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Your search found 32 Results

  1. 1
    311585

    Abortion law [letter] [reply]

    Argent V; Wakley G

    Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care. 2007 Jan; 33(1):65.

    Shortage of space in a journal always constrains the amount of material in any commentary. References to support the view that "other polls generally show support for earlier abortion on request and improved access" have been widely available. They include one on 'Women's perceptions of abortion law and practice in Britain' carried out by BMRB Social Research for Marie Stopes International. This showed that 88% of women believed that decisions about abortion should rest with the woman concerned and that 67% believed that abortion should be free on the National Health Service. The State of the Nation poll by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust found that 76% of the UK population were pro-choice. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists reported that one in three women have an abortion in their lifetime and that almost 90% of abortions take place in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. These large numbers provide a practical demonstration of the wishes of women to have access to early abortion. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    308153

    The electorate's perspective: Ulat ng Bayan Survey on Population and Reproductive Health.

    Human Development Legislator. 2000 Oct-Dec; I Spec No(2-3):48-55.

    This December 2000 Ulat ng Bayan Survey of 1,200 adults ( i.e., 18 years old and above) was conducted to examine the perceptions of Filipinos as regards family planning (FP) and population issues. The examination scheme intended to link such perceptions to the peculiarity of elections in the Philippines and assess the electorate's impression of the electoral candidates' support to population and family planning programs. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    171486

    [Results of the pre-test on the national family planning emblem] Resultats du pre-test sur le depliant de l'embleme national de PF.

    Razafimandimby T

    Antananarivo, Madagascar, Fianakaviana Sambatra, 1994 Mar. [10] p. (RE-MAD-1)

    Results are presented from a pre-test conducted during March 8-10, 1994, in Antananarivo upon a handout of the national family planning logo conceived and produced by the IEC Coordination Committee. The results are based upon responses and comments made during interviews with 20 men and 20 women aged 25-35 years old, and 20 young men and 20 young women aged 15-22 years old. These participants shared their opinions upon the handout's pictures, its text, color, language used, their understanding of the handout and its appeal, the handout's uniqueness, its acceptability and adaptability, and how easy it was to recall. Subjects' recommendations are noted, followed by annexes upon family planning, the list of six facilitators, and the target population.
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  4. 4
    166843

    Promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights in Moldova.

    Blaja M; Bodrug V; Moshin V

    Choices. 2001 Autumn; 18-9.

    In Moldova, where many young people suffer from hunger and unemployment, young people do not consider sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues to be of high priority. This attitude complicated the advocacy efforts of young people who helped the Family Planning Association of Moldova (FPAM) promote a new family planning law. Young group members initiated discussion with their peers, and high school and university students on reproductive health issues and the necessity of family planning legislation in the country. Nonetheless, the reproductive health legislation passed the Moldavian Parliament and was approved by the country's president on July 27, 2001.
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  5. 5
    154432
    Peer Reviewed

    New reproductive health law, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS. 2000 Nov; 8(16):185.

    A new reproductive health law was passed in the city of Buenos Aires in June 2000, marking an important turning point in the history of reproductive health and rights in Argentina. The law is based on the City's Constitution of 1996 which "recognizes sexual and reproductive rights free of violence and coercion as basic human rights". The law: 1) guarantees women's and men's access to contraceptive information, methods and services needed for the responsible exercise of their sexual and reproductive rights; 2) guarantees holistic care for women during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium; and 3) establishes actions to reduce maternal/child mortality and morbidity. The law generated heated debate and street demonstrations, particularly regarding whether adolescents should have access to contraceptives without parental authorization, whether the IUD should be included among the methods provided at public facilities (as many opponents claimed the IUD is an abortifacient), and the duty of public health care workers to provide family planning services even if this is against their principles or religious beliefs. When the law was passed, the provision of IUDs was included along with other reversible and temporary methods; sterilization, therefore, appears to have been excluded. Parental authorization for adolescents requesting contraception was not required, but instead the law encouraged the participation of parents in everything to do with the reproductive health of their children, where possible. Finally, the law encouraged the use of condoms for dual protection. There was no reference to conscientious objection. (full text)
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  6. 6
    139160

    Mexican press tour helps raise public awareness.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1999 Jan; (295):3.

