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  1. 1
    333879

    2012 Survey of Americans on the U.S Role in Global Health.

    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2012 May. [42] p. (U.S. Global Health Policy)

    This survey is the fourth in a series by the Foundation that explores the American public's views and knowledge of U.S. efforts to improve health for people in developing countries.The survey examines perceptions about foreign aid in general and U.S. spending on global health specifically, including views on the potential impact of spending, perceptions of progress in improving health in developing countries, and the visibility of global health issues in the media.The survey was designed and analyzed by public opinion researchers at the Kaiser Family Foundation. It was conducted February 2 through February 12, among a nationally representative random sample of 1,205 adults ages 18 and older. The margin of sampling error for the full sample is plus or minus 3 percentage points.
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  2. 2
    352254
    Peer Reviewed

    Public opinion on abortion in Mexico City after the landmark reform.

    Wilson KS; Garcia SG; Diaz Olavarrieta C; Villalobos-Hernandez A; Rodriguez JV; Smith PS; Burks C

    Studies In Family Planning. 2011 Sep; 42(3):175-82.

    This article presents findings from three opinion surveys conducted among representative samples of Mexico City residents: the first one immediately prior to the groundbreaking legalization of first-trimester abortion in April 2007, and one and two years after the reform. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess changes in opinion concerning abortion and correlates of favorable opinion following reform. In 2009 a clear majority (74 percent) of respondents were in support of the Mexico City law allowing for elective first-trimester abortion, compared with 63 percent in 2008 and 38 percent in 2007. A significant increase in support for extending the law to the rest of Mexico was found: from 51 percent in 2007 to 70 percent in 2008 and 83 percent in 2009. In 2008 the significant independent correlates of support for the Mexico City law were education, infrequent religious service attendance, sex (being male), and political party affiliation; in 2009 they were education beyond high school, infrequent religious service attendance, and ever having been married.
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  3. 3
    350177
    Peer Reviewed

    Public opinion on abortion in eight Mexican states amid opposition to legalization.

    Valencia Rodriguez J; Wilson KS; Diaz Olavarrieta C; Garcia SG; Sanchez Fuentes ML

    Studies In Family Planning. 2011 Sep; 42(3):191-8.

    In opposition to Mexico City's legalization of first-trimester abortion, 17 Mexican states (53 percent) have introduced initiatives or reforms to ban abortion entirely, and other states have similar legislation pending. We conducted an opinion survey in eight states--four where constitutional amendments have already been approved and four with pending amendments. Using logistic regression analyses, we found that higher education, political party affiliation, and awareness of reforms/initiatives were significantly associated with support for the Mexico City law. Legal abortion was supported by a large proportion of respondents in cases of rape (45-70 percent), risk to a woman's life (55-71 percent), and risk to a woman's health (48-68 percent). A larger percentage of respondents favored the Mexico City law, which limits elective legal abortion to the first 12 weeks of gestation (32-54 percent), than elective abortion without regard to gestational limit (14-31 percent).
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  4. 4
    328968
    Peer Reviewed

    Pharmacovigilance of antimalarial treatment in Uganda: community perceptions and suggestions for reporting adverse events.

    Bukirwa H; Nayiga S; Lubanga R; Mwebaza N; Chandler C

    Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2008 Sep; 13(9):1143-52.

    OBJECTIVES: The deployment of new antimalarials in Africa provides an important opportunity to develop systems for pharmacovigilance. To inform strategies for reporting adverse events in Uganda, we investigated local perceptions and experiences with antimalarial treatment, and evaluated existing and potential systems for pharmacovigilance. METHODS: Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with community members and health workers from urban and rural Uganda exploring knowledge of fever/malaria, perceptions and expectations of treatment, understanding of adverse effects, and experiences with adverse events. Sessions were recorded, transcribed into English, and analysed using a coding scheme developed from pre-defined topics together with themes emerging from the data. RESULTS: Between April and July 2006, we conducted 25 FGDs; 16 with community members and nine with health workers. All respondents had extensive experience with malaria and its treatment. Community members commonly recognized adverse effects of antimalarial therapy. However, events were uncommonly reported, and certain events were often interpreted as signs of successful treatment. Community members often felt that the costs of reporting or seeking additional care outweighed the potential benefits. Health workers were unfamiliar with formal pathways for reporting, and were deterred by the additional work of reporting and fear of incrimination. Respondents provided suggestions for incentives and methods of reporting, emphasizing that pharmacovigilance should ideally encompass the public and private sector, and the community. CONCLUSIONS: To be successful, pharmacovigilance relying on voluntary reporting will require active participation of patients and health workers. Addressing the costs and benefits of reporting, and providing sensitization, training and feedback will be important.
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  5. 5
    317992

