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  1. 1

    A media handbook for HIV vaccine trials for Africa.

    Adeyemi Y

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2001 Feb. 42 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection Key Material; UNAIDS/01.05E)

    This handbook aims to equip scientists especially with ideas, skills, and knowledge on how to relate to the media and thereby reach both the general public and some specific groups. The handbook is not a communication strategy and does not address all aspects of communication and audiences that must be included in effective communication about vaccine trials. Many vaccine development and vaccine trials in humans have to be carried out with the expressed support and cooperation of national governments. Such cooperation usually manifests itself through regulations and monitoring by organizations such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA or equivalent national institutions. Consequently, there is a necessary collaboration between government and medicine (science) in the interests of public health. Ordinarily, that would be a good thing. But, ironically, in many countries, this is a collaboration between two 'institutions' whose popularity and public confidence have dwindled over the years, and their support for HIV vaccine trials does not readily translate into public confidence in those trials. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Organizational rhetoric and healthcare policymaking.

    Conrad C; McIntush HG

    In: Handbook of health communication, edited by Teresa L. Thompson, Alicia M. Dorsey, Katherine I. Miller, Roxanne Parrott. Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003. 403-422.

    In this chapter we enter into the quagmire that is U.S. healthcare policymaking. In doing so, we have three goals in mind: (a) to summarize contemporary models of the policymaking process, including the role that organizational discourse plays in it; (b) to examine the distinctive complexities of healthcare policymaking; and (c) to briefly illustrate those processes and complexities in an analysis of the development of Medicare. In the process we argue that the fragmented and incoherent nature of U.S. healthcare policy is not "accidental," as Reagan's title suggests, but instead is inherent in a complex interaction between the structure and processes of policymaking, the ideological bases of health discourse, and the rhetoric of healthcare reform. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    HIV / AIDS care and support projects. Using behavior change communication techniques to design and implement care and support projects.

    Family Health International [FHI]. AIDS Control and Prevention Project [AIDSCAP]

    Arlington, Virginia, AIDSCAP, [1997]. 73 p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-5972-C-00-4001-00)

    This manual explains how organizations can use behavior change communication techniques in HIV/AIDS care and support projects. After an introductory section, section 2 describes HIV/AIDS care and support projects, their benefits, and their target audiences. The third section lists examples of care and support activities, and section 4 covers whether a particular organization should engage in care and support efforts. The remaining sections explore each of the important steps in instituting and carrying out such a project. Section 5 deals with choosing a target audience, and section 6 describes how to use segmentation techniques and a situation analysis to understand a target group. The seventh section details the planning and design of care and support interventions, and section 8 looks at choosing effective communication approaches. Section 9 discusses meeting training and education needs of health workers. The next two sections delineate the role of leaders, institutions, and the media in influencing social norms as well as ways to involve community leaders. Section 12 reviews ways of working with and involving people living with HIV/AIDS, and the final section considers family issues.
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  4. 4

    Democracy and gender: a practical guide to USAID programs.

    Hirschmann D

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Gender in Economic and Social Systems Project [GENESYS], 1993 Feb. [5], 56 p. (GENESYS Special Study No. 9; USAID Contract No. PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00)

    This reference manual, while considered to be of wider interest, was intended primarily to facilitate incorporation of a gender analysis into the design, implementation, or evaluation of any of the policy, programs, or projects of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) Democracy Initiative (DI). The introductory portion of the manual contains general information on USAID's DI, the 1991 policy paper that launched the DI, and how the DI has been interpreted by USAID Bureaus. Part 1 describes aspects of the use of this guide, its purpose, sources, underlying logic, and likely adaptations. Part 2 considers key preliminary issues such as why gender analysis is crucial; the importance of gaining an understanding of local culture and religion; integration versus segregation of gender components; the necessity of including gender analysis in all essential steps of the DI; and the necessity of including women and women's groups in the choice of appropriate, representative individuals and institutions for DI consultations and negotiations. The third part of the manual considers ways to incorporate gender concerns with the following components of the DI: administration of justice/legal reform, strengthening civil society, civil-military relations, the country political/democratic assessment, democratic values, decentralization of government, elections, governance, human and civil rights, leadership training, the mass media, political party support, private sector development, public opinion polling, representative institutions, and trade unions. Part 4 looks at the issue of which democracy indicators USAID should choose to measure progress and the necessity of including gender concerns in the analysis of impact and performance indicators.
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  5. 5

    Newsroom guide to abortion and family planning. 2nd ed.

