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Global Public Health. 2008; 3(S2):39-57.This study is aimed at examining how subsequent Peruvian governments, since 1990, have addressed reproductive rights, HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and sexual diversity rights, as well as the drastic policy shifts and its many contradictions. Abortion and contraception consistently generated the deepest public controversies and debates, which made progress in reproductive rights difficult. HIV/AIDS was often portrayed as having the potential to affect everyone, which allowed advocates and activists to achieve some success in advancing HIV/AIDS-related rights. Sexual diversity rights, perceived as a demand made by "others", were generally trivialised and disdained by politicians, officials, and the general population. Positive changes occurred as long as the issue was given a low political and institutional profile. The analysis of policy-making and programme implementation in these three areas reveals that: (1) Weaknesses in national institutional frameworks concerning reproductive health made it possible for governments to adopt two very different (even contradictory) approaches to the issue within the past 15 years; (2) Policies were presented as rights-based in order to garner political legitimacy when, in fact, they evidenced a clear disregard for the rights of individual citizens; and (3) By favouring low-profile "public health" discourses, and marginalising "the sexual" in official policies related to sexuality, advocacy groups sometimes created opportunities for legal changes but failed to challenge conservative powers opposing the recognition of sexual and reproductive rights and the full citizenship of women and sexual minorities. (author's)
Lancet. 2007 Oct 20; 370(9596):1394.Eradicating poliomyelitis presents many challenges. Financing essential activities can be difficult when donors fail to meet funding targets (a US$60 million funding gap currently exists for the fourth quarter of 2007). Security issues in two of the four polio-endemic countries-Afghanistan and Pakistan-make access to children difficult for immunisation teams. And in Nigeria, low vaccine coverage and an outbreak of disease from vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) could set back global eradication efforts. Over the past 10 years there have been nine outbreaks of poliomyelitis derived from the oral vaccine in nine countries. Nigeria has seen the largest outbreak; 69 children have been paralysed this year. VDPVs are rare but occur when the live virus in an oral polio vaccine mutates and reverts to neurovirulence. This loss of attenuation does not matter so much in populations who are fully immunised with oral vaccine, since they will be protected from wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, but in Nigeria,where vaccine coverage is 39% (and even lower in some northern states), it is a problem. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Advocates for Youth, 2005.  p. (Issues at a Glance)In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a fact sheet with messages to encourage sexually active people to use condoms to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In 2001, under pressure from anti-condom activists within the administration, CDC removed that document, replacing it a year later with a very different fact sheet. While there are many nuanced differences between the two fact sheets, there are two main distinctions. The 2002 fact sheet shows 1) a bias within the administration towards promoting abstinence over condom use, even for those who are sexually active; and 2) a willingness to censor vital, life-saving information, even in the face of an HIV pandemic. Below are several examples that illustrate these distinctions. (excerpt)
Nursing for Women's Health. 2007; 11(1):83-87.In June 2006, the approval and recommendation of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine that can prevent most cervical cancers piqued interest, generated much media attention and raised questions. As a result, many young women, parents and others want to know more about this vaccine. This article will help nurses understand and communicate about issues surrounding the vaccine. HPVs are a family of more than 100 virus types that cause such problems as common warts, plantar warts, skin cancers, anal and genital warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (a rare benign infection of type HPV 6 or 11 that passes from mothers to infants during childbirth), head and neck cancers, genital cancers (vagina, vulva, penile) and cervical cancer. Approximately 40 types of HPV infect the mucosal epithelium, whereas 60 types are cutaneous. More than half of sexually active women and men will be infected with one or more types of HPV in their lifetime, and some reports indicate that 80 percent of women will have anHPV infection by 50 years of age. Young women and men between 15 and 24 years of age account for half of the infections. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States. It's estimated that 20 million people are currently infected and 6.2 million will be newly infected each year. (excerpt)