    Research on adolescent health in Kenya and Uganda.

    Winkler J; Wood S

    Nairobi, Kenya, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH], Scouting for Solutions, 2006 Oct. [60] p. (USAID Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A-00-05-00009-00)

    Scouting for Solutions is a five-year project that aims to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS by promoting health sexual behavior amongst Scouts in Kenya and Uganda, including the promotion of abstinence until marriage, fidelity in marriage, and monogamous relationships. The project, funded by the US Agency for International Development, is being implemented by the US-based nongovernmental organization PATH, in conjunction with national Scouts associations in Kenya and Uganda. By 2009, the project with reach as estimated 325,000 girls and boys aged 12-15 years with intensive and repeated HIV prevention strategies and health promotion activities. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    310902
    Peer Reviewed

    Comparison of knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions between teachers and guardians regarding the emergency contraceptive pill in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Sripichyakan K; Tangmunkongvorakul A

    Nursing and Health Sciences. 2006 Mar; 8(1):27-35.

    Teachers and guardians (parents or authorized persons) are expected to collaborate in educating female students about emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) but it is unknown whether they have similar perspectives on ECPs. This study aimed to compare their knowledge, attitudes, experience, and opinions regarding ECPs. Questionnaires were distributed to 720 female teachers and guardians of eight randomly selected high schools and vocational schools in Chiang Mai, Thailand. There were significantly more teachers who knew about the existence of ECPs than guardians. More guardians reported some accurate information regarding ECPs than did teachers. More teachers than guardians believed that the use of ECPs was not morally wrong. Both teachers and guardians had similar experience with ECP use and similar agreement in teaching female adolescents about ECPs. The teachers and guardians had some different opinions on teaching barriers. It is suggested that both teachers and guardians are suited to teach female adolescents about ECPs, but they need preparation in different aspects. (author's)
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  7. 7
    307627
    Peer Reviewed

    Use of postpartum health services in rural Uganda: knowledge, attitudes, and barriers.

    Nabukera SK; Witte K; Muchunguzi C; Bajunirwe F; Batwala VK

    Journal of Community Health. 2006 Apr; 31(2):84-93.

    The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and barriers to use of postpartum care service among rural communities in Uganda. Study was a part of a larger reproductive health evaluation project, and was cross-sectional in nature utilizing qualitative research methods using the narrative inquiry. Two matched rural communities were used in this study; Semuto in Luwero district, and Lwamaggwa in Rakai district. Fifty key informants who were purposefully selected from each study site were interviewed. They included community leaders, political leaders, health care providers, women leaders and community members. One-on-one interviews were conducted with key community informants using an interview guide. The purpose of the interview was explained to each participant, and written informed consent was obtained before the start of the interview. Respondents were allowed to express their views, opinions and observations on several health issues including postpartum health care services. There was a low level of knowledge about postpartum care services among the respondents of the two communities. There was lack of awareness about postpartum care and it's benefits. The main barriers to use of services were; misconceptions regarding the importance of postpartum care, distance to health facilities, poverty, and health system factors notably; poor facilities, lack of essential drugs, and poor attitudes of health workers. In the effort to improve reproductive health care services, there is an urgent need to improve postpartum services, and make them more accessible and user friendly. The training of providers at all levels is essential, in addition to educating families on the importance of postpartum care services. (author's)
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  8. 8
    303997

    Part 6: Sterilization among Canadian women and their partners: practices and opinions.

    Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):195-198.