    In an effort to increase public awareness in Japan of global population and reproductive health issues, 5 Japanese journalists from Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), Kyodo News, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, and FM Hokkaido traveled with a JOICFP team in Mexico for 12 days in October 1988. It is hoped that, following their experience in Mexico, the journalists will help to create favorable public opinion in Japan toward development assistance in population. The UNFPA Mexico office, the Japanese embassy, JICA, central and local ministries of health, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Mexico City and rural areas were visited during the tour. Specific sites and programs visited include a NGO in Catemaco, Veracruz state, a junior high school sexuality education program funded by the Packard Foundation, a community guest house for child deliveries in Puebla State, and a MEXFAM clinic funded by the owner of a towel factory. As a result of the study tour, an 8-minute program was aired on NHK, featuring an interview with the director of MEXFAM. The journalists learned from the tour.
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  7. 7
    111690

    Family planning in Russia in 1993-94: the role of NGOs in demonopolising population policy.

    Popov AA

    PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1995 Aug; 24(2):26-30.

    While official figures show a steady decline in the number of induced abortions performed annually in Russia, changes in regulations on the provision of abortion services and in the data collection system are likely responsible for the declining figures. For example, abortions performed in commercial health centers and in many state-supported medical units are not reported. Also there are no reliable figures on contraceptive usage in Russia or on other facets of family planning, and indeed Russian health care statistics in general are lacking. Thus, the 30% reduction in abortions reported from 1989 to 1993 was not accompanied by a similar increase in the use of modern contraceptives. Also, 26% of maternal mortality still results from induced abortions. However, during 1993-94, a significant amount of social attention was paid to the issue of family planning in Russia, and induced abortion was identified as a social priority and a health care problem. Also, many public groups are beginning to become involved in the formulation of a population policy in Russia. This has resulted in development of a grassroots approach instead of a hierarchical approach to FP. The most important new players in FP and population policy development are the Russian Orthodox Church with its anti-abortion lobby, commercial health care providers, new nongovernmental organizations, Western pharmaceutical companies, and international foundations and agencies. Several legislative initiatives have led to an increase in the number of officially registered sterilizations and to a proposal to remove abortion from the list of medical services covered by the state insurance program. The platform of some political parties would prohibit abortion. While the provision of FP and the problems associated with abortion have received priority attention, the concept of a human rights approach to FP is not developed in Russia. Russia completed its first demographic transition using the archaic technology of abortion and traditional contraception. A second transition will occur as the use of modern contraception instead of abortion increases.
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  8. 8
    109809

    Laguna's women lecture Lina on freedom of choice.

    Isla-Te M

    LINK. 1995 Sep; 4(3):6-8.

    The Governor of the province of Laguna in the Philippines has ordered that provincial family planning (FP) clinics provide only natural FP methods to their clients. This action has led to widespread debate and controversy. The president of the FP Organization of the Philippines (FPOP), who is a resident of Laguna, has promised that if things get worse, FPOP will stage protests. FPOP plans to continue to provide services, and its main concern is encountering a shortage of contraceptives because of increased demand. Several acceptors recounted their opposition to the Governor's order and indicated that his actions deny the realities of their lives and their rights to make individual choices about controlling their fertility.
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  9. 9
    084020
    Peer Reviewed

    Changing population policies and women's lives in Malaysia.

    Abdullah R

    REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS. 1993 May; (1):67-77.

    Malaysia's population policy established in 1984 aimed to slow the decline in the fertility rate to .1 point every 5 years from the current decline of .3 or .4 points every 5 years. The aim was to achieve a stable population of 70 million by the year 2100, instead of the projection of 39 million by the year 2150. The perceived social and economic implications of this policy were considered, but the impact on women was not. Earlier policies have focused on the health of women and the need for family planning (FP), but the new objective was to spur economic growth through a larger number of "quality" human resources. This article examines the public response to the policy, the impact on FP programs, the impact on women and women's fertility, the role of donor agencies, women-centered policies and programs, and an action agenda for women's organizations. From academic circles, the response was to question the viability of increasing population when already there was insufficient infrastructure and services. In 1990, 34% of rural areas still did not have safe water and 10% had no electricity. The current Deputy Minister Fong had previously expressed the concern that work force needs did not demand large numbers, but rather, highly skilled persons were needed. Few of these concerns were expressed in the media. Chinese and Indians thought the policy was an attempt to increase the Malay numbers. The Malays saw it as a call to strengthen their race and religion. The FP Board set new targets for acceptors. Abortions were not as easily obtained. Reports surfaced of FP clinics refusing to give pills or IUDs to women with few children. Actual fertility declined from 3.9 to 1980 to 3.3 in 1990 and varied by region and ethnic group. Malay fertility increased from 4.5 in 1989 to 4.8 in 1985, and then began to decline in the late 1980s. A survey found 59% of women favored the policy of which 75% were Malays. There was some decline in donor support. The maternal mortality rate was unaffected. Women apparently want fertility limitation. Women's groups were more active in reflecting their concerns around 1984 than at present, but women activists are still a new phenomena. There is need for women's groups to link up with other national and international women's health networks.
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  10. 10
    072997

    Ascertaining the user perspectives on community participation in family planning programme in Thailand.

