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International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 2000; 38(6):103-33.South Africa prides itself on having one of the most progressive constitutions in the world. The Bill of Rights guarantees a host of basic political, cultural, and socioeconomic rights to all who are resident in the country. Yet there have been persistent reports that citizen intolerance of non-citizens, refugees, and migrants has escalated dramatically since 1994. This article documents this process through presentation of results of national public opinion surveyed by the Southern African Migration Project. The surveys show that intolerance is extremely pervasive and growing in intensity and seriousness. Abuse of migrants and refugees has intensified, and there is little support for the idea of migrant rights. Only one group of South Africans, a small minority with regular personal contact with non-citizens, is significantly more tolerant. These findings do not augur well for migrant and refugee rights in this newly democratic country, or early acceptance of the UN Convention on the protection of migrant workers. (author's)
DEMOGRAFIA. 1994; 37(1):32-59.The author reviews trends in international migration in Hungary. "The first part of the paper gives a short overview of the migration movement of the past centuries and those historical events which might influence the present migration processes....The second part concentrates on the [most recent] events. Using the existing statistical data [the author] shows the main trends, the types and characteristics of migrants and reflects [on] some policy implications as well as the possible reasons [for] the opinions and behaviour of the public." (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
ASIAN AND PACIFIC MIGRATION JOURNAL. 1993; 2(4):439-50.Certain parallels between the recent experience of Japan and that of the United States with immigration from Third World countries are increasingly evident. In this discussion, I shall focus on these key similarities rather than the obvious differences between the two countries, in terms of culture, economy, political system, and 'immigration profile'. Aspects considered include the structural nature of the demand for foreign labor, the composition of immigrant stocks and flows, public tolerance, and contradictions in government policies. (EXCERPT)
JOURNAL OF INTERCULTURAL STUDIES. 1991; 12(2):1-14.The author reviews Australian and British policies restricting non-British immigration to Australia after World War I. "The intense desire in many quarters to maintain a 'white Australia' led not only to the active encouragement of British immigrants but to the restrictions and regulations upon European immigration in the period under review. These restrictions took two forms. Statutory powers of exclusion and restriction were conferred through...legislation....At the same time...administrative techniques were used to limit further and control 'white alien' immigration. These techniques, such as quotas and the discretionary power of the Minister to limit visas and landing permits, changing in response to economic conditions and public opinion, were perhaps more important in the government's policy of ensuring Australia's racial purity." (EXCERPT)
DANISH MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1990 Feb; 37(1):95-105.This article presents a historical and statistical explanation of the Danish family planning services delivery system. This system has evolved to accommodate the country, people and opinions that make up Denmark. The descriptions of the laws and regulations is given in a historical context and the operation of the system reflects the will of the people. Health care, including family planning is something that the Danish government gives to every Danish citizen, regardless of income. While abortion is legal it is at an unacceptably high rate. As in other Nordic countries, sex is viewed pragmatically, not morally. Sex is seen as a normal natural function, like eating or sleeping. The desire to control pregnancy is clear. 82% of women seeking abortions in Copenhagen were under 20 or over 34, unmarried or not living in a stable partner relationship, or has 2 or more children. Abortion is not a controversial issue in Denmark, it is viewed as a necessary backup to regular contraception. Sex education was practiced for years before compulsory primary school education was integrated in 1970. The article proposes solutions to the problem of the high rate of abortion: improve sex education and family planning teaching abilities for physicians, health nurses, mid-wives, teachers and social workers; revise teacher's guidelines on sex education and intensify sex education in schools; intensify information to risk groups such as teenagers and single women; organize school trips to visit family planning clinics.
[Opinions and attitudes with regard to demographic development in the Federal Republic of Germany: results of representative opinion polls initiated by the Federal Institute for Population Research in 1984 and 1989] Meinungen und Einstellungen zur Bevolkerungsentwicklung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Ergebnisse reprasentativer Umfragen des Bundesinstituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung 1984 und 1989.