    Two-thirds of the women in the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study are familiar with sterilization as a method of birth control, and they generally think highly of this method. Among women who have been sterilized or whose partners have undergone vasectomy, rates of satisfaction are very high. The rate of sterilization, 23% overall, includes 10% of women who have had the operation, and 14% of their partners. The increasing use of male sterilization is appropriate, given the low morbidity attached to this procedure. This operation should continue to increase in prevalence, as 75% of women who have decided on future sterilization wish their partner to have the operation. (author's)
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  9. 9
    303992

    Part 5: Condom use among Canadian women: practices and opinions.

    Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 1999 Fall; 8(3):189-193.

    Condoms are not only an effective method of contraception, they are also an effective way to reduce STD/HIV risk. Most Canadian women (91%) are aware of condoms as a method of birth control and most women (75%) have a favourable opinion of condoms. Overall, 21% of Canadian women report that condoms are their current method of contraception. Unmarried women (64%) were more likely than married women (31%) to have used condoms in the previous six months. Condom use is often inconsistent and about 25% of Canadian women carry the misperceptions that monogamy and getting to know and trust your partner eliminates the need to use condoms for STD/HIV prevention. These findings indicate a need to continue efforts to provide Canadians with effective STD/HIV prevention education. (author's)
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  10. 10
    297627

    Environmental knowledge and attitudes in the New York City watershed.

    Stycos JM; Pfeffer MJ

    Ithaca, New York, Cornell University, Population and Development Program, 1996. [23] p. (Population and Development Program Working Paper No. 96.13)

    Our survey was initiated in 1994 in order to trace change in public opinion as the controversy developed, and to identify some of the determinants of this change. We selected 15 towns in which a majority of the population live within the NYC watershed, and within each town 70 households were selected at random from published telephone listings. In addition, two towns outside the NYC watershed but adjacent to it were used as control areas, since they had similar socio-economic characteristics but relatively little stake in the controversy. This sample of roughly 1000 households constituted a panel, to be interviewed four times between 1994 and 1997. The present report is based on the second of these interviews, conducted by telephone in January, 1995. Because of attrition between the two waves, the sample was reduced to 758 interviews in the watershed and 133 cases in two control communities. Our analysis is pointed toward several general questions: 1. Are upstate watershed residents concerned about environmental general? 2. How informed are they about the NYC watershed controversy, and where do they stand on watershed issues? 3. What are some of the determinants of knowledge and attitude? 4. Is knowledge related to attitude? (excerpt)
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  11. 11
    294205
    Peer Reviewed

    Public opinion regarding oocyte donation in Turkey: first data from a secular population among the Islamic world.

    Isikoglu M; Senol Y; Berkkanoglu M; Ozgur K; Donmez L

    Human Reproduction. 2006; 21(1):318-323.

    We aimed to reveal the general attitudes of Turkish people toward various aspects of oocyte donation. This descriptive study was carried out in two separate districts of a large Turkish city. Four hundred participants were chosen by cluster sampling methods. The questionnaires were performed by 4th year medical students face to face with the participants. The participants consisted of 232 women (58%) and 168 men (42%); 65% were married, 5% were divorced; 64% had children, 15 (4%) had infertility problems, 263 (66%) were graduates of high school or university; 269 (67%) considered themselves religious. Only less than one-third of the respondents actually knew what oocyte donation meant. Approval of oocyte donation was high in our study sample. Only 61 (15%) respondents showed complete objection to oocyte donation and more men were in favour than women. Less than half of the participants thought that their religion would prevent oocyte donation if they needed it. More than half of the participants would prefer the use of oocyte donation treatment rather than adoption of a child. This is the first report on the attitudes towards oocyte donation from a country having a secular constitution and whose population is mainly Muslim. The most important conclusion to be drawn from the present study is the fact that most of the participants did not have any objection to oocyte donation treatments. (author's)
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  12. 12
    291722

    [Application of two-way indicators in evaluation of knowledge about AIDS prevention among the public]

    Xu H; Jia ZH; Guo JD; Xu ZT; Ma Y

    Chinese Journal of Health Education. 2004 Mar; 20(3):199-202.

