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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Nigeria struggles to contain poliomyelitis.

    Cheng MH

    Lancet. 2008 Oct 11; 372(9646):1287-90.

    Nigeria has had several setbacks in its bid to control poliomyelitis, including false rumours about vaccine safety. Now public anger over the failure of the ailing health system to deliver for its people threatens to derail the country's eradication campaign. Margaret Harris Cheng reports. Not only is Nigeria struggling to contain its poliomyelitis outbreak, it is now exporting the virus across its porous borders, and the disease is using the region's ancient trade routes to spread itself across Africa once more. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Role of marketing in polio eradication.

    Goswami R

    [Unpublished] 2007. Presented at the International Marketing Conference on Marketing and Society, Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode (IIMK), April 8-10, 2007. [16] p.

    Reducing the number of children affected by polio from 1000 per day to around 4 per day is not a small feat by any standard only if, we hadn't decided to eradicate polio and, it wasn't six year since the target for eradication was set. Since the WHA resolution of 1988, globally over USD 4 billion has been spent, more than 10 million volunteers has administered around 10 billion polio doses in hundreds of National and supplementary immunization days (NIDs and SNIDs) across the world. The initial few years in eradication were, undoubtedly, remarkable with countries and continents being freed from the infection and disease. Although, the eradication target of year 2000 could not be achieved, but it was never far from sight till, vaccination activities were stopped in Nigeria in 2003. Situation created by the resulting outbreaks there and, following importation of the wild polio virus (WPV) to other countries changed the eradication scenario, in spite of the many efforts; this spread of polio could still not be halted on time. Even in 2006, some pockets of WPV i.e. one in Moradabad, India and some other in Kano, Nigeria are cause of concern for eradication experts as it is clear now that polio will not be eradicated before year 2007. Back in 1988, no one had envisaged that polio eradication will be this difficult. The explanation for current outbreak is being given by 'four year cycle' of return of polio as even earlier in 1998 and 2002, there were outbreaks. Situation in Nigeria and India are suggestive that it will take at least one year before Polio is eradicated. The hope goes down as the number of cases goes up in 2006 than last 3 year. India has reported the highest number of cases in last 4 years. Much of the debate is going on the strategy followed to eradicate polio out of world. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Importance of public health education: polio immunization in West Africa.

    Shehu AU

    [Unpublished] 2005. Presented at the First Annual International Conference of the African Science Academy Development Initiative: Improving Public Policy to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals in Africa: Harnessing Science and Technology Capacity, November 7-8, 2005, Nairobi, Kenya. [13] p.

    This document breaks down the controversy of the safety of polio immunization efforts in Nigeria. The four main points that this document discusses are: polio campaigns were suspended in several northern states; negative media discussion about safety of vaccine in national and international media; trusted community and religious leaders speak out against polio vaccine; and mistrust in oral polio vaccine leading to non-acceptance. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Vaccine-derived poliomyelitis in Nigeria.

    Lancet. 2007 Oct 20; 370(9596):1394.

    Eradicating poliomyelitis presents many challenges. Financing essential activities can be difficult when donors fail to meet funding targets (a US$60 million funding gap currently exists for the fourth quarter of 2007). Security issues in two of the four polio-endemic countries-Afghanistan and Pakistan-make access to children difficult for immunisation teams. And in Nigeria, low vaccine coverage and an outbreak of disease from vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) could set back global eradication efforts. Over the past 10 years there have been nine outbreaks of poliomyelitis derived from the oral vaccine in nine countries. Nigeria has seen the largest outbreak; 69 children have been paralysed this year. VDPVs are rare but occur when the live virus in an oral polio vaccine mutates and reverts to neurovirulence. This loss of attenuation does not matter so much in populations who are fully immunised with oral vaccine, since they will be protected from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, but in Nigeria,where vaccine coverage is 39% (and even lower in some northern states), it is a problem. (excerpt)
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