] 1988 Dec. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Conference of the Population Association of Nigeria (PAN), on "Viable National Population Census: The Road to 1991" sponsored by the National Population Commission, University of Lagos, Conference Centre, Lagos, 6-10 December, 1988. 15 p.A hitch free population census has for a long time eluded the Nigerian society. Instead of generating useful data for meaningful social and economic planning, population censuses in Nigeria always tend to produce doubtful figures, and generate political rancor and controversy which threatens the unity of the country. This paper anchors part of the problem of successful population enumeration in the country on ignorance of population issues which arises from lack of proper population education in the society which is the major obstacle to effective census education. Popular misconceptions held about population and the concern with population issues in Nigeria affect understanding of the need for and purpose of the census, and consequently determine its success as a statistical exercise. It is hypothesized that the higher the level of ignorance in society, the greater the chances of the census being misconstrued. And, conversely, the lower the level of ignorance, the higher the chances of the census being properly understood and regarded as a statistical exercise of significant societal importance. Population education could foster understanding of population processes and issues, thus, correcting some of these misconceptions. The objective of population education is to increase understanding and awareness of population issues and problems. Population education could change attitudes and make for more rational decision making concerning procreation and could improve understanding of the census in Nigeria. Long-term strategies for proper census education in Nigeria include increasing the proportion of educated Nigerians through mass formal education, and broadening the scope of general education in the country to include aspects of population education at various educational levels. The short-term strategies include increasing population awareness in the Nigerian society through population education by informal and non-informal approaches. For effective publicity on the census, aspects of promotion should include appeal for cooperation from the public through available public media, posters, filmstrips, and emphasis on authenticity of the census and confidentiality of the information obtained. (author's modified)
Lucknow, India, Lucknow University, Population Research Centre, 1985. iv, 57 p. (Population Research Centre Series B: Survey Report no. 23)This study is concerned with the opinions of university students in India with regard to population issues, including family building at the individual level. Data are from a survey of 728 students at six universities in Uttar Pradesh in 1983. Topics covered include family size ideals, son preferences, ideal age at marriage, and actual family building patterns among married students. The implications for population education are discussed. (ANNOTATION)
In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 11-6.The rapid growth of population around the world has become the focus of international concern. This conference, which focuses on the theme of population growth and human development, uses a 3-fold perspective to understand and analyze population issues. 1st, human solutions to the population problems, which are essentially the problems of ordinary men and women who have their own private histories and recognizable identity as members of a family group, are recommended. 2nd, no population policy can be effectively formulated and implemented in isolation. It is always as an integral part of the total socioeconomic development strategy of the country. 3rd, the conference, which was organized by a voluntary organization with assistance from the UN and other international organizations, is a sign of the increasing realization that population problems cannot be solved except through international cooperation. A basic concern of the developing countries of Asia is to bring about a decline in fertility rates. Governments and voluntary organizations have collaborated in various action programs designed to promote the kind of social atmosphere that is required for responsible decision making in voluntary family limitation. The experience of most of the developing countries of Asia with respect to the sociocultural changes, which are thought to be conducive to the small family norm, has not been encouraging. Fertility control has been imposed from the top, and has not been understood by the common people, who are often illiterate and influenced by the customs of tradition. Through social education, public opinion, and legislation, the problems of excessive population can be conquered.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Division . 64 p.The Ministry of Plan Implementation organized a series of seminars for leaders of public opinion as a prelude to the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development which was held in Sri Lanka from Aug. 28 to Sept. 1, 1979. The objectives of these seminars were to raise public awareness and concern on the linkages between population and development and to forumlate basic guidelines for the briefing of the Ceylon Parliamentary delegation to the International Conference. These seminars consisted of reports on: population and development medical personnel; population and development nongovernment organizations; seminar report on population development-ayurvedic physicians; population and development government agents and senior government officials; population and development mass media personnel and population and development parliamentarians. The series of seminars, deliberations and discussions surfaced the problems confronted in the organization of population and family planning activities in Sri Lanka. Dennis Hapugalle stressed the need for sterilization programs in rural areas and qualified physicians. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, as a nongovernment organization concentrates on information, education, and research in family planning, in cooperation with the government's clinical services. Its programs consist of clinical services for family planning and subfertile couples; information education services; community level programs; population education for youth; women's development activities; nutrition programs; training programs, environmental and population laws; and research. A. W. Abeysekera spoke of the role of the mass media in the diffusion of knowledge as well as the difference between development and growth. Growth relates to national income and can be defined as an increase in aggregate output. Development includes changes in social structure and allocation of resources. Deficiencies in the delivery of services were discussed by Neville Fernando. Family planning services should be given very high priority.