    Objective To investigate the value of application of two-way indicators, including the correct answer rate and misunderstanding rate, in evaluation of the knowledge status about AIDS among the public. Methods Health education on AIDS prevention in various forms was carried out for 3 months among about 1700 participants in 2 townships/towns in Guantao County , Hebei Province and about 1300 participants in 2 townships/towns in Shouguang City, Shandong Province, selected by 3-stage stratified randomized sampling. Before and after the health education a questionnaire survey was conducted among the participants to investigate their KAP about AIDS and calculate the correct answer rates and misunderstanding rates. Results The correct answer rates of general AIDS knowledge, transmission routes, and prevention were 74.9%, 81.4%, and 70.6% respectively after health education, all significantly higher than those before health education (46.%, 54.9% , and 41.2 % respectively, all P < 01.1 ). The misunderstanding rates of general AIDS knowledge, transmission routes, and prevention were 18.8%, 15.2%, and 18.5% respectively after health education, all significantly lower than those before health education (19.8%, 18.2%, and 21.4% respectively, all P < 0.05). The correct answer rates were linearly positively correlated with the frequency of receiving relevant information and influenced by all communication channels. However, the misunderstanding rates were not correlated with the frequency of receiving relevant information and influenced by only some of the communication channels. Conclusion Health education shows greater effects on correct answer rates than on misunderstanding rates. The increase of correct answer rate does not accompany the equal degree of decrease of misunderstanding rate. Application of these two contrary indicators is recommended in evaluation of the effects of health education. (author's)
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  13. 13
    287530

    The AIDS epidemic at 20 years: the view from America. A national survey of Americans on HIV / AIDS.

    Aragón R; Kates J; Greene L; Hoff T

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 60 p.

    On June 5, 1981, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued its first warning about a relatively rare form of pneumonia among a small group of young gay men in Los Angeles, which was later determined to be AIDS-related. Since that time, more than 750,000 cases of AIDS have been reported in the U.S. and almost half a million Americans have died of the disease. Of the more than 36 million individuals worldwide estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS, approximately 95% live in the developing world – a full 70% in sub-Saharan Africa alone. During this twenty-year period, there has been a great deal of progress in the fight against AIDS. New infections in the U.S. have declined dramatically, and there are signs that new infections in sub-Saharan Africa may be stabilizing. The more widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has also contributed to fewer new AIDS cases and AIDS-related deaths. Despite this progress, critical challenges remain. The AIDS epidemic is becoming increasingly complex. Proven prevention programs are not reaching everyone in need. More people are living with HIV/AIDS than ever before, and significant disparities exist across age and race. For example, while African Americans and Latinos represent 12% and 13% of the U.S. population, they represent 47% and 19% of reported cases, respectively. An estimated half of all new infections in the U.S. are among those under the age of 25. In addition, the high cost of HIV care presents significant barriers to access for people with HIV/AIDS in the United States, many of whom are not in regular care, and treatment is not available to the vast majority of those living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world. And though progress is steady, we are still years away from developing an effective vaccine. (excerpt)
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  14. 14
    287623

    African Americans' views of the HIV / AIDS epidemic at 20 years. Findings from a national survey.

    Aragón R; Kates J; Greene L

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. 18 p.

    African Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning. In the year 2000, more African Americans were reported with AIDS, and estimated to be living with AIDS, than any other racial or ethnic group in the United States. Although African Americans represent approximately 12% of the U.S. population, they now account for an estimated 54% of new HIV infections and 47% of new AIDS cases. The AIDS case rate (per 100,000) among African Americans is more than eight times the rate among whites and more than twice the rate for Latinos. Moreover, AIDS is now the leading cause of death for African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44. The epidemic has also affected particular subgroups within the African American community. Although African American women represent only 13% of the U.S. female population, they account for almost two-thirds (63%) of AIDS cases reported among women in 2000. African American teens represent 15% of the teen population, yet comprise 64% of new AIDS cases reported among 13–19 year olds in 2000. In addition, in a recent multi-city study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV prevalence (the proportion of people living with HIV in a population) for young African Americans was 14.1%, compared to 3.3% for whites. Finally, there is growing evidence that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is increasingly concentrated in low-income communities in which people of color are often disproportionately represented. Such communities generally are faced with multiple other health and social issues and limited resources with which to respond to the epidemic. (excerpt)
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  15. 15
    287510

    Sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. Fact sheet.

