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[Population policy acceptance among women who decided to terminate pregnancy] Prihvatanje populacione politike na individualnom nivou: zene koje namerno prekidaju trudnocu.
STANOVNISTVO. 1995 Jan-Dec; 33(1-4):41-54.This paper represents a contribution to the analysis of the acceptance of population policy in the low-fertility zone of Serbia. The data analyzed were collected by means of a sample survey of...201 women under 40 selected from the Belgrade subpopulation who decided to terminate their pregnancies....The survey has shown that more or less all women, regardless of age, marital status, education, occupation or other social, psychological or cultural characteristics, resort to termination of pregnancy. Moreover, half of those who book a termination are either childless or have one child only though the survey has shown that the ideal average number of children is 2.70. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
[Public opinion poll concerning population issues, 1989] Kozvelemeny-kutatas nepesedesi kerdesekrol--1989.
DEMOGRAFIA. 1991; 33(1-2):38-57.The results of a 1989 public opinion poll on population issues in Hungary are presented. Respondents were from a nationally representative sample of persons 18 years and older. Attitudes toward large families and ideal family size are described. (SUMMARY IN ENG) (ANNOTATION)
[Opinions on family size variation and the population problem] Meningen over het bevolkingsvraagstuk en de gezinsgroottevariatie.
BEVOLKING EN GEZIN. 1988 Dec; (3):25-51.Attitudes toward current and projected fertility levels and family size uniformity in Belgium are examined. "Analyzing a subsample of [the 1982-1983 survey] NEGO IV (2,547 married and unmarried women cohabiting with their partner, aged 20 to 44 years, living in the Flemish community, and of Belgian nationality), a widespread unawareness of the population problem emerges. With the exception of higher educated women, mothers of at least three children and regularly practicing catholics, respondents are even more favourable to a population decline and increasing family size uniformity than to countermeasures. Individual- and [ego]-centered values seem to have higher priority than 'demographic integrity'." (SUMMARY IN ENG) (EXCERPT)
Attitudes towards demographic trends and population policy: a comparative multi-variate analysis of survey results from Italy and the Netherlands.
[Unpublished] 1987. Presented at the European Population Conference, 1987, Jyvaskyla, Finland, June 11-16, 1987. 18 p.The results of surveys of the attitudes toward current demographic trends and population policies conducted in Italy and Netherlands were compared. The Dutch and Italian surveys were comparable because their aims and parts of the questionnaire were similar, making it possible to analyze the common aspects. The Italian data were taken from a recent survey of the National Institute of Population Research. The survey population included all those of reproductive and marriageable age. 1503 interviews were conducted. The survey was initiated in November 1983 and terminated in February 1984. 952 people were interviewed in the Dutch survey, initiated in 1983. It comprised a representative 2-stage stratified random sample of the Dutch population aged 20-64 years. Both the Dutch and the Italians knew that the birthrate had been declining: 93% of the Italians and 63% of the Dutch. This trend was rated positively by 52% of the Italians and 46% of the Dutch. 52% of the Italian respondents and 58% of the Dutch wanted the population to remain stationary in the future. The 1st important difference was that in Italy the number of respondents who evaluated the birth decline negatively was about 2.5 times as high as in the Netherlands where there was a very high percentage of people who were indifferent to the problem--40% in the Netherlands, 10% in Italy. In Italy, 15% favored an increase in population size in contrast to 8% in the Netherlands. The respondents in both countries had clear ideas on the causes of the fertility decline, but the Italians generally had less set ideas than the Dutch. The economic crisis and the lack of confidence in the future were identified as the most important causes; in the Netherlands, women's work outside the home was considered to be more important than in Italy. In both countries, state intervention concerning fertility was rejected in the majority of cases--67% of the Italians and 81% of the Dutch. A 2-step elaboration was carried out for the identification of typologies of respondents. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis was carried out on 2 subjects: Knowledge and evaluation of current demographic trends; and the acceptance of population policies concerning fertility in relation to their perception of the falling birthrate. The analysis identified typologies of respondents with different levels of information and opinion towards population trends, and 4 clusters for Italy and 4 for the Netherlands were comparable. both the "pronatalist" and the antinatalist" respondents in both countries were, in general, well informed, and in both countries the "interventionists" were, in general, people with a low level of education.
