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Fertility concern in Finland and Russia: Economic thinking and ideal family size in the rhetoric of population polices.
Finnish Yearbook of Population Research. 2008; 43:63-84.This article deals with fertility concern in Russian and Finnish population policies. The article points out that some commonly known discourses are persistently used as arguments in fertility-related population policies. In Finland, these include, for instance, discourses on "ageing nation" and "economic competitiveness". Russian policymakers use a "crisis discourse" that consists of three sub-discourses: "demographic crisis", "reproductive health in crisis" and "family crisis". The Russian government implements pronatalist population policies, whereas Finnish authorities hesitate to use the term "population policy" because of its emphasis on reproductive rights on the one hand, and the negative associations of population policy on the other. Russia has both population and family programs, as well as a new law with a specifically pronatalist emphasis. Conversely, Finland uses family policy as a tool of population policy. (author's)
Population and Development Review. 2005 Jun; 31(2):313-336.After the communist revolution, the population of the People’s Republic of China grew rapidly, increasing by 80 percent between 1950 and 1980 (United Nations 2005). Partly this increase was due to improved social and economic conditions that greatly reduced mortality. Early in the period the Party’s pronatalist exhortations reflected an anti-Malthusian ideology. In the mid-1950s, China’s total fertility rate exceeded 6 children per woman. Although the fertility rate had fallen to less than half that level by the late 1970s, in 1979–80 China introduced its one-child birth planning policy to reduce the country’s rapid population growth. A well-publicized Chinese projection at the time argued that, if the fertility rate stayed at 3, China’s population would be 4.26 billion in 2080, “almost equal to the total  population of the entire world.” he stringent restrictions and coercion associated with the one-child policy aroused international controversy. Some observers viewed it with dismay and disapproval. To this day the policy remains a key impediment to US government contributions to the United Nations Population Fund (US Department of State 2002, 2004). Given the demographic, human rights, and political significance of the policy, it is important to ascertain the attitudes of Chinese citizens to the policy. (excerpt)