    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003 Jun. 4 p. (Facts. Fact Sheet)

    Each year, there are approximately fifteen million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the U.S., and this country has the highest rate of STD infection in the industrialized world. By age 24, at least one out of every four Americans is believed to have contracted an STD, and an estimated 65 million Americans are now living with an incurable STD. Research suggests that women are biologically more susceptible to STD exposure than men. While STDs, including HIV, affect every age group, people under 25 account for roughly two-thirds of all new STD infections: 42 percent occur among those aged 20-24 and 25 percent occur among 15-to-19-year-olds. CDC data also show higher reported rates of STDs among some racial and ethnic minority groups, compared with rates among whites – possibly reflecting overall health disparities as well as greater use of public health clinics by minority populations. (excerpt)
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  16. 16
    287150

    Emergency contraception in California. Findings from a 2003 Kaiser Family Foundation survey.

    Salganicoff A; Wentworth B; Ranji U

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Feb. 22 p.

    While women are the direct users of emergency contraception, men play an important role in reducing unintended pregnancies, making it important to understand their familiarity with and attitudes toward emergency contraception. This survey is one of the first that examines men’s knowledge and attitudes. This survey also provides insight into teenagers’ experiences with emergency contraception, which differ somewhat from those of their adult counterparts. This report has two major sections. Section I presents survey findings on knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception among Californians of reproductive age. Section II discusses the experiences of Californians in obtaining and using emergency contraceptives. The conclusion summarizes the key survey findings and identifies remaining challenges to increasing public awareness of emergency contraceptives in order to reduce unintended pregnancy. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    286774
    Peer Reviewed

    Development of a brief scale to measure AIDS-related stigma in South Africa.

    Kalichman SC; Simbayi LC; Jooste S; Toefy Y; Cain D

    AIDS and Behavior. 2005 Jun; 9(2):135-143.

    Although there has been progress in AIDS stigma research, there are no multi-item AIDS stigma scales that have been shown reliable and valid in Africa. The current research reports the development of the nine-item AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. Research conducted in five South African communities (N = 2306) found the scale internally consistent, a = 0.75 and time stable over 3 months, r = 0.67. The scale was also reliable in three different languages (English, Xhosa, and Afrikaans). Correlations showed that the AIDS-Related Stigma Scale was moderately inversely correlated with years of education and AIDS knowledge. In addition, individuals who stated that HIV positive persons should conceal their HIV status had higher AIDS-Related Stigma Scale scores. Also supporting the scale’s construct validity, individuals who refused to report whether they had been tested for HIV scored higher on the AIDS-Related Stigma Scale. (author's)
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  18. 18
    272852

    [Opinion survey on family planning, urban population] Enquete d'opinion sur la planification familiale, milieu urban.

    Morocco. Ministere de la Sante Publique. Division des Statistiques

    Rabat, Ministere de la Sante Publique, Division des Statistiques, 1971. 132 p

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  19. 19
    171143

    [Promoting family planning in Romania. Phase one of qualitative research with detailed group interviews, Bucharest, February 1992] Promouvoir la planification familiale en Roumanie. Premiere phase de recherche qualitative, entretiens de groupes approfondis, Bucarest, Fevrier 1992.

    Chaze S

    Bucharest, Romania, Societatea de Educate Contraceptive Si Sexualita, 1992. [47] p.

    This paper reports upon the first phase of qualitative research into the development of family planning in Romania. The research is based upon 8 in-depth group interviews conducted in Bucharest during February 1992. A total 24 focus group sessions will eventually be held. Research was conducted to better understand the population’s opinions, attitudes, and knowledge about family planning and contraception; to identify rumors, taboos, and false ideas about such subjects; and to identify relevant content and strategies appropriate to diverse subpopulations. Choice of moderator, training, group meeting preparation, and the meeting guide are discussed as elements of research methodology.
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  20. 20
    163784

    Higher public tolerance toward AIDS.