[Natality and family models in Council of Europe countries and in France] Natalite et modeles familiaux dans les pays du Conseil de l'Europe et en France.
REVUE FRANCAISE DES AFFAIRES SOCIALES. 1987 Jan-Mar; 41(1):113-30.The author compares public opinion on fertility and family issues in selected European countries using responses to a 1986 opinion survey conducted for the Council of Europe. Consideration is given to attitudes concerning fertility levels and family size, fertility decline, family policies, employed women and family life, family formation, marriage, cohabitation, and divorce. Discrepancies between attitudes and observed behavior are noted; similarities in opinion among the countries are described in terms of family and fertility norms. In addition to the tables of comparative data, several tables contain data for France alone.
Lexington, Kentucky, University of Kentucky, Center for Developmental Change, 1985 Jun. vii, 141 p. (CDC Development Papers No. 21)An interdisciplinary study, which incorporates a community-based and multimethod approach in a rural, historically high fertility community of Southern Appalachia, was conducted to describe the current pattern of fertility regulation behavior among the study population and to discern the most significant factors associated with such regulation in this contemporary rural-mountain community. A 3-phase research design was used, combining an inventory of local public opinion about birth control and family planning services with a social survey and related ethnographic field studies on the fertility regulation behavior of individuals and specifically married couples living in the community. In addition, the research team conducted a county-wide survey consisting of interviews with 407 married women of childbearing age (15-45) in intact conjugal units and a follow-up study involving indepth interviews with 107 of the 407 women. The county community hospital and health department have played a major role in the provision and delivery of family planning services to community residents since at least the early to mid-1960s. There is general agreement among community leaders, health professionals, and survey respondents that family planning services are now widely available and accessible to individuals and families throughout the county. There is general community support for smaller families and the decision of young married couples to use birth control and to postpone childbearing for a period of time following their marriage. Also there is general community support for educational activities in secondary schools. Family has declined for several reasons since the 1970s, including a tendency to think of childbearing in terms of socioeconomic conditions and to consider the costs of raising and educating children. Active fertility management practices among married couples appear to be rooted primarily in biological, economic, and family considerations as well as increased knowledge of wives and husbands about birth control and greater availability and accessibility of modern contraceptive methods. 8 out of 10 couples with wives who are not currently pregnant are using a method of fertility management. About half of these couples have chosen sterilization. Almost 2/3 of the wives among couples who were sterilized were either pregnant or just had a baby when the couple first considered sterilization. It is concluded that the contemporary patterns of fertility regulation among married couples in the study community are strikingly similar to those found among most other American couples today.
Italians' attitudes towards the births decline and the acceptance of a population policy concerning fertility
In: Contribution of Italian scholars to the IUSSP XX General Conference/Contribution des Italiens au XX Congres General de l'UIESP, Firenze, 5-12 giugno 1985. Rome, Italy, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, 1985. 125-42.This paper reports the results of a survey carried out in Italy in 1983-84 of attitudes and opinions concerning current demographic trends and population policy. The 1503 respondents answered questions on topics such as nuptiality, the image of marriage, life style changes, population structure, the causes and effects of the recent fertility decline, ideal and actual family size, birth spacing, and state intervention in population issues. 93% of respondents were aware that births have declined in the past 10 years, and most attributed this to economic factors. 52% of respondents indicated the fertility decline is a positive trend in light of socioeconomic factors such as unemployment and the housing crisis. In addition, 56% expressed the opinion that ideal family size in Italy (2.2 children) is congruent with actual family size. 67% of respondents indicated that the State should not interfere in any way in the reproductive behavior of Italian citizens. 26% favored intervention, either to increase (12%), maintain (8%), or decrease (6%) present fertility levels. In general, respondents equated state intervention in fertility with repression and violation of personal freedom akin to that which occurred under the fascist regime. The minority of respondents who were in favor of state intervention, either to increase or decrease fertility, expressed a preference for noncoercive measures such as public information campaigns and removal of economic barriers to parenthood. These results suggest that Italy's family policy should be based on democratic consensus and guarantee reproductive choice to couples without outside interference or reference to questions of national welfare.
