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Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2012 May.  p. (U.S. Global Health Policy)This survey is the fourth in a series by the Foundation that explores the American public's views and knowledge of U.S. efforts to improve health for people in developing countries.The survey examines perceptions about foreign aid in general and U.S. spending on global health specifically, including views on the potential impact of spending, perceptions of progress in improving health in developing countries, and the visibility of global health issues in the media.The survey was designed and analyzed by public opinion researchers at the Kaiser Family Foundation. It was conducted February 2 through February 12, among a nationally representative random sample of 1,205 adults ages 18 and older. The margin of sampling error for the full sample is plus or minus 3 percentage points.
Health Affairs. 2007 Mar-Apr; 26(2):345-354.A number of important health policy issues, such as the allocation of flu vaccines during a pandemic, require society to determine priorities across different age groups. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and related methods of economic evaluation are often useful for determining optimal resource allocations. Using the examples of recently evaluated vaccine interventions, we show that current methods of CEA are likely to undervalue health interventions for young people, relative to societal preferences inferred from research on age preferences and the value of health over time. These findings demonstrate important considerations regarding how society distributes health resources across age groups. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], . 14 p.The deepening of democratic institutions, gains in macroeconomic stability and rapid expansion of prosperity contribute to an overall encouraging context for sustainable development in Brazil. Yet, despite these numerous advances, real poverty has only moderately declined, and inequality persists. In Brazil, economic and social status tends to vary by geography, race and gender, a legacy of the country's history. Imposed and de facto colonial and post-colonial divisions among indigenous peoples and descendents of Portuguese settlers, African slaves and European, Middle Eastern and Asian immigrants created persistent structures of exclusion and inequality. In the 1950s, during the military government, a strategy of import substitution prioritized rapid industrial expansion, and helped to bring about significant, sustained economic growth. Benefits, however, accrued disproportionately to the upper classes at the expense of workers and unions. The industrialization contributed to the expansion of the favelas (urban slums), one of Brazil's greatest contemporary challenges, by promoting urban migration while infrastructure and social support did not expand at the same pace. (excerpt)
AFFILIA. 1995 Winter; 10(4):369-97.This analysis of the family-labor market policies of three European countries--Sweden, the former East Germany, and the former West Germany--contends that the major influences on such policies are the labor needs of the economic system; state-promoted notions of equality of opportunity versus equality of result; and public attitudes toward gender, motherhood, and equality. It demonstrates the contradiction inherent in policies that seek both to protect mothers and to promote equality in the workforce and the need to consider equality of result, as well as equality of opportunity, as a potential policy goal. (EXCERPT)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, World Game Institute, 1991. 27,  p.Globally, there are 13-18 million starvation-related deaths per year; 800 million malnourished people in the world; 9 million children dying from preventable causes; 100 million people homeless; 1 billion illiterate adults; 130 million children not in school; 15 million refugees; 200 million tons of waste added to the air by human activities; 26,000 million tons of topsoil eroded from world croplands; 15 million acres of desert land formed annually by mismanagement; 28 million acres of rain forest destroyed each year; a 1.5 square mile hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica; and over 90,000 tons of known nuclear waste. According to a survey conducted over the last 20 years of over 40,000 people, the preferred state of the world would be for 100% of humanity to have on a sustainable basis: abundant supplies of food and clean water; adequate housing; comprehensive health care and sanitation facilities; abundant, clean, and safe supplies of energy; employment and vocational alternatives; literacy and access to education; access to communication and transportation; access to decision-making processes that affect their lives; a peaceful, nuclear, chemical, and biological weapon-free as well as crime and drug-free world; a clean, self-regenerating environment free from damaging practices; easy access to the information needed to produce the above; freedom of speech, press, and religion; absence of all forms of prejudice; respect of the diversity of all cultures and nations; strong social support for individuals, families, and communities; absence of all forms of degrading treatment or punishment; access to equality before an impartial tribunal; access to the right to perform public service in one's own country; access to rest and leisure; access by mothers and children to special care and assistance; and access to spiritual growth and fulfillment. The combined annual costs of solving the major human needs and environmental problems facing humanity would amount to approximately $250 billion, which is approximately 1/4 of the total annual world military expenditure.
In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 11-6.The rapid growth of population around the world has become the focus of international concern. This conference, which focuses on the theme of population growth and human development, uses a 3-fold perspective to understand and analyze population issues. 1st, human solutions to the population problems, which are essentially the problems of ordinary men and women who have their own private histories and recognizable identity as members of a family group, are recommended. 2nd, no population policy can be effectively formulated and implemented in isolation. It is always as an integral part of the total socioeconomic development strategy of the country. 3rd, the conference, which was organized by a voluntary organization with assistance from the UN and other international organizations, is a sign of the increasing realization that population problems cannot be solved except through international cooperation. A basic concern of the developing countries of Asia is to bring about a decline in fertility rates. Governments and voluntary organizations have collaborated in various action programs designed to promote the kind of social atmosphere that is required for responsible decision making in voluntary family limitation. The experience of most of the developing countries of Asia with respect to the sociocultural changes, which are thought to be conducive to the small family norm, has not been encouraging. Fertility control has been imposed from the top, and has not been understood by the common people, who are often illiterate and influenced by the customs of tradition. Through social education, public opinion, and legislation, the problems of excessive population can be conquered.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Division . 64 p.The Ministry of Plan Implementation organized a series of seminars for leaders of public opinion as a prelude to the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development which was held in Sri Lanka from Aug. 28 to Sept. 1, 1979. The objectives of these seminars were to raise public awareness and concern on the linkages between population and development and to forumlate basic guidelines for the briefing of the Ceylon Parliamentary delegation to the International Conference. These seminars consisted of reports on: population and development medical personnel; population and development nongovernment organizations; seminar report on population development-ayurvedic physicians; population and development government agents and senior government officials; population and development mass media personnel and population and development parliamentarians. The series of seminars, deliberations and discussions surfaced the problems confronted in the organization of population and family planning activities in Sri Lanka. Dennis Hapugalle stressed the need for sterilization programs in rural areas and qualified physicians. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, as a nongovernment organization concentrates on information, education, and research in family planning, in cooperation with the government's clinical services. Its programs consist of clinical services for family planning and subfertile couples; information education services; community level programs; population education for youth; women's development activities; nutrition programs; training programs, environmental and population laws; and research. A. W. Abeysekera spoke of the role of the mass media in the diffusion of knowledge as well as the difference between development and growth. Growth relates to national income and can be defined as an increase in aggregate output. Development includes changes in social structure and allocation of resources. Deficiencies in the delivery of services were discussed by Neville Fernando. Family planning services should be given very high priority.