    Soonthorndhada A; Buravisit O; Vong-Ek P

    [Bangkok], Thailand, Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research, 1991 Dec. [8], 132 p. (IPSR Publication No. 156)

    A study of community members, family planning program staff and managers, community-based distributors (CBDs), and local leaders in 4 regions of Thailand was undertaken to determine the extent to which community members are willing to participate in family planning programs, and which activities they prefer. 400 married women aged 15-44, 100 of their spouses, with a contraceptive prevalence rate of 69% taken equally from 12 villages, 16 CBDs from 12 communities, 69 village leaders divided into 1 focus group per village, and 17 staff were interviewed from May to July 1989. 5 variables that determine attitudes were measured: sociocultural norms for participatory behavior, values and beliefs underlying norms, institutionalized participatory behavior, government policies, and the family planning program. Some of the responsibilities open for participatory activity were promotion of family planning in the community,k educating potential users, target-setting, selecting, paying, training and supervising CBDs, record keeping, storing commodities, identifying potential acceptors, and transportation to clinics. Staff and CBDs considered community participation a valuable strategy. Community members considered participation attractive if it were perceived as beneficial to the community. They liked the idea of having services locally, but showed some doubts about the competence of CBDs. They expressed hesitancy about participating in such a personal realm as family planning. Most thought that program staff would be better able to do IEC work. Community members would consider participating in transportation to clinics, selection of CBDs, identification of acceptors, and referral to clinics. Community members were strongly motivated to work in collective, social activities. Managers wanted to make community people more self-reliant and cooperative. No one wanted community participation to duplicate current programs, or to pass program expenses on to localities.
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  11. 11
    070938

    Increasing contribution of voluntary organisations in attaining population stabilisation.

    Talwar PP

    DEMOGRAPHY INDIA. 1990 Jan-Jun; 19(1):17-26.

    India is the 1st country to have embraced the notion of family planning at the national level. Provisions for programs were indeed included as components of the nation's 1st 5-year plan in 1951. India's population grew over the 1900s to reach a peak growth rate of 2.2%/year over the period 1961-81, then declined slowly to 2.04%/year in 1988. Zero population growth is, however, ultimately desired by the country's planners and policy makers. A midterm goal has been set to attain net reproduction rate of 1 by the year 2000. Declines in crude birth, crude death, and infant mortality rates will be required to reach this objective, in addition to an increase in the couple protection rate. National family planning efforts have met with only moderate success thus far, in large part due to the public perception of the program as a product of and for the Indian government. Voluntary organizations do, however, have great potential to contribute to the program's success. Their potential role is discussed. Specifically, non-governmental organizations (NGO) may help to make the program more community-oriented and accessible, with improved internal worker coordination. They may train functionaries, help supply spacing methods, provide follow-up acceptors, and help make family welfare education be more effective in the organized sector. The paper discusses the degree of current NGO involvement, collaborative experiences with government and how they may be increased in both quantity and effectiveness, and the need for full attention to NGOs for their effective involvement.
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  12. 12
    069408

    A baseline survey on AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases in Jamaica. A SOMARC special study.

    Stover J; Smith S

    [Unpublished] 1989 Jan. ii, 60, [16] p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3028-C-00-4079-00)

    Results and recommendations are presented from an island-wide survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS in Jamaica. In addition to providing broad baseline data for future studies of changes in KAP related to STDs and AIDS, the survey was conducted to examine the effect of earlier communication programs upon KAP, and family planning attitudes and practice. Researchers were specifically interested in the extent to which the image of the condom was affected as a family planning method and prophylactic. 1,200 interviews were completed for the survey. Findings are presented on the demographic and social characteristics of the sample; knowledge and awareness of STDs, AIDS, AIDS symptoms, and AIDS tests; impressions about AIDS cures; attitudes toward a person with AIDS; AIDS information sources; knowledge of measures to prevent or reduce the rick of contracting AIDS; perceptions of personal risk; changes in AIDS-related behavior; and the knowledge, image, use, and availability of condoms. Recommendations address the development of new revised media messages, education for the prevention of HIV infection, and the need to ensure the public of the safety of blood supplies in Jamaica. Interventions should be targeted to a broad audience, and efforts made to discourage fatalistic views on contracting HIV.
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  13. 13
    068562

    Looking at abortion and contraception.