    China Population Today. 2001 Dec; 18(6):11.

    As AIDS take its toll in China, public awareness of AIDS is increasing and attitude toward AIDS is becoming more tolerant. Officials with the Beijing Public Health Bureau announced that the number of HIV carriers now reaches 2/10,000 people. The city has a permanent population of over 10 million. A recent survey of 200 households in Beijing found that 57% of those polled said they would understand and care for AIDS patients regardless of the cause; 44% were sympathetic; 39% indicated, however, that they would be discriminatory in dealing with AIDS patients: those who contracted the disease because of sexual immorality do not deserve care, while those who did so through blood transfusion deserve more understanding and attention. The same survey also found that the 97% of Beijingers said society at large should pay attention to AIDS; 86% of those surveyed were aware that December 1 is the international AIDS Day; and 70% of Beijingers follow closely AIDS reports. Regarding causes for AIDS, 42% of those polled attributed AIDS contraction to a lack of knowledge of self- protection, 36% to a lack of awareness of self-protection, and others to a degradation of morals. 70% of respondents believed that publicity could enhance public awareness of self-protection, thereby reducing the likelihood of contracting AIDS. Interestingly enough, 90% of those polled said they were not afraid of AIDS, believing that it is easy to prevent the disease. In particular, 54% believed that so long as they abstain from sexual promiscuity, they will not catch AIDS; another 36% believed that AIDS could be prevented if they were armed with an adequate knowledge of self-protection and take precautions. (full text)
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  21. 21
    159284

    [IUD use at the Sidi Fateh urban community clinic: qualitative study] Utilisation du DIU au niveau du dispensaire urbain Sidi Fateh (etude qualitative).

    Hayyani F; Adri I

    Rabat, Morocco, Institut de Formation aux Carrieres de Sante, 2000. [15], 61, [17] p.

    Contraceptive prevalence across Morocco increased from 20% in 1980 to 60% in 1997, with a corresponding decline in total fertility from 6 children per woman in 1975 to 3 per woman in 1997. Morocco's National Family Planning Program has achieved great success in reducing prevailing levels of fertility, but the program's particular promotion of the oral contraceptive pill has led to the disproportionate use of the latter at the expense of longer-acting hormonal and barrier methods. Findings are presented upon IUD use at Sidi Fateh urban dispensary, based upon questionnaires, personnel observation, and interviews with consultants on the relevant attitudes and behaviors of clients and service providers. Although 48.12% of the 133 married women surveyed know a range of modern contraceptive methods, their knowledge is superficial and very general beyond what they know about the particular method they employ. 66.3% use oral contraception, although most are unsatisfied due to the pill's side effects, but believe that they have no other contraceptive option. 63.9% of women oppose IUDs because of the method's side effects and negative rumors about its use. Likewise, 30.7% of husbands have negative attitudes about the IUD. Women's opinions of the IUD improve with rising educational status. The general population of IUD users is satisfied with its method choice, finding the IUD to be reliable, reversible, and of long-term effect without the need for daily administration. However, the adverse experiences of a few women with the method creates concerns and fear of the IUD among users and potential users. Obstacles and constraints to IUD use, personnel competence, and client satisfaction on family planning consultations are discussed.
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  22. 22
    157086

    [The French and maternal mortality in the world: the state of opinion] Les Francais et la mortalite maternelle dans le monde: l'etat de l'opinion.

    EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 2000 Aug-Sep; (60):4-5.

