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[Unpublished] 1978 Oct.  p.The objective of Botswana's "Our Land" project was to involve the public, and particularly the rural population, in both learning about and voicing their opinion on land-use policies. Initiated in 1975, the media involved were radio, print, flipcharts, and interpersonal communication. The government had developed a land-management policy based on the practices of stock controls, fencing, paddocking, early weaning, salt-and-bonemeal feeding supplementation, and rotational grazing to reverse land degradation. A supplementary goal was to preserve some of the values and features of the traditional land-tenure system as well as to protect the interests of the individuals who own few or no cattle. This educational campaign was created to explain and obtain feedback on land zoning policies and other aspects of the land-management program. There were 4 phases to the "Public Consultation:" a 2-month national speaking tour in the autumn of 1975 with the President and his ministers attending more than 100 community meetings to explain public policy and to field questions from villagers; briefings and seminars for government officers and others held over the July 1975-February 1976 period; a trial-run, the "Radio Learning Group Campaign," and analysis and use of the public responses culled during the Radio Learning Groups, which took place in 1976 and 1977. The Radio Learning Group Campaign included a pilot project, leadership courses, materials preparation, radio broadcasts, and followup radio programs based on responses to earlier broadcasts. Some vital information on the land-zoning proposals and their implications was broadcast to roughly 3200 listening groups averaging 16 members each. Each group, which had a discussion leader, met twice weekly for 5 weeks to discuss the broadcasts and the specially prepared materials. Following each program, group leaders sent a report about the group discussion to the campaign organizers who used the information to develop land-use plans to prepare "answer" programs for broadcast. 3510 groups were established, falling short of the goal of between 4000-5600 groups. The "Public Consultation" revealed that Botswana's population recognizes the problem of overgrazing, identifying the presence of too many cattle as the major cause. A large majority favor the principle of granting exclusive leasing rights to grazing land and want such grazing land situated in the sand-velds where population density is low.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, World Game Institute, 1991. 27,  p.Globally, there are 13-18 million starvation-related deaths per year; 800 million malnourished people in the world; 9 million children dying from preventable causes; 100 million people homeless; 1 billion illiterate adults; 130 million children not in school; 15 million refugees; 200 million tons of waste added to the air by human activities; 26,000 million tons of topsoil eroded from world croplands; 15 million acres of desert land formed annually by mismanagement; 28 million acres of rain forest destroyed each year; a 1.5 square mile hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica; and over 90,000 tons of known nuclear waste. According to a survey conducted over the last 20 years of over 40,000 people, the preferred state of the world would be for 100% of humanity to have on a sustainable basis: abundant supplies of food and clean water; adequate housing; comprehensive health care and sanitation facilities; abundant, clean, and safe supplies of energy; employment and vocational alternatives; literacy and access to education; access to communication and transportation; access to decision-making processes that affect their lives; a peaceful, nuclear, chemical, and biological weapon-free as well as crime and drug-free world; a clean, self-regenerating environment free from damaging practices; easy access to the information needed to produce the above; freedom of speech, press, and religion; absence of all forms of prejudice; respect of the diversity of all cultures and nations; strong social support for individuals, families, and communities; absence of all forms of degrading treatment or punishment; access to equality before an impartial tribunal; access to the right to perform public service in one's own country; access to rest and leisure; access by mothers and children to special care and assistance; and access to spiritual growth and fulfillment. The combined annual costs of solving the major human needs and environmental problems facing humanity would amount to approximately $250 billion, which is approximately 1/4 of the total annual world military expenditure.
[Unpublished] 1989. 7 p.The World Bank President at a meeting of the World Resources Institute in 1989 addressed the issues of World Bank accomplishments, public awareness, industrial nations' responsibilities, and the link of poverty to population and the environment. Collective responsibility is urged. The cumulative effect of human activity will determine the fate of the planet. The World Bank has created a central Environment Department. Staff assigned full time to environmental issues has increased to 65 over 3 years. Environmental Issues Papers have been prepared for the most active borrowers, which in August 1989 included 70 countries. The Environmental Technical Assistance Program has US$5 million to distribute for environmental projects. Regional studies in an Asian urban environmental clean up and a Mediterranean environmental project were initiated and jointly funded with the European Investment Bank. By June 30, 1989, more than 100 projects with environmental components will be approved for funding, which is 35% of total yearly projects. 60% of all agricultural projects funded have environmental components. Funding for forestry projects is expected to double to US$950 million in the next 3 years, and US$1.3 million will be lent for environmental projects. Bringing environmental awareness to developing countries has been made difficult be fears that advanced countries are trying to impede economic development and to interfere with foreign sovereignty. Collective responsibility has not been agreed upon. Industrialized countries must be prepared to accept and remedy their own environmental shortcomings. 71% of industrial emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) comes from North America and Western Europe, which has only 8.2% of the world's population. Meanwhile, 7% of CO2 emissions come from developing countries, which have 70% of the world's population. The US produces 5 tons of CO2/person, while the world average is 1 ton/person. The US exports agricultural chemicals that are hazardous to human health. The US leads all industrial nations, except Canada, in energy use/unit of production of goods and services. 33% of all chlorofluorocarbons are released in the US. The population growth rate has a serious and life-threatening impact on human life. Natural resource constraints will limit growth. The solution is to provide family planning and expand the carrying capacities right now.
