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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Population size, economic development, and attitudes towards inequality: Evidence from 30 nations.

    Evans MD; Kelley J

    Population Review. 2007; 46(2):[22] p.

    How does population size affect social life? In accord with Durkheim's classic argument about the shift from the rigid "mechanical" solidarity of small societies to the more differentiated and interdependent "organic" solidarity of large societies, data from 30 nations and 19,568 respondents shows that the citizenry of large societies prefer more inequality in earnings than do citizens of small societies, net of the level of economic development. One reason for this is that citizens of large countries support larger rewards for education and occupational success. In most societies, the actual level of inequality is close to the ideal level, or a little higher. Data are from the World Inequality Study, which pools data from many excellent international survey projects; analysis is by OLS and multi-level regression. (author's)
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  2. 2

    The coming-of-age of China's single-child policy.

    McLoughlin CS

    Psychology in the Schools. 2005; 42(3):305-313.

    China’s one-child policy is now 25 years of age--the officially sanctioned age for marriage by men in the People’s Republic of China. A significant proportion of those now about to enter their child-bearing years are themselves the product of the first generation of one-child homes. This article reviews the history of the single-child policy, with specific regard to the forces that initiated it as a national imperative and which today appear to sustain its widespread acceptance by the Chinese peoples. This article considers the circumstances leading to the implementation of the single-child policy, the development of incentives for compliance and penalties for noncompliance, information reflecting representative data-based analyses of outcomes from the policy, and the present situation and scenarios that might lead to a revisitation of this policy. Impressions and data gathering were conducted through conversation with individuals from all social strata in six locales in the People’s Republic of China and were contrasted with similar exploratory visits from 10 and 15 years ago. (author's)
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  3. 3

    Rising tide. Gender equality and cultural change around the world.

    Inglehart R; Norris P

    Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 2003. xiv, 226 p.

    During the late twentieth century, the issue of gender equality once again became a major issue on the global agenda. The UN Decade for Women, which indeed in 1985, initiated the integration of women into development, triggering the formation of thousands of women’s organizations and networking them across the world. The trend accelerated during the following decade. In 1993, the Vienna World Conference proclaimed that women’s rights were human rights; in 1994, the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development placed women’s empowerment and health at the center of sustainable development programs. Two years later, the Beijing Fourth World Conference of Women adopted a platform seeking to promote and protect the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all women. Although there has been sustainable progress toward gender equality in much of the world, great disparities persist, as systematic indicators demonstrate. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    [Expanding the lebensraum of Africans: how the "country of European uncles" also became the country of African nephews] L'elargissement de l'espace de vie des Africains: comment le "pays des oncles" europeens devient aussi celui des neveux africains.

    Lututala MB

    REVUE TIERS MONDE. 1997 Apr-Jun; 38(150):333-46.

    The author analyzes migration from Africa to the developed countries of the north, focusing on the underlying logic and methods of such migration. He suggests that Africans see migration to the northern countries as a survival strategy and as an attempt to integrate themselves into the world economic system. The methods employed by African migrants to circumvent the increasing efforts to limit their numbers are described, with a focus on their use of regulations designed to aid the reunification of families. The author suggests that rich countries may have a moral obligation to allow migration from Africa, since its causes lie in the history of colonialism and the present and past exploitation of the developing countries by those of the north.
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  5. 5

    Women, work, and babies: family-labor market policies in three European countries.

    Spakes P

    AFFILIA. 1995 Winter; 10(4):369-97.

    This analysis of the family-labor market policies of three European countries--Sweden, the former East Germany, and the former West Germany--contends that the major influences on such policies are the labor needs of the economic system; state-promoted notions of equality of opportunity versus equality of result; and public attitudes toward gender, motherhood, and equality. It demonstrates the contradiction inherent in policies that seek both to protect mothers and to promote equality in the workforce and the need to consider equality of result, as well as equality of opportunity, as a potential policy goal. (EXCERPT)
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  6. 6

    Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)

    The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
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  7. 7

    The population dilemma.

    Kunugi T


    Technology and population rely on each other for sustenance and growth. Technology has helped produce more food, provide better health care, better communication, faster modes of travel, better consumer durables, greater amenities, and increased the quality of life for millions of people. There has been a price in terms of the widening gap between the technology of the developed and developing countries. There has also been rapid population growth that has resulted in a host of ills. Further, technology itself has produced toxic wastes and consumed a large amount of natural resources. This situation is easily seen as a dilemma between the limitless promises of technology and the limited resources created by large populations. The solution to the dilemma is sustainable development, a concept often talked about but seldom realized. The 90s will be a crucial decade for sustainable development as population is growing by 90 million/annum. 90% of the increase is occurring in developing countries. Within each country there is a trend towards urbanization. By 2000, 75% of Latin Americans, 42% of Africans, and 37% of Asians will live in urban environments. By 2050 there should be 100s of millions of migrants running from the slowly rising sea. The survival equation is sustainability S equals resources R time ingenuity 1 over population P. This is a conceptual equation, but it does illustrate that the impact of human ingenuity is just as important as resources. World commitment must come before any meaningful change will occur. The almost universal acceptance of human rights and fundamental freedoms exceeds the will to change in decision makers and expert consultants.
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  8. 8

    The determinants of family size preferences and traditional child-spacing practices in West Africa.

    Benefo KD

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1990. xv, 279 p. (Order No. 9023517)

    The determinants of family size preferences and traditional child-spacing practices in West Africa were examined. The working hypothesis is that there is a difference in the locus of control over decisions about family size in contrast with the locus of control in decision about traditional child spacing practices. While individual women perceive a powerful cultural and religious pressure for continued childbearing, nevertheless they have considerable flexibility in determining length of breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence. Data were from the World Fertility Surveys of Senegal (1978), Cote d'Ivoire (1990), Ghana (1979), and Cameroon (1979). An empirical analysis defined socioeconomic, cultural and institutional factors of ethnic groups, and ethnographic descriptions were also consulted. First multiple regression analysis, then REML/Bayesian multilevel estimation were employed. Economic modernization had an impact on desired family size, limited to the elite classes. Societies with higher gender inequalities have larger desired family sizes; while those where female status is high have greater individual control over childbearing, so that modernization has more impact over costs and benefits of fertility. Because the locus of control regarding desired family size is external, neither Islamic religion nor kinship ties have a significant effect on desired family size. In contrast, traditional spacing practices of women at all economic levels were affected by modernization: all reduced length of breastfeeding and abstinence, with larger impacts on the lower classes. Matrilinear/double descent societies have shorter durations of breast feeding than patrilinear societies. There was no difference in length of breast feeding between Islamic and non-Islamic societies. In societies where female status is high, economic modernization is a more important determinant of desired family size, but inequalities were less important regarding child-spacing. The results were discussed in terms of the adverse effect of modernization in Western Africa on population growth rate and maternal and child health.
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