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Human Development Legislator. 2000 Oct-Dec; I Spec No(2-3):48-55.This December 2000 Ulat ng Bayan Survey of 1,200 adults ( i.e., 18 years old and above) was conducted to examine the perceptions of Filipinos as regards family planning (FP) and population issues. The examination scheme intended to link such perceptions to the peculiarity of elections in the Philippines and assess the electorate's impression of the electoral candidates' support to population and family planning programs. (excerpt)
JOICFP NEWS. 1999 Jan; (295):3.In an effort to increase public awareness in Japan of global population and reproductive health issues, 5 Japanese journalists from Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), Kyodo News, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, and FM Hokkaido traveled with a JOICFP team in Mexico for 12 days in October 1988. It is hoped that, following their experience in Mexico, the journalists will help to create favorable public opinion in Japan toward development assistance in population. The UNFPA Mexico office, the Japanese embassy, JICA, central and local ministries of health, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Mexico City and rural areas were visited during the tour. Specific sites and programs visited include a NGO in Catemaco, Veracruz state, a junior high school sexuality education program funded by the Packard Foundation, a community guest house for child deliveries in Puebla State, and a MEXFAM clinic funded by the owner of a towel factory. As a result of the study tour, an 8-minute program was aired on NHK, featuring an interview with the director of MEXFAM. The journalists learned from the tour.
PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1995 Aug; 24(2):26-30.While official figures show a steady decline in the number of induced abortions performed annually in Russia, changes in regulations on the provision of abortion services and in the data collection system are likely responsible for the declining figures. For example, abortions performed in commercial health centers and in many state-supported medical units are not reported. Also there are no reliable figures on contraceptive usage in Russia or on other facets of family planning, and indeed Russian health care statistics in general are lacking. Thus, the 30% reduction in abortions reported from 1989 to 1993 was not accompanied by a similar increase in the use of modern contraceptives. Also, 26% of maternal mortality still results from induced abortions. However, during 1993-94, a significant amount of social attention was paid to the issue of family planning in Russia, and induced abortion was identified as a social priority and a health care problem. Also, many public groups are beginning to become involved in the formulation of a population policy in Russia. This has resulted in development of a grassroots approach instead of a hierarchical approach to FP. The most important new players in FP and population policy development are the Russian Orthodox Church with its anti-abortion lobby, commercial health care providers, new nongovernmental organizations, Western pharmaceutical companies, and international foundations and agencies. Several legislative initiatives have led to an increase in the number of officially registered sterilizations and to a proposal to remove abortion from the list of medical services covered by the state insurance program. The platform of some political parties would prohibit abortion. While the provision of FP and the problems associated with abortion have received priority attention, the concept of a human rights approach to FP is not developed in Russia. Russia completed its first demographic transition using the archaic technology of abortion and traditional contraception. A second transition will occur as the use of modern contraception instead of abortion increases.
LINK. 1995 Sep; 4(3):6-8.The Governor of the province of Laguna in the Philippines has ordered that provincial family planning (FP) clinics provide only natural FP methods to their clients. This action has led to widespread debate and controversy. The president of the FP Organization of the Philippines (FPOP), who is a resident of Laguna, has promised that if things get worse, FPOP will stage protests. FPOP plans to continue to provide services, and its main concern is encountering a shortage of contraceptives because of increased demand. Several acceptors recounted their opposition to the Governor's order and indicated that his actions deny the realities of their lives and their rights to make individual choices about controlling their fertility.
