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Population Review. 2007; 46(2): p.How does population size affect social life? In accord with Durkheim's classic argument about the shift from the rigid "mechanical" solidarity of small societies to the more differentiated and interdependent "organic" solidarity of large societies, data from 30 nations and 19,568 respondents shows that the citizenry of large societies prefer more inequality in earnings than do citizens of small societies, net of the level of economic development. One reason for this is that citizens of large countries support larger rewards for education and occupational success. In most societies, the actual level of inequality is close to the ideal level, or a little higher. Data are from the World Inequality Study, which pools data from many excellent international survey projects; analysis is by OLS and multi-level regression. (author's)
Attitudes to water fluoridation in South Africa 1998. Part II. Influence of educational and occupational levels.
Journal of the South African Dental Association. 2000 Jan; 55(1):23-28.The purpose of this report is to investigate the influence of education, income and occupation on public perceptions of water fluoridation (WF). A questionnaire on current knowledge, sources of information, the purpose of WF and its desirability was administered to a representative sample of 2 220 individuals over the age of 18 years. Knowledge of WF increased with educational level (range from 13.5% in the grade 0-5 group to 59% in the grade 12 plus group). Lack of knowledge decreased from 76% to 37% in these groups respectively. Knowledge levels varied from 19% to 68% across the occupational spectrum and from 13% to 88% across the income spectrum. In educational levels up to grade 12, electronic media were most frequently cited as dominant sources of information among 40-50% of respondents, whereas in the grade 12 plus group print media (37%) dominated. Sources of knowledge on fluoridation were largely obtained from print and electronic media for both categories. Only 28% in the educational level up to grade 5 thought the purpose of WF was to protect teeth against decay. This gradually increased to 55% in the grade 12 plus category. More than a quarter of the population in both the occupational and income categories indicated that the purpose of WF was to purify water and protect teeth from decay. The number of respondents who thought that water should be fluoridated increased with level of education from 58% to 70%, while those who disagreed decreased as qualifications increased. The lower- and middle-income groups were more supportive of WF than the very-high-income groups. Persons in high administrative professional and executive positions were more opposed (27%) to WF than semi-skilled and unskilled workers(5%). (author's)
AGEING AND SOCIETY. 1996 Jul; 16(4):443-65.Japan is home to the developed world's most rapidly aging population. As such, economic, political, and social changes must occur over the next 2 decades to enable the country to cope with the anticipated demographic changes. Mainichi Newspapers in 1992 surveyed a nationally representative sample of 5569 Japanese men and women over age 20 years about their attitudes on the country's aging population, concerns about the impact of expected demographic changes upon their economic well-being in retirement, and preferences among alternate policy options for changes in Japan's social security program. 3882 men and women responded. Those who completed the survey are concerned about the impact of population aging upon their economic well-being in retirement and would rather increase social security taxes than cut retirement benefits. They also favor raising the age of eligibility for social security benefits. A large proportion of the survey respondents believe that their earnings will remain an important source of their income once officially in retirement, but they are not sure about future employment opportunities.
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1996 Dec; 40(9):1,737-43.The authors "study how immigration policies that impose capital and skill requirements would be determined under majority voting when native agents differ in their wealth holdings and vote to maximize their income". The results of the model calculations indicate that "the native population will be polarized between those who would like an immigration policy to maximize the domestic capital-labor ratio and those who would like an immigration policy that would minimize it". (EXCERPT)
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., March 21-23, 1991. 15,  p.The effect of Catholicism on fertility in the US is examined. Data came from the National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey, 1973-1989. Asserting that many such studies are fundamentally flawed by failing to understand and account for fertility norm differences between ex-Catholics and new Catholics, and whether or not he or she is of current Catholic status are considered. Theoretical economics and religion as related to fertility are discussed. Assuming out-migrants from Catholicism to have lower than average interest in childbearing, and in-migrants to have higher than average interests, current status as Catholic inflates an already positive effect on fertility. The study also found Catholic norms to have a highly significant positive effect on fertility for respondents born, prior to 1920. Fertility variations after that period are weakly related to Catholic upbringing. The US fertility transition is claimed to be partly due to changing Catholic fertility norms, and the direct effect of women's earnings has been possibly overestimated by economists. Challenging the strength of women's earnings as a factor affecting fertility trends, it is suggested that economic variables most likely affect norms which in turn affect fertility. Estimates calculated are presented in tabular format.
Motivation and legitimation: living conditions, social control and the reproductive regimes in Belgium and France from the 16th through the 19th century.
Brussels, Belgium, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, 1989. 46 p. (IPD Working Paper 1989-2)The economic, political, and social records of Belgium and France from the 16th through the 19th century were analyzed, and the influence of material living conditions, strategies of property transmission, and attempts by elites to alter popular culture on nuptiality and marital fertility during the period are detailed. Reasons for France's early marital fertility decline are compared with Belgium's more delayed transition. It is stressed that rising household income is not the only path the change. There are many paths to marital fertility transition. Historical analysis reveals that classic factors believed to lead to demographic transition do not explain the first half of the French fertility decline. Demographic transition is also possible as a result of economic and political crises forcing ideological overhaul. Explaining the nature of these alternate paths to change, the role of institutional actors such as religious and political agencies in competing for power and influence to impose and defend their ideologies is pointed out. These are active and dynamic agencies capable of altering strategies when required. Such agencies have had a significant impact on the course of demographic history in the 2 countries examined. Models of demographic change must incorporate the effect of these institutional agencies. The need for joint motivation and legitimation in effecting transition is discussed.