    Anderson DE

    Washington, D.C., Communications Consortium Media Center, 1996. [9], 128, [3] p.

    This guidebook for news reporters and editors provides quick access to basic information on the historical events, political acts, and policy decisions shaping current family planning (FP) and abortion issues as well as references to further resources for in-depth research and reporting. The first part of the guide contains an overview of who has abortions and why, how FP services are implemented in the US (including information on where abortions are performed, teenage contraception and abortion, sex education, and school-based clinics), political factors, public opinion as expressed in the polls, the actions of all three branches of the federal government which had a reproductive health impact, and a rundown of abortion laws and activity in the states as of early 1996. The second part of the guide deals with policy issues such as 1) abortion restrictions and their impacts, 2) the impact of research and development (RU-486, Norplant, Depo-Provera, other abortifacients, and fetal tissue research), 3) reproductive health and the Christian Right, and 4) international issues pertaining to developing countries (world abortion laws; abortion in developing countries; population stabilization, FP, and US foreign policy; and the impact of US domestic politics on foreign population assistance). The book ends with a quick reference which includes a listing of abortion rights advocates and opponents, a glossary of terms, references, an index, and a foldout which illustrates FP history at a glance.
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  6. 6

    The state of the environment, 1985.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, France, OECD, 1985. 271 p.

    The 1985 state of the environment is presented in terms of the progress and concerns, the pressures on, and the responses to the state of the environment. Concern is expressed for the condition of the air, inland water resources, the marine environment, forest resources, wild life resources, solid waste, and noise. The policy agenda is defined and includes past problems identified in 1979 as well as new concerns. The economic and international context in which these problems should be considered is established. The pressures on the environment are reflected in the following sectors: agriculture, energy, industry, and transportation. Responses pertain to the government, enterprises, and the public. The objective is to help member states define, implement, and evaluate environmental policies, and to include environmental concerns decision making. Member countries of the Group on the State of the Environment have 17% of the world's population and account for 69% of the gross domestic product and world trade and 75% of forest product imports. Achievements are identified as reduced urban air pollution by sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide; improved water quality; decreased oil tanker accidents and oil spills; improved management of municipal waste, reduced use of DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury compounds; and improved protection and management of some species of game, flora, and fauna. Progress has been unevenly distributed throughout the member region, by level, problem, and country. Air quality problems pertain to sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide and fluorocarbon emissions. Urban areas are still problematic. Remaining problems for inland waters the marine environment, and for hazardous substances are also identified. Progress has been slow, as has economic growth, but nonetheless environmental policies must be strengthened. New pollution concerns are identified as "new" pollutants, diffuse emission of pollutants, multiple exposure, and cross-media pollution. Natural resource concerns are interdependent with economic development and involve water, land, wildlife, and forest resources. The 3 major longterm risks are related to health, to the environment from industrial accidents, and to the environment from natural disasters. Profound structural changes are ahead. More accurate environmental data is needed based on existing systems and relevant to policy makers. The public is supportive of environmental policy and has a right to know.l
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  7. 7

    Mass media and human services: getting the message across.

    Brawley EA

    Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 1983. 240 p. (Sourcebooks for Improving Human Services Vol. 2)

    An attempt is made to demonstrate how human service public relations, public education, and prevention activities can be carried out through the media. Initially, the book presents some evidence that more public education efforts on the part of human service workers are necessary and what kinds are possible. It then provides specific guidelines, strategies, and tools for carrying out a variety of public education activities, all of which are within the capabilities of the average human service practitioner, either as an individual or as a member of a human service organization or group. Attention is directed to organizing for action and planning media resources as well as working with the print media and opportunities in radio and television. A chapter is devoted to evaluation mechanisms, documenting success in achieving media coverage as well as evaluating the quality and impact of the media messages. Any effort to promote public understanding of social issues, community problems, human service programs, and the concerns and activities of human service workers can be enhanced significantly by the appropriate use of the mass media.
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