Social History of Medicine. 2005; 18(1):87-105.This article explores the political history of school sex education policy in England and Wales. Focusing on the period from the 1940s to the 1960s, it shows how sex education developed as a controversial political issue through an analysis of the differing institutional cultures and agendas of health and education administrators. The article argues that serious consideration of school sex education by central government was first prompted by concern about venereal disease during the Second World War. Thereafter, two groups of actors emerged with conflicting ideas about the role of government in prescribing school sex education. The medical establishment, including the Ministry of Health, was broadly supportive of a national policy, whereas the Department of Education, which had ultimate responsibility for any such policy in schools, sought to avoid decision-making about the issue. The article explores how a public health consensus on sex education developed and then explains why the Department of Education resisted this consensus. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM], 2004.  p.From Mexico City to Beijing, it seems that women returning home from the United Nations' four world conferences on women have felt compelled to try to set the record straight--to insist on the significance of events whose representation by the media did not match their own experiences. For instance, on their return from the 1975 Mexico City conference, the Ecuadorian delegation held a press conference to protest against the "distortion in the news" about the meeting. "Few events in the world today have had the importance of this Conference of International Women's Year," they told assembled journalists. "The spirit that animated the conference wasn't one of confrontation; it was a search for steps to secure equal rights and women's participation in decision-making." To its credit, the daily El Comercio-- which had prominently printed the infamous "grapple for the microphone" picture as part of a front-page lead story--did give page-one coverage to the delegation's criticism. This is rare. Normally, rebuttals from those frustrated by media coverage are tucked away on the inside pages, or in letter columns. (excerpt)
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2002; 12(4):286-290.The benefits of immunizing against the vaccine-preventable diseases far outweigh the minimal risks of vaccination. In order to maintain or improve the strength of every national immunization program, workers at each level of the public health community—from local health workers to health department officers—should be educated about the issues surrounding vaccination, and they should be prepared to respond to public concerns. The quick response to public anxieties regarding vaccines and the rapid, honest communication of explanations and actions can help ensure the integrity of immunization programs throughout the Americas. That is according to “Guidelines for Managing Immunization Safety Concerns,” a document prepared by the Division of Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Although immunization has been an important public health accomplishment over the past 200 years, it is not without controversy. Vaccine safety issues have been undergoing visible public debate, especially over the last 20 years. At times, immunization programs worldwide have been jeopardized by public reactions to the debate. Although vaccines are not completely effective at all times, they are one of the safest interventions in the medical armamentarium. (excerpt)
AIDS WATCH. 1991; (13):3-7.India's response to AIDS has ranged from a 3-phase official surveillance program begun by the India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1985, to legislation criticized as "bigoted and superficial", to conflicting messages, panic and confusion. The ICMR has determined that HIV is transmitted mainly by heterosexual contacts in India. In the media the Director-General of the ICMR was cited as recommending that sex with foreign visitors be banned, as a way to contain the HIV epidemic. Media also reported that defective ELISA screening kits were imported into India that infection control in some hospitals is sub-optimal, that the blood and blood products supply is grossly contaminated with HIV and that certain commercial blood donors were infected from giving blood. All foreign students currently must be HIV-negative to get a visa. It is a major problem to plan an AIDS education campaign with India's large illiterate population and dozens of languages. An AIDS network is emerging incorporating ICMR, the All India Institute of Medical Science, the Central Health Education Bureau, Mother Teresa's order, and a newly formed gay awareness group with the newsletter "Bombay Dost."
In: International Health in the 1990s: Directions in Research and Development, NCIH Southern Regional Conference, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, October 29-31, 1987, selected proceedings, coordinated by Maureen Heffernan. Washington, D.C., National Council for International Health, 1988 Spring. 123-6.The issue of AIDS and all Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) is now caught in the middle of a struggle to shape public opinion, and future funding of education services and research depends, to a large degree, on the outcome of that struggle. The issue is very sensitive, being involved with sex and fear. It has been highly politicized in the US because of several factors. 1) The public's education on the issue came mainly through the press, often making it unbalanced and sensational. 2) The public gets mixed signals: they are told that there is nothing to fear from a person with AIDS at work place or at school, but also read that many doctors and dentists avoid AIDS patients. 3) Federal government policy decisions on the issue often seem to be political, not coming from its medical experts. 4) The typical victim is among the disenfranchised of our society, and blaming the victim is a common reaction. Society has been unwilling to accept the reality of sexually transmitted diseases, as is clearly reflected in the way the government has allocated government funds. The challenge to America is to create an atmosphere that allows rational policy. 1) More and better information dissemination is critical; other countries are way ahead of the US in this matter. 2) The issue of heterosexual transmission should be put in proper perspective. 3) Professional training in all aspects of STDs and AIDS research, care and prevention needs to be vastly expanded. 4) The AIDS issue should be placed in the broader context of STDs and other public health problems to avoid all types of unhealthy competition among special interests.