[Reversal of trends--or change of attitudes? Attitudes on marriage and parenthood of 18- to 28-year-old German women in 1978 and 1983] Wende--oder Einstellungswandel? Heiratsabsichten und Kinderwunsch 18- bis 28jahriger deutscher Frauen 1978 und 1983
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1985; 11(1):89-110.Changing attitudes toward marriage, consensual unions, and family formation in the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed using data from surveys carried out in 1978 and 1983 among German women aged 18-28. Each survey included 1,000 women in first marriages and 1,000 single women. The findings, which reveal clear differences between the two birth cohorts, indicate increasing acceptance of consensual unions and a decreasing tendency to marry; however, they also indicate a trend toward a more pro-natalist orientation. A comparison with data from a longitudinal study "suggests that the differences between the women interviewed in 1978 and those interviewed in 1983 are less cohort-specific, but rather due to external factors of the social context which gained significance between the spring of 1982 and the autumn of 1983." (summary in ENG, FRE) (EXCERPT)
Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)
Lucknow, India, Lucknow University, Population Research Centre, 1985. iv, 57 p. (Population Research Centre Series B: Survey Report no. 23)This study is concerned with the opinions of university students in India with regard to population issues, including family building at the individual level. Data are from a survey of 728 students at six universities in Uttar Pradesh in 1983. Topics covered include family size ideals, son preferences, ideal age at marriage, and actual family building patterns among married students. The implications for population education are discussed. (ANNOTATION)
London, England, Population Concern, 1984 May. 64 p.This publication highlights some of the major popular misconceptions of population. It is divided into 5 sections: 1) population growth; 2) United Kingdom 3) food; 4) family size; and 5) planned parenthood. Misconceptions of population growth include lack of concern about birth rates, and poverty. It is unreasonable to assume that social and economic development will automatically curb the high levels of population growth in less-developed countries. Population policy should be formulated and implemented as an integral part of socioeconomic planning. In discussing Britain's population misconceptions, chart is used to show the ratio of numbers of children and old people to the working age population. Population matters in Britain are often presented as if population and the national economy were Siamese twins. There is anxiety that if the population stops growing the nation will somehow stagnate. Charts present total food production in the UK and imports and exports. Food concerns include hunger and an unequal distribution of food. World food production is presented along with food losses, and available food divided by the population. Total food production figures are given for the US and Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, Latin America, the Near East, Far East, Asian centrally planned economics, USSR and Eastern Europe, less-developed countries, and more-developed countries. Concerns about family size include the relationship of poverty to large families, child labor, effects of family composition on reproductive behavior, and infant mortality. Many people believe that reduction of infant mortality automatically leads to reduction in family size. Certain groups feel that women do not want fertility control programs, and that unsafe methods of contraception are being pushed at them--chiefly by men. The monograph includes many photographs.
In: D'Souza AA, de Souza A, ed. Population growth and human development. New Delhi, India, Indian Social Institute, 1974. 11-6.The rapid growth of population around the world has become the focus of international concern. This conference, which focuses on the theme of population growth and human development, uses a 3-fold perspective to understand and analyze population issues. 1st, human solutions to the population problems, which are essentially the problems of ordinary men and women who have their own private histories and recognizable identity as members of a family group, are recommended. 2nd, no population policy can be effectively formulated and implemented in isolation. It is always as an integral part of the total socioeconomic development strategy of the country. 3rd, the conference, which was organized by a voluntary organization with assistance from the UN and other international organizations, is a sign of the increasing realization that population problems cannot be solved except through international cooperation. A basic concern of the developing countries of Asia is to bring about a decline in fertility rates. Governments and voluntary organizations have collaborated in various action programs designed to promote the kind of social atmosphere that is required for responsible decision making in voluntary family limitation. The experience of most of the developing countries of Asia with respect to the sociocultural changes, which are thought to be conducive to the small family norm, has not been encouraging. Fertility control has been imposed from the top, and has not been understood by the common people, who are often illiterate and influenced by the customs of tradition. Through social education, public opinion, and legislation, the problems of excessive population can be conquered.
Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. 1975; 9(3):196-207.Chilean attitudes toward the national population's size and growth rate was explored by a special survey. The survey sample consisted of 1410 men aged 20-54 in urban Santiago, of whom 1030 were actually interviewed by 36 students from the University of Chile who based their interview on a prepared questionnaire including both open-ended and multiple-choice questions. The men were separated into 6 catagories on the basis of their education and socioeconomic status. The results clearly indicate that men in the lower socioeconomic categories tended to know less about the population's size and growth than their more affluent counterparts. Nevertheless, they more often felt that Chile had too many people, that recent population growth had been rapid, and that population growth should be reduced. (AUTHOR'S MODIFIED)
Perspectives. 1973 Fall; 5(4):237-242.Reporting on responses of 311 women and 412 men to questions about family size and social pressures to have a certain number of children, data shows 2 children make an acceptable family size while 1 child does not. A family of 5 children is considered too large, but only 25% of the women say 4 children are too many; While the 2 child family is acceptable, figures indicate widespread tolerance of families as large as 3-4 children. Below 2 children and after 5, data indicate overt social pressures are exerted on couples to have an acceptable family size. Changes in economic conditions, shorter work week, unemployment for women could facilitate upward revision of family size into 3-4 child fertility intentions.
Urban Indian attitudinal response and behavior related to family planning: possible implications for the mass communication program.
Journal of Family Welfare. 1968; 14:31-38.In 1967 the Indian Institute of Public Opinion conducted a survey of 837 males and 163 females in 11 urban areas obtaining attitudes towards family planning and personal and national concerns. All in the sample were literate, with 72% having completed secondary school. 94% had heard of family planning and believed it was necessary for India. 58% know the location of a family planning clinic. Of those with 2 children, 94% said they did not want any more while 53% reported ever having practiced family planning. The average number of desired children was 2.9. The survey indicated that the family planning program has been successful in communicating awareness of family planning but that there needs to be greater emphasis on the communication of the relationship of controlling family size to individual and national fears regarding well-being, and for creating an awareness of the importance of reducting the family size norm to 2 children regardless of sex.
Demography. February 1970; 7(1):53-60.A survey of 134 adult women, in a small and isolated American community, living in a limited-income family housing project suggests that the view of continued population growth as a problem is more strongly held than the view that the couple has a responsibility to limit its fertility because of overpopulation. Concern with population growth is only loosely associated with acceptance of the attitude of individual responsibility. Among subgroups of respondents, Catholics were more likely to hold a negative attitude toward population growth than to possess the individual responsibility view. They exhibited a correlation between the 2 attitudes. Protestants were distinguished by no difference in or correlation between the acceptance of the 2 attitudes. A correlation between the attitudes was especially pronounced among Catholics with high achievement values. The author suggests that measures explicitly intended to control population growth probably cannot be adopted until there is a strong correlation between the 2 attitudes.(Author's, modified)
[The problems connected with the unfulfilled wish to have children] Zur Problematik der unerfullten Kinderwunsche
Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft. 1983; 9(3):401-11.The advocates of a pronatalist policy use as their major point of argument that the true desire for children [is] greater than the actually prevailing number of children would indicate. Consequently, it should also be in the interest of society to remove the barriers which impede the realization of the wish to have children. The article deals with this contention in a critical manner and questions the correctness of the argument. It is suggested that the results of opinion polls relating to the desire for children convey false impressions and that in view of modern life-styles and goals, it is difficult to find reasons for having several children. "The author nevertheless advocates a general improvement in the situation of families who have several children. Although this should contribute only little to changes in today's reproductive behaviour, such a policy might after all in the long run still have a favourable influence on...values." The geographic focus of the paper is on the Federal Republic of Germany. (summary in ENG, FRE) (EXCERPT)
[Public opinion on the population problem and on policy orientations: results from a regional survey in the Netherlands] Opinies over het bevolkingsvraagstuk en daarop gericht beleid: een beschouwing en resultaten uit een Nederlands, regionaal onderzoek
Bevolking en Gezin. 1983 Sep; (2):227-54.Public opinion concerning population growth and population policy in the Netherlands is examined for the period 1960-1983. Aspects investigated include attitudes toward population growth and decline, the changing age distribution of the population, and policy measures such as tax incentives to encourage larger families and paid maternity leaves. Respondents are characterized according to educational status, age, number of children, and political preferences. (summary in ENG) (ANNOTATION)