    Khomassuridze AG

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):8-15.

    This article describes the urgent need for modern family planning (FP) services and supplies in the Soviet Union, and presents the nation's high induced abortion rate as one of its most serious medical and social problems. With more than 6 million legal abortions per year, and another estimated 6 million performed illegally, the problem of induced abortion is placed on par with heart disease and cancer in the Soviet Union. Induced abortion is the primary method of birth control, responsible for terminating 2 out of 3 pregnancies. Many abortion seekers, especially those employing illegal services, suffer complications resulting in loss of ability to work or even death. The maternal mortality rate for 1988 was 43.0/10,000. Efforts to decrease the level of abortion have increased during reconstruction, and have been witness to a decline in the number of abortions by 866,000 over the period 1985-1988. Contributory factors behind this decline, as well as the decrease of the abortion ratio, are an increased contraceptive prevalence level totalling 13.7% of reproductive-age women, stabilization of the birth rate at a low level, a smaller proportion of reproductive-age women in the population, and rate reporting changes. Nonetheless, inadequate family planning services prevail in the Soviet Union. Instead of focusing upon abortion and contraception, services focus upon diagnosing and treating infertility, and offer neither FP information nor services for premarital youths. Moreover, contraceptive supplies suffer serious, ongoing shortages. Research is needed on the social, demographic, medical, and biological aspects of reproductive behavior in the Soviet Union. Regional differences, abortion law, public opinion on illegitimate pregnancy, abortion methods, health personnel training, and maternal and child health are also discussed.
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  14. 14
    068440

    Counseling about side effects improves contraceptive continuation.

    NETWORK. 1991 Sep; 12(2):3.

    While family planning programs in Africa may pay great attention to motivating women to accept contraception, research indicated that more attention should be focused upon encouraging the continuation of contraceptive use. 2 studies partially funded by Family Health International (FHI) have revealed insufficient counseling about potential side effects of contraceptive methods to be a key reason for contraception discontinuation. A 1st study of 650 women acceptors in the Niger found 70% continuation after 7 months, with the most common reason for discontinuation among those terminating contraception being side effects and fear of side effects. Acceptors who felt that they were poorly counseled were twice as likely to end use. A study of 570 acceptors in the Gambia found a 72% continuation rate after 7 months, with discontinuation 3-4 times more likely where poor counseling was perceived. A 3rd study is planned for Senegal. The provision of improved acceptor counseling may both improve service delivery and reduce program costs. FHI report recommendations have prompted the Niger to emphasize counseling about side effects in its midwife training curriculum, and to pursue a public information campaign against rumors of contraceptive method side effects.
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  15. 15
    062680

    Family planning services delivery: Danish experience.

    Osler M; David HP; Morgall J; Rasmussen NK

    DANISH MEDICAL BULLETIN. 1990 Feb; 37(1):95-105.

    This article presents a historical and statistical explanation of the Danish family planning services delivery system. This system has evolved to accommodate the country, people and opinions that make up Denmark. The descriptions of the laws and regulations is given in a historical context and the operation of the system reflects the will of the people. Health care, including family planning is something that the Danish government gives to every Danish citizen, regardless of income. While abortion is legal it is at an unacceptably high rate. As in other Nordic countries, sex is viewed pragmatically, not morally. Sex is seen as a normal natural function, like eating or sleeping. The desire to control pregnancy is clear. 82% of women seeking abortions in Copenhagen were under 20 or over 34, unmarried or not living in a stable partner relationship, or has 2 or more children. Abortion is not a controversial issue in Denmark, it is viewed as a necessary backup to regular contraception. Sex education was practiced for years before compulsory primary school education was integrated in 1970. The article proposes solutions to the problem of the high rate of abortion: improve sex education and family planning teaching abilities for physicians, health nurses, mid-wives, teachers and social workers; revise teacher's guidelines on sex education and intensify sex education in schools; intensify information to risk groups such as teenagers and single women; organize school trips to visit family planning clinics.
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  16. 16
    052778

    Public opinion and the adoption of family planning in a village ward in West Java, 1970-1973.

    van Norren B

    In: Profession: demographer. Ten population studies in honour of F.H.A.G. Zwart, [edited by] B. van Norren and H.A.W. van Vianen. Groningen, Netherlands, Geo Pers, 1988. 155-79.