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS. 1993 May; (1):67-77.Malaysia's population policy established in 1984 aimed to slow the decline in the fertility rate to .1 point every 5 years from the current decline of .3 or .4 points every 5 years. The aim was to achieve a stable population of 70 million by the year 2100, instead of the projection of 39 million by the year 2150. The perceived social and economic implications of this policy were considered, but the impact on women was not. Earlier policies have focused on the health of women and the need for family planning (FP), but the new objective was to spur economic growth through a larger number of "quality" human resources. This article examines the public response to the policy, the impact on FP programs, the impact on women and women's fertility, the role of donor agencies, women-centered policies and programs, and an action agenda for women's organizations. From academic circles, the response was to question the viability of increasing population when already there was insufficient infrastructure and services. In 1990, 34% of rural areas still did not have safe water and 10% had no electricity. The current Deputy Minister Fong had previously expressed the concern that work force needs did not demand large numbers, but rather, highly skilled persons were needed. Few of these concerns were expressed in the media. Chinese and Indians thought the policy was an attempt to increase the Malay numbers. The Malays saw it as a call to strengthen their race and religion. The FP Board set new targets for acceptors. Abortions were not as easily obtained. Reports surfaced of FP clinics refusing to give pills or IUDs to women with few children. Actual fertility declined from 3.9 to 1980 to 3.3 in 1990 and varied by region and ethnic group. Malay fertility increased from 4.5 in 1989 to 4.8 in 1985, and then began to decline in the late 1980s. A survey found 59% of women favored the policy of which 75% were Malays. There was some decline in donor support. The maternal mortality rate was unaffected. Women apparently want fertility limitation. Women's groups were more active in reflecting their concerns around 1984 than at present, but women activists are still a new phenomena. There is need for women's groups to link up with other national and international women's health networks.
Ascertaining the user perspectives on community participation in family planning programme in Thailand.
[Bangkok], Thailand, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 1991 Dec. , 132 p. (IPSR Publication No. 156)A study of community members, family planning program staff and managers, community-based distributors (CBDs), and local leaders in 4 regions of Thailand was undertaken to determine the extent to which community members are willing to participate in family planning programs, and which activities they prefer. 400 married women aged 15-44, 100 of their spouses, with a contraceptive prevalence rate of 69% taken equally from 12 villages, 16 CBDs from 12 communities, 69 village leaders divided into 1 focus group per village, and 17 staff were interviewed from May to July 1989. 5 variables that determine attitudes were measured: sociocultural norms for participatory behavior, values and beliefs underlying norms, institutionalized participatory behavior, government policies, and the family planning program. Some of the responsibilities open for participatory activity were promotion of family planning in the community,k educating potential users, target-setting, selecting, paying, training and supervising CBDs, record keeping, storing commodities, identifying potential acceptors, and transportation to clinics. Staff and CBDs considered community participation a valuable strategy. Community members considered participation attractive if it were perceived as beneficial to the community. They liked the idea of having services locally, but showed some doubts about the competence of CBDs. They expressed hesitancy about participating in such a personal realm as family planning. Most thought that program staff would be better able to do IEC work. Community members would consider participating in transportation to clinics, selection of CBDs, identification of acceptors, and referral to clinics. Community members were strongly motivated to work in collective, social activities. Managers wanted to make community people more self-reliant and cooperative. No one wanted community participation to duplicate current programs, or to pass program expenses on to localities.
DEMOGRAPHY INDIA. 1990 Jan-Jun; 19(1):17-26.India is the 1st country to have embraced the notion of family planning at the national level. Provisions for programs were indeed included as components of the nation's 1st 5-year plan in 1951. India's population grew over the 1900s to reach a peak growth rate of 2.2%/year over the period 1961-81, then declined slowly to 2.04%/year in 1988. Zero population growth is, however, ultimately desired by the country's planners and policy makers. A midterm goal has been set to attain net reproduction rate of 1 by the year 2000. Declines in crude birth, crude death, and infant mortality rates will be required to reach this objective, in addition to an increase in the couple protection rate. National family planning efforts have met with only moderate success thus far, in large part due to the public perception of the program as a product of and for the Indian government. Voluntary organizations do, however, have great potential to contribute to the program's success. Their potential role is discussed. Specifically, non-governmental organizations (NGO) may help to make the program more community-oriented and accessible, with improved internal worker coordination. They may train functionaries, help supply spacing methods, provide follow-up acceptors, and help make family welfare education be more effective in the organized sector. The paper discusses the degree of current NGO involvement, collaborative experiences with government and how they may be increased in both quantity and effectiveness, and the need for full attention to NGOs for their effective involvement.