ZEITSCHRIFT FUR BEVOLKERUNGSWISSENSCHAFT. 1990; 16(2):237-57.This article tries to describe the prevailing public opinion about questions of demographic development in the Federal Republic of Germany in...light of the results of two representative demographic opinion polls carried out by the Federal Institute for Population Research in 1984 and 1989....The results give evidence of a relatively constant public opinion with regard to the general judgment of demographic development and the assessment of the reasons of the birth decline and its consequences for the social development. Changes are more evident, however, in the assessment of the immigration and integration of foreigners. Evaluation of some questions newly included in the 1989 poll shows that the German population clearly differentiates when assessing the consequences of the immigration of foreigners, Germans from the GDR and ethnic Germans from Eastern European countries. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) (EXCERPT)
In: The future of migration. Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1987. 234-56.There is a close and mutual dependence between the regulation of immigration and the successful integration of immigrants into a host society. The authors discuss the basic approaches to both permanent and temporary integration and lessons and policy options that can be derived from the immigration experiences of the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany, Canada, and the US. Topics include integration as it relates to the legal status of foreign residents, employment, housing, political rights and naturalization, migrant women, racism, prejudice, discrimination, trade unions, public opinion, and old and new immigration countries. A broad, multi-disciplinary approach is required when studying the integration of migrants in their host countries. The authors also point out that migrants today have the advantage of affordable international transportation to maintain links with their home countries.
Guestworker question or immigration issue? Social sciences and public debate in the Federal Republic of Germany.
In: Population, labour and migration in 19th- and 20th-century Germany, edited by Klaus J. Bade. New York, New York, Berg Publishers Ltd., 1987. 163-88. (German Historical Perspectives Volume 1.)The organized recruitment of the people originally called Gastarbeiter was connected with the basic idea of getting seasonal workers, i.e., lower-paid workers with a less secure status. Rotation of workers was another basic idea that was not only accepted, but forced, by the unions, who feared steady competition from a cheaper and more easily manageable labor force. This policy has been a failure. Politicians and political administrators are unable or unwilling to accept the failure of the Gastarbeiter policy. In current parliamentary debates, 2 contrasting positions are apparent, with 1 side demanding increased repatriation and the other calling for better intergration ending in naturalization. There is a relationship between skill requirements, the percentage women employed, the type of manufacturing process, and the employment of foreign workers. Foreign workers are more often paid on a piecework basis, they work more shifts, and they figure more frequently in the accident statistics. The German school system was in no way prepared to cope with massive immigration. German parents became angry about crammed elementary school classes, crowded with children of various nationalities, but by 1980 the school system had taken up the challenge and begun to tackle the problem. Foreign children today receive regular education, mostly in normal German classes, their school attendance quota is the same as for German children, and an ever-increasing number successfully finish secondary school. All investigations of housing establish unequivocally again and again that foreigners live under worse conditions but pay proportionately more rent than their German counterparts. It is not enough to illustrate ever more clearly through new surveys the social situation of foreign workers and their families. It is more cogent to examine the inseparable connection between politics and social research, particularly exemplified by migrant labor and participation of foreigners in the work force.
A pack of dole bludgers? The distribution and selected characteristics of the New Zealand born population in Australia.
NEW ZEALAND POPULATION REVIEW. 1988 Nov; 14(2):19-45.The purpose of this paper is to use demographic data to test [the] stereotype of the New Zealander [migrant] in Australia [as intent on exploiting the Australian social security system] and with it the idea that New Zealanders are of inferior 'quality' to other overseas born populations in Australia. At the same time it should be possible to offer some comment on the other stereotyped image which has emerged in relation to New Zealanders migrating to Australia--that of the Trans-Tasman 'brain drain' from New Zealand....The analysis is based largely on 1986 Census results. The author examines characteristics of this migrant population, including age distribution, spatial distribution, occupational levels, labor force participation, and length of residence in Australia. (EXCERPT)
ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCE. 1986 Sep; 487:201-12.US attitudes toward both legal and illegal immigration tended to be highly restrictionist during the 1st half of the 20th century. Both legislative and executive-branch policy supported this restrictionist outlook up until the 1940s, when a gradual liberalization of immigration policy toward refugees began to occur because of foreign policy requirements and the onset of the cold war. Although only a very small percentage of Americans have advocated increasing the number of immigrants, the percentage who feel that the numbers should be decreased began to decline during the 1950s and 1960s. Liberalization of public opinion and governmental policy occurred. During the past 15 years, however, public opinion and government policy began to diverge. Because of economic and other problems, Americans became more restrictionist toward immigrants, at least when surveyed by public opinion polls. But the government has difficulty implementing a more restrictionist policy for a variety of reasons, among them the strong lobbying efforts of pro-alien activist groups combined with American ambivalence toward the plight of immigrants as individuals. (author's)
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1988 Spring; 22(1):4-27.The immigration of ECOWAS (Economic Community of Western African States) citizens into Nigeria following the 1980 ECOWAS treaty on international migration is discussed. Consideration is given to international migration in Nigeria before and after the treaty, the effect of Nigeria's oil boom on immigration, and the impact of drought and war in other parts of Western Africa. Factors leading to the expulsion of ECOWAS aliens, and public response to the order, are also examined. Data are from official sources. (ANNOTATION)
Madison, Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Demography and Ecology, 1987. 13,  p. (CDE Working Paper 87-14.)The rise in the number of immigrants since 1960, and especially in the higher shares from less developed countries, has raised concerns that immigrants use welfare benefits more than natives. Both descriptive tabulations and TOBIT regression methods, are used to analyze immigrant-native differentials in public assistance receipt based on 1980 US Census data. Office of Legal Services results show that immigrants received neither more nor less welfare income in 1979 than did otherwise comparable natives. TOBIT models revealed that black and Hispanic immigrant families received lower welfare payments than their native counterparts. (author's)
SOUTHEAST ASIAN STUDIES. 1987 Sep; 25(2):265-78.The author examines attitudes among different sections of the Malaysian population toward the presence of immigrants from Indonesia, many of whom are illegal migrants. Data are from a review of Malaysian newspaper articles and from a survey conducted in 1985 in two squatter settlements in Kuala Lumpur. The author concludes that in recent years, the mood of the general public has turned against Indonesian migrants. (ANNOTATION)
An elusive concept: the changing definition of illegal immigrant in the practice of immigration control in the United Kingdom.