    Based on case studies in a village ward in West Java, this paper gives an account of how local public opinion developed concerning family planning and how the process of family planning adoption was shaped by it. The events described took place in the early 1970s in the Cianyar ward of the village of Ciendah, on the southern border of the plain of Bandung. By the end of 1969 a family planning program was started in the village. From 1970-1973 about 35 couples became acceptors, 22 of whom were studied afterwards. 15 of these couples belonged to the non-orthodox group and 7 to the orthodox group of the community. According to the data, the adoption process started early but slowly among the non-orthodox community members and relatively late but rapidly among the orthodox. The description starts with a sketch of the sociopolitical relations in the community. Subsequently the opinions of the leaders and the influence thereof on the course of public opinion are extensively discussed. Then the influence of public opinion on the community members' motivating activities and on the adoption process are described. Within the non-orthodox group the adoption process started in all 3 social classes well before public opinion turned in 1972. In the process the couples of the higher class began quite early (beginning 1970) after which the couples of the middle and lower classes followed rather slowly (after about 1 1/2 years in the course of 1971). On the other hand within the orthodox group the adoption process started in all 3 social classes only during or after the turn of public opinion in 1972. In this case the couples of the higher and middle classes began late (1972) after which the couples of the lower class followed rather quickly (after about a good half year, beginning 1973). So long as public opinion was anti-family planning in Cianyar, it prevented the start of an adoption process among the orthodox and slowed down its take-off among the non-orthodox in the community. During and immediately following its turn to being pro-family planning, public opinion sped up considerably the adoption process among the orthodox members of the community.
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  17. 17
    039722

    Public policy and public opinion toward sex education and birth control for teenagers.

    Reichelt PA

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. 1986; 16(2):95-106.

    Government policy toward provision of sex education and contraception for adolescents is influenced by public opinion. This is reflected in the fact that recent program formulation appears to follow the conventional wisdom of a general conservative shift among the American public; i.e., recent policy toward adolescent pregnancy is conservative in the sense of being reactive rather than preventive. The validity of this conventional wisdom was checked by examining available data on public opinion toward sex education and birth control services for teenagers. However, these data reveal an upward, not a downward, trend in public approval of such services for adolescents, which runs counter to the conventional wisdom. The available data on American opinions and values demonstrate that the overall movement in attitudes decisively contradicts the idea of a simple conservative swing. Provision of more and better contraceptive services and sex education to teenagers is an important policy goal that would lower the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and would be supported by the American people. (author's modified.)
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  18. 18
    034363

    Revolution in reproduction: family planning in an Appalachian community.

    Hochstrasser DL; Gariola GA; Garkovich LE; Marshall PA; Rosenstiel CR

    Lexington, Kentucky, University of Kentucky, Center for Developmental Change, 1985 Jun. vii, 141 p. (CDC Development Papers No. 21)

    An interdisciplinary study, which incorporates a community-based and multimethod approach in a rural, historically high fertility community of Southern Appalachia, was conducted to describe the current pattern of fertility regulation behavior among the study population and to discern the most significant factors associated with such regulation in this contemporary rural-mountain community. A 3-phase research design was used, combining an inventory of local public opinion about birth control and family planning services with a social survey and related ethnographic field studies on the fertility regulation behavior of individuals and specifically married couples living in the community. In addition, the research team conducted a county-wide survey consisting of interviews with 407 married women of childbearing age (15-45) in intact conjugal units and a follow-up study involving indepth interviews with 107 of the 407 women. The county community hospital and health department have played a major role in the provision and delivery of family planning services to community residents since at least the early to mid-1960s. There is general agreement among community leaders, health professionals, and survey respondents that family planning services are now widely available and accessible to individuals and families throughout the county. There is general community support for smaller families and the decision of young married couples to use birth control and to postpone childbearing for a period of time following their marriage. Also there is general community support for educational activities in secondary schools. Family has declined for several reasons since the 1970s, including a tendency to think of childbearing in terms of socioeconomic conditions and to consider the costs of raising and educating children. Active fertility management practices among married couples appear to be rooted primarily in biological, economic, and family considerations as well as increased knowledge of wives and husbands about birth control and greater availability and accessibility of modern contraceptive methods. 8 out of 10 couples with wives who are not currently pregnant are using a method of fertility management. About half of these couples have chosen sterilization. Almost 2/3 of the wives among couples who were sterilized were either pregnant or just had a baby when the couple first considered sterilization. It is concluded that the contemporary patterns of fertility regulation among married couples in the study community are strikingly similar to those found among most other American couples today.
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  19. 19
    033419

    Family planning in Colombia: changes in attitude and acceptance, 1964-69.