In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F.H.A.G. Zwart, [edited by] B. van Norren and H.A.W. van Vianen. Groningen, Netherlands, Geo Pers, 1988. 155-79.Based on case studies in a village ward in West Java, this paper gives an account of how local public opinion developed concerning family planning and how the process of family planning adoption was shaped by it. The events described took place in the early 1970s in the Cianyar ward of the village of Ciendah, on the southern border of the plain of Bandung. By the end of 1969 a family planning program was started in the village. From 1970-1973 about 35 couples became acceptors, 22 of whom were studied afterwards. 15 of these couples belonged to the non-orthodox group and 7 to the orthodox group of the community. According to the data, the adoption process started early but slowly among the non-orthodox community members and relatively late but rapidly among the orthodox. The description starts with a sketch of the sociopolitical relations in the community. Subsequently the opinions of the leaders and the influence thereof on the course of public opinion are extensively discussed. Then the influence of public opinion on the community members' motivating activities and on the adoption process are described. Within the non-orthodox group the adoption process started in all 3 social classes well before public opinion turned in 1972. In the process the couples of the higher class began quite early (beginning 1970) after which the couples of the middle and lower classes followed rather slowly (after about 1 1/2 years in the course of 1971). On the other hand within the orthodox group the adoption process started in all 3 social classes only during or after the turn of public opinion in 1972. In this case the couples of the higher and middle classes began late (1972) after which the couples of the lower class followed rather quickly (after about a good half year, beginning 1973). So long as public opinion was anti-family planning in Cianyar, it prevented the start of an adoption process among the orthodox and slowed down its take-off among the non-orthodox in the community. During and immediately following its turn to being pro-family planning, public opinion sped up considerably the adoption process among the orthodox members of the community.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Division . 64 p.The Ministry of Plan Implementation organized a series of seminars for leaders of public opinion as a prelude to the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development which was held in Sri Lanka from Aug. 28 to Sept. 1, 1979. The objectives of these seminars were to raise public awareness and concern on the linkages between population and development and to forumlate basic guidelines for the briefing of the Ceylon Parliamentary delegation to the International Conference. These seminars consisted of reports on: population and development medical personnel; population and development nongovernment organizations; seminar report on population development-ayurvedic physicians; population and development government agents and senior government officials; population and development mass media personnel and population and development parliamentarians. The series of seminars, deliberations and discussions surfaced the problems confronted in the organization of population and family planning activities in Sri Lanka. Dennis Hapugalle stressed the need for sterilization programs in rural areas and qualified physicians. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, as a nongovernment organization concentrates on information, education, and research in family planning, in cooperation with the government's clinical services. Its programs consist of clinical services for family planning and subfertile couples; information education services; community level programs; population education for youth; women's development activities; nutrition programs; training programs, environmental and population laws; and research. A. W. Abeysekera spoke of the role of the mass media in the diffusion of knowledge as well as the difference between development and growth. Growth relates to national income and can be defined as an increase in aggregate output. Development includes changes in social structure and allocation of resources. Deficiencies in the delivery of services were discussed by Neville Fernando. Family planning services should be given very high priority.
[Unpublished] 1978. Paper presented at National Workshop on Innovative Projects in Family Planning and Rural Institutions in Bangladesh, Dacca, Bangladesh, Feb. 1-4, 1978. 9 p.The concept of integration of family planning with other development programs has led to the innovation of a multisectoral approach to population control and family planning in Bangladesh. Population education through rural cooperatives is 1 such pilot project currently under implementation. Primary cooperatives are 1 of the few widespread, tangible, and viable rural institutions operating within the village. This paper summarizes the activities undertaken so far to create an awareness of the population problem among rural cooperative and other village leaders and to enlish their support in spreading the message of family planning. The Project has passed through the following stages: 1) The establishment of a viable working infrastructure; 2) The preparation for field activities by raising and formalizing support from locally relevant authorities. The Project team initiated a series of regular contacts through personal visits and correspondence; 3) The development and execution of a 4-month training module for the leaders (based on weekly classes) to achieve acceptability and committment by the leaders; to ascertain attitudes, values, and beliefs in order to gauge what motivational stimuli villagers will respond to; to discover links between previous experiences of change in response to the felt needs of communities and that of contemporary problems; to test various educational practices, materials and motivational approaches; and to help the cooperative manager to motivate his fellow members and counter arguments against family planning likely to be thrown at him. A description of the training sessions is provided. Phase 4 will consist of follow-up and Phase 5 will entail evaluation. The paper concludes with a detailed list of preliminary findings.