WIRTSCHAFT UND STATISTIK. 1987 Sep; (9):681-9.Efforts to prepare the public for the census in the years prior to the 1987 census in the Federal Republic of Germany are reviewed and evaluated. These include the work of both official and private agencies. Opinion polling on the value of population statistics and the four-phase campaign designed to provide information on the census and encourage participation are discussed. Methods used to distribute information, respond to public inquiries, and address public concerns are also reviewed. Data from studies evaluating the campaign are presented, illustrating changes in the level of public awareness and cooperation with each phase of the national effort.
London, International Planned Parenthood Federation, March 1973. Family Planning Reviews. No. 1. 40 pThe report discusses general trends in relationships between governments and voluntary family planning associations and the specifics relevant to particular nations. At the beginning of 1973, 109 nongovernmental family planning associations existed and 40 governments carried out official programs. In many nations governmental participation occurs even without an official policy. Some governments provide family planning arrangements within the regular public health network. In some cases the government assists private efforts with funding, facilities, or doctors' time. A combination of approaches is typical. As government takes on more responsibilities, private associations often relinquish their service roles and expand their educational and motivational activities. In the future, government involvement and interest in family planning should increase. Charts summarize the international situation in government/voluntary family planning association relationships.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. April 15, 1971; 109(8):1118-1127.The 1970 Nelson Committee hearings were held to determine whether Pill users were properly told about the side effects and suspected complications. The author charges the Committee hearings of sensationalizing adverse results of the Pill, causing 18% of all U.S. users to stop this treatment and another 23% to seriously consider quitting. A survey following the Nelson hearings showed 97% of the 13,000 U.S. obstetricians and gynecologists questioned believed oral contraceptives to be medically acceptable. The Scowen report of England (1970) said the Pill is the best contraceptive available, and the low-estrogen pill (50 mcg) is the safest. Because of the relationship of the pill to thromboembolism brought out by Nelson hearings oral contraceptives now must carry a health warning, and the result of the Scowen Committee will most likely encourage doctors to prescribe low dosage estrogen pills.
[Demographic goals and population-relevant policy of the member states of the Council of Europe: a comparison of 11 selected government reports prepared for the European Population Conference in Strasbourg on September 21-24, 1982] Demographische Ziele und bevolkerungsrelevante Politik der Mitgliedslander des Europarates--ein Vergleich 11 ausgewahlter Regierungsberichte fur die Europaische Bevolkerungskonferenz in Strassburg vom 21. bis 24. September 1982
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1982; 8(3):412-27.The demographic goals and population-related policies of 11 countries are summarized and compared using as a source the government reports prepared for the 1982 European Population Conference. Consideration is also given to future population trends, government positions, and public opinion. Countries examined include Austria, Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey. (ANNOTATION)
Bangkok, Ministry of Public Health, National Family Planning Programme, Thai Population Clearing-House-Documentation Centre, 1983 Jan. 101 p. (ASEAN/Australian Project No. 3: Developing/Strengthening National Population Information Ststems and Networks in ASEAN Countries)To study the flow of population information from the producers to the users in Thailand and to evaluate the use of population information by the user groups, users were divided into 3 groups--policy makers and acamedicians, program implementors, and the general public. Data were collected by mail questionnaire. Among the policy makers and the academicians, basic demographic data were the most utilized. Academicians indicated that data on population and family planning were consistent with their needs. Considering usefulness of the data for their work, data on family planning policy and birth control were the most useful for makers while basic demographic data were the most useful for academicians. Data on urbanization, law, and population policy of other countries seemed to be the least utilized and the least useful. The policy makers did not receive enough information on: population and social and economic development, production and consumption of agricultural products, population education, and law and population policy of Thailand. The academicians did not receive enough information on almost all 13 topics except information about population policy and birth control, services, and administration. Both groups indicated that the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) was the major source of the data they received. The policy implementors dealt with documents and printing materials in family planning and indicated that the "Journal of Family Health", format was suitable. Regarding the programmed manual or lessons in family planning, the implementors indicated that they were interesting and consistent with their needs. Regarding the kit, the folder, sampling of contraceptive devices, and the model of the uterus were the most utilized materials. The implementors indicated that folders on 6 types of contraceptive methods were useful and adequate for their work. The study directed to the general public dealt with information in family planning disseminated through radio and posters. 2 types of programs were transmitted the radio: song supplemented with information on family planning and drama supplemented with information. The public indicated that the 1st type was a good and interesting program. The respondents evaluated the drama program as good. The majority of the respondents had seen the posters about family planning and indicated a fair amount of interest in them.