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION REVIEW. 1984 Fall; 18(3):437-52.This paper examines changing concepts of immigration practice in the UK. Immigration control at the port of entry has extended to internal control within the UK. The burden of proof of legality of status is increasingly on the immigrant, against a background of administrative rather than criminal justice. The changing and broadening definition of illegal immigration in the UK is part of a set of policies, which are governmental responses to what is conceived of as public opinion. THE GUARDIAN suggested that the Home Office has tightened up its application of the rules as the price to the Tory Right for their silence over further changes to the immigration law, thus demonstrating the political aspects of the concept of illegality. The Home Office replied that the UK was now one of the most densely populated countries in Europe and that, in terms of services, the country simply could not support all those who would like to come there. Nor can more than a certain number of newcomers be absorbed by any host community without the risk of friction. However, the host community is now multi-ethnic, and there is a black vote. The growth of administrative justice against which there is little effective appeal, the retrospective application of the 1971 Immigration Act, the ever-widening definition of the concept of illegality along with the fact that there is no time limit under the 1971 Act for one of the most common offenses, that of over-staying, have given rise to an increasing number of campaigns in support of individuals or families. These campaigns against the deportation of "illegal" immigrants may be an indication of a change in public opinion.
ASIAN SURVEY. 1987 Jun; 27(6):661-82.The author "seeks, first, to describe and analyze the nature of the post-1949 migration from China to Hong Kong, and to examine the policies adopted by the Hong Kong government to deal with the problem. Second, I will discuss the extent to which the migrants are 'refugees'. Third, I will examine the provision made by the United Kingdom and China for the future of Hong Kong and the public reaction to it, and speculate on the problems which may arise for 'refugees' and others in Hong Kong up to and beyond 1997." He argues that "the colonial government of Hong Kong is inherently weak and has been unable to deal effectively with migration from China....[and] that the [Sino-British] Agreement...gives to China direct and unfettered governance of Hong Kong after 1997." The implications of Chinese control for specific immigrant groups are considered. (EXCERPT)
Washington, D.C, Urban Institute, 1986 May. 26 p. (Impacts of Immigration in California Policy Discussion Paper No. PDS-86-1)This paper presents an analysis of recent immigration to Los Angeles County and compares public perceptions with recent Urban Institute findings on the impacts of immigration in southern California. The first part...summarizes the size, composition, and characteristics of recent immigrant flows into Los Angeles County. The second part reports on the results of a 1983 Urban Institute poll of public attitudes in southern California toward the impacts of undocumented immigration and the consequences of U.S. immigration reform, and the third part summarizes recent Urban Institute findings on the actual impacts of immigration in southern California. This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, pp. 420-1). (EXCERPT)
[Unpublished] 1986. Paper presented at the Population Association of America Annual Meeting, San Francisco, April 3-5, 1986. 28,  p.Based on 1980 census data, this paper examines the demographic characteristics of recent immigrants to Los Angeles, specifically focusing on Mexican immigration. In 1980, 1/4 of all foreign-born persons in the US lived in California. Results of a 1983 Urban Institute poll of public attitudes toward the impacts of immigration in southern California and the consequences of US immigration reform are also presented. Over 22% of Los Angeles County's total population was foreign-born in 1980. Public opinion shows that: 1) over 65% of all respondents predicted that the size of the undocumented population in southern California would increase over the next 5 to 10 years, 2) 75% thought that most undocumented immigrants would remain in southern California permanently, 3) 88% described the situation as very or somewhat serious, and 4) 70% felt the influx of illegal immigrants had a very or somewhat unfavorable effect on the state as a whole. Although the survey respondents were about evenly divided on whether illegal immigrants took jobs away from other residents, a 69% majority thought that undocumented workers tended to bring down wages in some occupations. Congress has responded to similar concerns throughout the US by proposing a comprehensive reform of US immigration laws. Results of the Urban Institute regression analysis find no significant relationship between black unemployment rates and the concentration of Hispanics. However, there is some evidence of wage depression attributable to immigrants. California's major challenge in the future will not be deciding how to provide for the economic integration of the millions of immigrants already in the state and the millions more to come, but rather learning how to absorb these immigrants into the mainstream of society.