In: Report of the seminar on Regional Consultation on Updating the Motivation Strategy, 1st to 4th October 1979. Colombo, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Indian Ocean Regional Office, 1979? 133-54.This overview of the family welfare program in India begins with a discussion of the imbalance between birth and death rates brought about by improved control of communicable diseases which has led to rapid population growth in most of the developing world. The evolution of India's population policy is briefly outlined, and changes in policy in the various 5-year plans are indicated. The salient features of the present population policy are listed. The organization of the family welfare program at the national headquarters and the state and union territory level is described. Family planning activities at the postpartum centers, the role of voluntary organizations, and research and training activities are discussed. The motivational strategy attempts to resolve ambivalence concerning the use of family limitation measures. A climate favoring family limitation is developing, aided by the use of mass media to restore credibility to the program following the recent setbacks. Strategies to desensitize the topic of birth control in the public mind are listed. Efforts to reach the people directly will be stressed. The organization and aims of orientation camps for village leaders are described. Some successful strategies tested in Bangalore are discussed. The aims, methods, and results of existing evaluation studies are indicated.
In: Report of the seminar on Regional Consultation on Updating the Motivation Strategy, 1st to 4th October 1979. Colombo, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Indian Ocean Regional Office, 1979? 95-114.The national family planning program of Nepal provided contraceptive services to 6.5% of the target couples by 1978. Information and awareness of family planning must be communicated to the population before couples can be motivated to practice it. A combination of modern and traditional media are used for spreading information about family planning. Personal communication by local leaders is a suitable means of enhancing family planning acceptance in Nepal. Radio, newspapers, film, information leaflets, booklets, and posters, indigenous folk media and exhibitions are also used by the Family Planning Association of Nepal, which is responsible for most communication efforts. Separate motivation projects of the FPA involve spreading the message of family planning through indigenous folk media, orienting students serving in the National Development Service, cooperation with development agencies, and orientation and training of special groups to gain the support of opinion leaders and elites for family planning. The FPA also administers the Rural Family Welfare Center which provides motivational services, contraceptive supplies and simple drugs for 30 panchayats, and the Boudha Bahunpati Family Welfare Project, which provides comprehensive family planning and basic health services in the Sindhupalchok district while encouraging a wide range of development activities. The experience of the 2 projects indicates that the contraceptive acceptance rate reflects the intensity of family planning program efforts.
In: McDaniel EB, ed. Second Asian Regional Workshop on Injectable Contraceptives. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, World Neighbors, 1982. 74-83.To prevent anti Depo-Provera publicity family planning associations have used a number of techniques. They have helped to create positive attitudes to family planning by identifying, contacting, and informing decision makers and community opinion leaders. They have also pinpointed the opposition and tried to find areas of agreement. The author suggests that in reassuring the public serious concerns about Depo-Provera should be investigated and corrected and that a possible complication should not be covered up. The anti Depo-Provera publicity is mostly concentrated in the international women's movement and it is suggested to try to establish communication with women's groups which are not completely opposed to Depo-Provera. Planning family planning with a broader social context has depended on adjusting family planning programs to local development needs. If family planning organizations are seen as helping with community health and better living conditions there might be more positive attitudes toward the use of Depo-Provera as a family planning product. Successful Depo-Provera users also need to be encouraged to speak openly, especially if they are in influential positions. In addition journalists can be invited to hear the positive arguments for Depo-Provera and about family planning organizations in general, and if the confidence of the journalism community is gained then the family planning organization will be asked for its viewpoint more often. Some suggestions for creating good relations with media are: 1) hold press lunches, 2) hold informal briefings, 3) mail background information, 4) have third party medical support with the media, and 5) always be prepared to answer questions.