Paris, France, OECD, 1985. 271 p.The 1985 state of the environment is presented in terms of the progress and concerns, the pressures on, and the responses to the state of the environment. Concern is expressed for the condition of the air, inland water resources, the marine environment, forest resources, wild life resources, solid waste, and noise. The policy agenda is defined and includes past problems identified in 1979 as well as new concerns. The economic and international context in which these problems should be considered is established. The pressures on the environment are reflected in the following sectors: agriculture, energy, industry, and transportation. Responses pertain to the government, enterprises, and the public. The objective is to help member states define, implement, and evaluate environmental policies, and to include environmental concerns decision making. Member countries of the Group on the State of the Environment have 17% of the world's population and account for 69% of the gross domestic product and world trade and 75% of forest product imports. Achievements are identified as reduced urban air pollution by sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide; improved water quality; decreased oil tanker accidents and oil spills; improved management of municipal waste, reduced use of DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury compounds; and improved protection and management of some species of game, flora, and fauna. Progress has been unevenly distributed throughout the member region, by level, problem, and country. Air quality problems pertain to sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide and fluorocarbon emissions. Urban areas are still problematic. Remaining problems for inland waters the marine environment, and for hazardous substances are also identified. Progress has been slow, as has economic growth, but nonetheless environmental policies must be strengthened. New pollution concerns are identified as "new" pollutants, diffuse emission of pollutants, multiple exposure, and cross-media pollution. Natural resource concerns are interdependent with economic development and involve water, land, wildlife, and forest resources. The 3 major longterm risks are related to health, to the environment from industrial accidents, and to the environment from natural disasters. Profound structural changes are ahead. More accurate environmental data is needed based on existing systems and relevant to policy makers. The public is supportive of environmental policy and has a right to know.l
The forest resources of the temperate zones. Main findings of the UN-ECE / FAO 1990 Forest Resource Assessment.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. v, 32 p. (ECE/TIM/60)The main findings of the UN-ECE/FAO Forest Resource Assessment, 1990, now reflect a virtually complete set of basic forest inventory statistics of countries providing information for the assessment. This tool would be valuable and useful for policy makers, managers, and others concerned with forestry, ecology, conservation, and socioeconomic development. About 50% of the world's total forest resources are covered in this assessment. In process is the collection of corresponding data on the tropical and temperate zone developing regions. Assessment is made of 1) the world context, 2) basic information (land-use classification, forest types, species groups, stocked and unstocked forests, ownership and management status, number and size distribution of holdings, change in area over time, standing volume and growing stock, standing volume and mass of biomass, annual increment, fellings, and removals, 3) benefits and functions of the forests, and 4) conclusions. The main findings are that 2.06 billion hectares or about 50% of the world's total forests and wooded land are located in temperate zones. Almost 25% is in the USSR and almost 20% in North America. Forest covers nearly 39% of land area or 1.62 hectares/capita in temperate regions. Forest area, growing stock, and increment have continued to increase since the 1950s. there were 1.86 billion m3 overbark fellings in 1990 of which 40% was in North America; fellings are still less than net annual increment. The environmental and other nonwood goods and services of the forests are becoming increasingly important to society, and will receive emphasis in policy and planning for protection, water regulation, nature conservation, and recreation. Public attitudes have been changing. Conflicts do exist between, for instance, wood production and environmental protection. Almost all temperate zone countries have in common the continuing expansion of the forest resources and specifically nonwood functions. The next joint session of FAO European Forestry Commission and UN-ECE Timber Committee will consider the implications of the net productivity for the whole range of goods and services relative to the deterioration of an overmature forest.
Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.
Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.