    Simmons AB; Cardona R

    Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)

    This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)
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  20. 20
    032480

    America's challenge.

    Lindsay GN

    Victor-Bostrom Fund Report. 1968 Fall; (10):24-6.

    As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than in the previous year. Beginning in 1964 an attempt was made to quantify the needs and the costs of bringing birth control services to all who need it in the US. The partnership with government has been more intimate than simple parallelism of effort. Planned Parenthood initiated or helped to administer nearly half of the family planning projects sponsored by the War on Poverty. It has served as a consultant on family planning programs to the Department of Health, Education and Welfare and assisted affiliates and other community agencies in developing project applications for federal funds totalling about $4 million, of which about $2 million for 25 projects has been funded. Planned Parenthood World Population has undertaken the planning function and has for that purpose established a national technical assistance center and program.
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  21. 21
    032326

    American physicians and birth control, 1936-1947.

    Ray JM; Gosling FG

    Journal of Social History. 1985 Spring; 18(3):399-411.

    The transition from resistance to acceptance of birth control in the US can be characterized as a 3 stage process, with each period facing its own issues and choices. The 1st stage -- the fight over birth control in the early 20th century -- has been documented by historians like James Reed, Linda Gordon, and David Kennedy. A 2nd stage, approximately the years from 1936-60, has not been fully explored although the period was crucial in shaping the current system of contraceptive health care. This discussion focuses on this transitional period, particularly its 1st decade, 1936-47. Physicians' attitudes, as revealed through American Medical Association (AMA) policy and a national survey conducted in 1947, are considered in relation to reported data on clinic and private practice. This evidence reveals that despite the liberalization of laws and public opinion in the mid-1930s, contraception did not become widely available until after 1960 -- the beginning of the 3rd stage in the history of American contraception -- and that the restriction of birth control information during the period was traceble in large part to the medical profession. Analysis of the 1936-47 decade, particularly with regard to the concerns of doctors, provides a framework for understanding the forces that affected contraceptive health care in the mid 20th century and suggests conditions that continue to shape the politics of birth control. In 1936, when the AMA's committee on contraception submitted its 1st report, it was clear that legal and public opinion had moved decisively toward more liberal attitudes concerning birth control. In 1937 the AMA passed a qualified endorsement of birth control, indicating that the organized medical profession as represented by the AMA held views on birth control at the beginning of the 2nd stage that were more conservative than those of most middle-class Americans. Its conservatism was challenged by lay groups who threatened to circumvent standard office practice if physicians failed to modify their views. Public opinion and behavior thus had a demonstrable effect on medical attitudes. 10 years after the AMA resolution a suvey found that more than 2/3 of physicians approved of contraception for any married women who requested it. The 1937-47 period witnessed 2 important changes in medical attitudes toward contraception: the profession's public, though cautious, endorsement of birth control; and the apparent adoption of liberalized standards for the prescription of contraceptive materials. The period also was a time of tremendous growth for the new birth control clinics that offered services to women who could not afford private care. Available evidence suggests that physicians' attitudes toward contraception, and particularly toward birth control clinics, were more important than either laws or public opinion in limiting the availability of those contraceptives considered most efficient (and most compatible with sexual pleasure) between 1936-60.
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  22. 22
    029324

    Response of patients and doctors to the 1983 'pill scare'.

    Ritchie LD Berkeley MI

    Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners. 1984 Nov; 34(268):600-2.