    Ipsos conducted a study of French subjects for Equilibres & Population designed to better understand the population’s awareness of maternal mortality worldwide, with regard to its causes and implications. 26% of the French correctly determined that about 10,000 women die weekly from maternal-related causes. People aged 15-19 years old are better informed on maternal mortality compared to the general population. More people of comparatively higher educational status correctly assessed the number of women affected by maternal mortality. The French readily identified the regions of the world where maternal mortality is most problematic. 66% of the French believe poverty to be the main cause of maternal mortality in developing countries, followed by the absence of proper pregnancy-related medical care (53%), unwanted pregnancies (28%), and a lack of education (27%). Both sex and educational status influence respondents’ ability to identify causes of maternal mortality. Moreover, the French believe that international institutions are best able to manage the problem in developing countries, followed by nongovernmental organizations. Half of France’s population reports being ready to directly and personally help reduce global levels of maternal mortality. Women and people aged 15-19 years old are the two subpopulations most interested in contributing personally. These groups believe that the French government should allocate more international aid to women’s health.
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  23. 23
    152901

    [Sociocultural management of obstetrical complications in the regions of Fes, Boulemane and Taza, Al Heceima and Taounate (Morocco). Qualitative study by focus group. Synthesis report] La gestion socioculturelle de la complication obstetricale dans les regions Fes - Boulemane et Taza - Al Hoceima - Taounate (Maroc). Etude qualitative par focus group. Rapport de synthese.

    Dialmy A

    [Rabat], Morocco, Ministere de la Sante, Direction de la Population, 1999. 106 p. (SMI/175/4705)

    This report describes and presents the results of a qualitative study conducted in Morocco exploring how the Moroccan population manages obstetrical complications. In 1992, the National Study of Population and Health (ENPS) estimated the national mean maternal mortality rate to be 332 deaths per 100,000 live births during 1985-91. According to the Papchild study conducted in 1997, the rate was 228/100,000, but 307/100,000 in rural areas. Dystocia and uterine rupture, hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia and hypertension are the main causes of maternal mortality in Morocco. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which the population was aware of potentially deadly, delivery-related complications, their faith in the ability of medical care to resolve such problems, and their understanding of the need to promptly seek appropriate medical care in such cases. Study hypotheses are presented, followed by a discussion on planning focus groups, the training of trainers, data preparation, analysis, and limits of the study. An analysis of study findings is presented in the following chapters: inadequate medical care during pregnancy, safe delivery, obstetrical complications, the inaccessibility of public health facilities, unacceptable healthcare, and unclear information, education, and communication. Final sections of the report include the conclusion, recommendations, annexes, and a bibliography.
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  24. 24
    144747

    [Family planning expansion project in Burkina Faso: initial community study, 1992. Preliminary report] Projet d'expansion de la planification familiale au Burkina Faso: etude communautaire initiale 1992. Rapport preliminaire.

    Babalola SO; Par A; Sherman J

    [Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso], Ministere de la Sante et de l'Action Sociale, Direction de la Sante Familiale, 1992. [3], xv, 48, [15] p.

    This report describes and presents preliminary results from an initial community study for a family planning (FP) expansion project in Burkina Faso. The study was conducted during May 1992 in 4 of 15 provinces retained for information, education, and communication (IEC) activities, with the goal of obtaining preliminary data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the target population with regard to FP, their contact and understanding of the logo on population issues, and their opinion of health agents and social workers. 494 men and 506 women were interviewed by questionnaire. 40% of the study respondents were from Kadiogo, 30% from Yatenga, 20% from Kossi, and 10% from Namentenga. 73% were married and 26% were single. 64% were Muslim and 27% were Catholic. About half of the respondents had received no formal education, while 15% had attained a secondary school education. Recommendations are made with regard to increasing FP awareness among some target groups, inadequate FP knowledge and use in Yatenga, the limited knowledge about FP methods other than the oral pill and the condom, partner communication about FP, ideal family size, knowledge and use of modern contraceptives, intentions to practice FP in the future, the less than universal use of IEC by health agents and social workers, respondents doubts about the abilities and intentions of social workers, and the inability of many respondents to clearly associate the national FP logo with FP.
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  25. 25
    130235

    Immigration and emigration: current trends, dilemmas and policies.

    Skeldon R

    In: The other Hong Kong report: 1994, edited by Donald H. McMillen and Man Si-wai. Hong Kong, Chinese University Press, 1994. 165-86.

    The author analyzes recent trends in emigration and immigration in Hong Kong. He considers return movements; the fear of a "tidal wave" of immigration from China and the impact on policy; Vietnamese migrants; and problems related to passports and residence. (ANNOTATION)
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