Migration Today. 1984; 12(1):12-20.The 1980 Census showed California to have the largest foreign born population of any state: 513,000 Mexicans, 315,000 Asians, and 79,000 Central and Caribbean Americans. This paper, based on a 1982 California statewide survey of public opinion, assesses public sentiment toward foreign born persons and American immigration, refugee, and naturalization policies. Results show that 3/5 of those surveyed felt that foreign born immigrants made as good citizens as those born in the US; 22% said they made worse citizens, and 10% felt they made better citizens. Other results show that: 1) 3/5 of Californians would like to see the number of immigrants permitted into the US lowered, 2) 31% want to leave it unchanged, and 3) 5% want the number increased. Although 7 in 10 people viewed foreigners positively, 6 in 10 wanted fewer of them admitted. A large majority of respondents believe that US immigration laws should favor no region, while 1 in 5 subscribe to the idea of regional favoritism. With respect to which regions people would prefer to see limited as sources of new immigrants, 65% said Asia, 2/5 said the Caribbean, and 1/4 said the Middle East. Broken down by respondents, Jews had the highest average percentage most strongly favorable of allowing Cuban, Haitian, Russian, Vietnamese, and Central American refugees into the US; strong conservatives were the most disapproving. Jews, strong liberals, and postcollege graduates stood at opposite ends (on the matter of refugees) from strong conservatives, the least educated individuals, and the oldest. 4/5 of the respondents, including 87% of the post graduates and 48% of the Jews, believed that no change should be made in the 5 year wait required for refugees to apply for US citizenship. Overall, the subgroups most likely to reflect the liberal position were Jews, college educated persons, and those earning $40,000 or more; yet, they were not uniform in their responses with each other. Generally speaking, a stronger correlation exists between the various responses and age, education, and political philosophy, than with religious and foreign ancestry, income, and party affiliation.
In: U.S. immigration policy and the national interest. In 11 vols.. U.S. Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee PolicyWashington, D.C., United States, 1981.This volume provides reports on public hearings held as part of the research of the US Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy. 12 hearings were held across the country from October 1979-June 1980 and some topics addressed were: 1) immigration and the labor force, 2) immigration and the economy, 3) labor certification, 4) immigration and population growth, 5) exclusion laws, 6) special cases of admission, 7) acculturation, and 8) illegal aliens. In addition public affairs analyses are provided on the following issues: 1) employee eligibility and employer responsibility enforcement, 2) border enforcement, 3) legalization, 4) temporary workers, 5) refugees, 6) immigration goals and structure, 7) cap versus target, 8) expulsions, 9) Immigration and Naturalization Service operations and structure, and 10) naturalization, language, and civic education. Articles are included explaining the viewpoints of Commissioners F. Ray Marshall, Cruz Reynoso, and Rose Matsui Ochi. Some editorials and articles give an indication of the atmosphere in which the Commission worked, while the monthly Commission newsletters focus on the Commission's activities.
[Is the third wave of Soviet emigration coming to an end?] Vers la fin de la troisieme emigration sovietique?
Revue d'Etudes Comparatives Est-Ouest. 1983 Dec; 14(4):119-24, 154.An analysis of the cultural life of migrants from the USSR in France is presented. The results suggest that since 1980 there have been both quantitative and qualitative changes in migrant opinions that indicate that the present flow of migrants from the USSR is declining substantially. (summary in ENG) (ANNOTATION)
International Migration/Migrations Internationales/Migraciones Internacionales. 1983; 21(4):440-462.Add to my documents.
International Migration Review. 1983 Spring; 17(1):120-37.Examines results of surveys of Anglo-Australian attitudes toward immigrants to Australia. Such attitudes are examined with reference to the various government policies that have existed since the Second World War. (author's)