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    The state of the environment, 1985.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, France, OECD, 1985. 271 p.

    The 1985 state of the environment is presented in terms of the progress and concerns, the pressures on, and the responses to the state of the environment. Concern is expressed for the condition of the air, inland water resources, the marine environment, forest resources, wild life resources, solid waste, and noise. The policy agenda is defined and includes past problems identified in 1979 as well as new concerns. The economic and international context in which these problems should be considered is established. The pressures on the environment are reflected in the following sectors: agriculture, energy, industry, and transportation. Responses pertain to the government, enterprises, and the public. The objective is to help member states define, implement, and evaluate environmental policies, and to include environmental concerns decision making. Member countries of the Group on the State of the Environment have 17% of the world's population and account for 69% of the gross domestic product and world trade and 75% of forest product imports. Achievements are identified as reduced urban air pollution by sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide; improved water quality; decreased oil tanker accidents and oil spills; improved management of municipal waste, reduced use of DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury compounds; and improved protection and management of some species of game, flora, and fauna. Progress has been unevenly distributed throughout the member region, by level, problem, and country. Air quality problems pertain to sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide and fluorocarbon emissions. Urban areas are still problematic. Remaining problems for inland waters the marine environment, and for hazardous substances are also identified. Progress has been slow, as has economic growth, but nonetheless environmental policies must be strengthened. New pollution concerns are identified as "new" pollutants, diffuse emission of pollutants, multiple exposure, and cross-media pollution. Natural resource concerns are interdependent with economic development and involve water, land, wildlife, and forest resources. The 3 major longterm risks are related to health, to the environment from industrial accidents, and to the environment from natural disasters. Profound structural changes are ahead. More accurate environmental data is needed based on existing systems and relevant to policy makers. The public is supportive of environmental policy and has a right to know.l
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