[Demographic trends and policy responses] Tendenzen der Bevolkerungsentwicklung und politische Reaktionen/Tendances demographiques et reponses politiques/Tendenze demografiche e risposte politiche
Bern, Switzerland, Bundesamt fur Statistik, 1982. 39 p. (Beitrage zur Schweizerischen Statistik/Contributions a la Statistique Suisse/Contributi alla Statistica Svizzera no. 95)This document is the text of a report prepared by the Swiss government on the objectives and measures of its policies affecting demographic trends. The Swiss population increased by 1.42%/year between 1950-60 and 1.45% from 1960-70, but by 1970-80 the growth rate had declined to .15%/year. Switzerland, with a population in 1980 of 6,366,000, has been a country of immigration for over a century. The declining population growth rate of the 1970s was caused by increasing controls on the number of foreign immigrants and guest workers and by a decline in the birth rate. The Swiss population is aging; in 1980 13.7% were 65 or over and only 27.7% were under 20. The proportion of never married adults has increased, the number of divorces has increased, and the age at 1st marriage has increased to 27.4 for men and 24.9 for women in 1979. Women in 1980 had an average of 1.53 children each, up from 1.49 in 1978. Life expectancy in 1979 was 72.1 for men and 78.7 for women, and infant mortality in 1980 was 9/1000 live births. The Swiss government has tended to play a passive role in matters of population, with the exception of the rapid increase in foreigners in the 1960s and 70s. Few studies of the attitudes of the Swiss population toward the country's demographic development have been done, but 5 surveys undertaken betwen 1970-81 demonstrate widespread support of the government's restrictive migration policies. Apart from its desire for a balance between the native and foreign populations, the Swiss government has not indicated its demographic preferences for the future. However, issues of fertility and family constitution have played a role in some measures such as family allowances. The migration policy, in addition to seeking a balance between the foreign and native populations, also aims to assure the integration of longterm foreign residents into the Swiss population. No official institute of demographic studies exists in Switzerland, but a number of agencies and commissions carry out some demographic functions. Responsibility for demographic functions is shared by federal and local governments.
[Demographic goals and population-relevant policy of the member states of the Council of Europe: a comparison of 11 selected government reports prepared for the European Population Conference in Strasbourg on September 21-24, 1982] Demographische Ziele und bevolkerungsrelevante Politik der Mitgliedslander des Europarates--ein Vergleich 11 ausgewahlter Regierungsberichte fur die Europaische Bevolkerungskonferenz in Strassburg vom 21. bis 24. September 1982
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1982; 8(3):412-27.The demographic goals and population-related policies of 11 countries are summarized and compared using as a source the government reports prepared for the 1982 European Population Conference. Consideration is also given to future population trends, government positions, and public opinion. Countries examined include Austria, Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Turkey. (ANNOTATION)
Bangkok, Ministry of Public Health, National Family Planning Programme, Thai Population Clearing-House-Documentation Centre, 1983 Jan. 101 p. (ASEAN/Australian Project No. 3: Developing/Strengthening National Population Information Ststems and Networks in ASEAN Countries)To study the flow of population information from the producers to the users in Thailand and to evaluate the use of population information by the user groups, users were divided into 3 groups--policy makers and acamedicians, program implementors, and the general public. Data were collected by mail questionnaire. Among the policy makers and the academicians, basic demographic data were the most utilized. Academicians indicated that data on population and family planning were consistent with their needs. Considering usefulness of the data for their work, data on family planning policy and birth control were the most useful for makers while basic demographic data were the most useful for academicians. Data on urbanization, law, and population policy of other countries seemed to be the least utilized and the least useful. The policy makers did not receive enough information on: population and social and economic development, production and consumption of agricultural products, population education, and law and population policy of Thailand. The academicians did not receive enough information on almost all 13 topics except information about population policy and birth control, services, and administration. Both groups indicated that the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) was the major source of the data they received. The policy implementors dealt with documents and printing materials in family planning and indicated that the "Journal of Family Health", format was suitable. Regarding the programmed manual or lessons in family planning, the implementors indicated that they were interesting and consistent with their needs. Regarding the kit, the folder, sampling of contraceptive devices, and the model of the uterus were the most utilized materials. The implementors indicated that folders on 6 types of contraceptive methods were useful and adequate for their work. The study directed to the general public dealt with information in family planning disseminated through radio and posters. 2 types of programs were transmitted the radio: song supplemented with information on family planning and drama supplemented with information. The public indicated that the 1st type was a good and interesting program. The respondents evaluated the drama program as good. The majority of the respondents had seen the posters about family planning and indicated a fair amount of interest in them.