Genus. 1984 Jan-Jun; 40(1-2):155-71.State intervention in population and family planning has been gradually increasing on the assumption that unregulated population growth poses serious national problems requiring public action. Among 152 developing nations in areas surveyed with respect to population and family planning policies in 1980, 52 supported family planning primarily from a demographic rationale and 65 from a health or human rights rationale, while only 35 provide no support. There appear to be 4 major underlying sociophilosophical perspectives on the role of the state in population planning: 1) the deontic/utilitarian whose prime concern is with the rights and obligations of present generations to future generations; this view provides a very vague basis for a general policy of population planning, 2) the environmentalist, which with varying degrees of pessimism in different formulations argue the need to limit population and economic growth because of the limited nature of the world's resources; this view ignores a considerable body of evidence that more than just overpopulation is involved in environmental problems, 3) the family planning perspective, advocated and supported by various international organizations and conferences, holds that decisions about birth control should be made by prospective parents. The assumption is that making birth control methods and education readily accessible to everyone will eventually result in birth rates which are desirable for the society as a whole. In practice, it is difficult to establish whether such voluntaristic measures are enough to control population, 4) the developmental distributionist position sees low birth rates as resulting from modernization, including such factors as more equitable distribution of income and increased educational and social services. Pakistan's family planning program has undergone 3 major bureaucratic reorganizations and shifts in strategy consequent on changes in national leadership since services were 1st offered in 1965. Singapore's leadership has supported family planning actively and consistently since 1966, and the country's socioeconomic development has contributed to its remarkable fertility decline. A 1975 survey of 864 persons in Singapore and a 1981 survey of 584 persons in Pakistan included questions on opinions of the appropriate role of the state in population planning. In Singapore and Pakistan respectively, 31 and 17% felt that the government should have a strict role in controlling family size, 32 and 10% felt that the government should primarily provide advice and pass laws, 18 and 18% felt the government should provide advice only, 17 and 37% felt it should be left to the married couple, and 2 and 18% didn't know. The empirical evidence suggests that the political legitimacy of the state and public policies to promote distributive justice, are both more developed in Singapore than Pakistan, have significant influence on the degree of public acceptance of state intervention in family planning.
Journal of Environmental Management. 1978 Jan; 14(1):35-44.The relationships between leaders' and citizens' income levels, citizens' sex, race, marital status, and employment status and their attitudes toward population growth within a context of regional water quality planning was examined. The relationship between leaders' and citizens' predispositions toward economic growth and environmental protection, and their attitudes toward population growth were also analyzed. The data were drawn from a 1976 survey of western New York State officials and citizens conducted by the Environmental Studies Center at the State University of New York at Buffalo. The survey results were used by officials of a regional, federally funded water quality planning operation as additional public input. The study indicates that a large majority of the public in the Niagara Frontier Region wanted to see the size of the population remain the same. In comparison, the areas leaders were more inclined to prefer increased growth. Sex was not associated with citizens' opinions on population growth, but citizens who were black, or married, or employed, and leaders and citizens with high incomes tended to prefer more economic and population growth. Leaders' and citizens' income levels were related to their predispositions toward growth. The data revealed that respondents who favored more economic growth, even if it means possibly harming the environment, also tended to prefer more population growth. The survey revealed that a large majority of western New York State's residents opposed the power of eminent domain (the right of the government to take away private land for a public purpose). Government must be able to exercise this power, in highway construction for example, so that the entire region can benefit. On this question the wise course would be for officials to ignore public opinion. Due to the local nature of this inquiry, care must be taken not to overgeneralize its findings. Yet, compared to the nationwide survey, there are advantages to a regional approach. If a regional survey project is closely linked to a specific planning operation, it can provide officials with valuable information during a programs' development stage. The data reported here can aid "208" water quality planners in western New York State to develop a population policy strategy that is acceptable to area residents as part of the final plan. From a representation standpoint, approaches like this in conjunction with traditional means of active citizen participation can bring the views of the uninterested but affected public into the planning process.
Demography. February 1970; 7(1):53-60.A survey of 134 adult women, in a small and isolated American community, living in a limited-income family housing project suggests that the view of continued population growth as a problem is more strongly held than the view that the couple has a responsibility to limit its fertility because of overpopulation. Concern with population growth is only loosely associated with acceptance of the attitude of individual responsibility. Among subgroups of respondents, Catholics were more likely to hold a negative attitude toward population growth than to possess the individual responsibility view. They exhibited a correlation between the 2 attitudes. Protestants were distinguished by no difference in or correlation between the acceptance of the 2 attitudes. A correlation between the attitudes was especially pronounced among Catholics with high achievement values. The author suggests that measures explicitly intended to control population growth probably cannot be adopted until there is a strong correlation between the 2 attitudes.(Author's, modified)
American Demographics. 1982 May; 4(5):14-19, 47.Add to my documents.