    The immediate responses of physicians and patients to adverse publicity about the possibility of cancer among women using combined oral contraceptives (OCs) were studied in 2 separate locations: the main family planning clinic in the city of Aberdeen, and a provincial general practice of 10 doctors based in the Peterhead Health Centre. A press release was issued 1 day prior to publication of 2 articles in the Lancet of 22 October 1983, reporting possible risks of breast and cervical cancer in some patients on combined OCs. For the 20 workdays immediately after publication, the 16 participating doctors at both locations collected survey data on the ages of patients and outcomes of consultations for all patients who expressed concern about the OCs. In the family planning clinic, 207 consultations with clinic doctors were prompted by anxiety over the pill and accounted for 24.8% of the workload over the 20 days. In the practice, 73 women (7.8% of all the pill users) who attended over the 20 days expressed concern about OCs. The general practitioners reported lower than expected levels of patient response, whereas the family planning clinic required extra sessions to accomodate the temporary upsurge in demand. At each consultation, the doctor either changed the type of pill, changed the method of contraception, or offered reassurance only. At the family planning clinic and practice respectively, the 1st outcome choices were a change of pills for 58.5% and 39.7% of patients, a change of method for 14.0% and 2.7%, and reassurance only for 27.5% and 57.5%. The mean age of patients was 25.1 years at the family planning clinic and 25.6 years at the health center. This limited study suggests that the predicted "pill scare" did not occur at the Peterhead Health Centre, while in contrast the family planning clinic reported a marked increase in workload including inquiries from the press and local radio stations. Factors accounting for the general practitioners' more conservative responses to patients with pill-related anxiety may have included differences in the type of patient seen; the greater time constraints on the general practitioners, whose patients were booked at 6-minute intervals compared to 12-minute intervals in the clinic; or the continuity of care provided by the general practitioners.
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  23. 23
    024075

    Population misconceptions.

    McGraw E

    London, England, Population Concern, 1984 May. 64 p.

    This publication highlights some of the major popular misconceptions of population. It is divided into 5 sections: 1) population growth; 2) United Kingdom 3) food; 4) family size; and 5) planned parenthood. Misconceptions of population growth include lack of concern about birth rates, and poverty. It is unreasonable to assume that social and economic development will automatically curb the high levels of population growth in less-developed countries. Population policy should be formulated and implemented as an integral part of socioeconomic planning. In discussing Britain's population misconceptions, chart is used to show the ratio of numbers of children and old people to the working age population. Population matters in Britain are often presented as if population and the national economy were Siamese twins. There is anxiety that if the population stops growing the nation will somehow stagnate. Charts present total food production in the UK and imports and exports. Food concerns include hunger and an unequal distribution of food. World food production is presented along with food losses, and available food divided by the population. Total food production figures are given for the US and Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, Latin America, the Near East, Far East, Asian centrally planned economics, USSR and Eastern Europe, less-developed countries, and more-developed countries. Concerns about family size include the relationship of poverty to large families, child labor, effects of family composition on reproductive behavior, and infant mortality. Many people believe that reduction of infant mortality automatically leads to reduction in family size. Certain groups feel that women do not want fertility control programs, and that unsafe methods of contraception are being pushed at them--chiefly by men. The monograph includes many photographs.
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  24. 24
    028223

    Some attitudes of black opinion leaders toward family planning and the National Family Planning Programme

    Ferreira M

    Pretoria, South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council, Institute for Sociological and Demographic Research, 1984. x, 15 p. (RGN.HSRC Report no. S-107)

    The role that black opinion leaders in South Africa play in the area of family planning is examined, with the objective of establishing whether they can be used as agents of change in the National Family Planning Programme. The data concern 80 black opinion leaders and were obtained in interviews conducted in 1982. The results suggest that their attitude is positive, but that they have reservations concerning the political aspects of the government's role in the national program. (summary in AFR) (ANNOTATION)
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  25. 25
    266277

    Report on national seminars on population and development, June-July 1979.

    Sri Lanka. Ministry of Plan Implementation. Population Division

    Colombo, Sri Lanka, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Division [1980]. 64 p.

    The Ministry of Plan Implementation organized a series of seminars for leaders of public opinion as a prelude to the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development which was held in Sri Lanka from Aug. 28 to Sept. 1, 1979. The objectives of these seminars were to raise public awareness and concern on the linkages between population and development and to forumlate basic guidelines for the briefing of the Ceylon Parliamentary delegation to the International Conference. These seminars consisted of reports on: population and development medical personnel; population and development nongovernment organizations; seminar report on population development-ayurvedic physicians; population and development government agents and senior government officials; population and development mass media personnel and population and development parliamentarians. The series of seminars, deliberations and discussions surfaced the problems confronted in the organization of population and family planning activities in Sri Lanka. Dennis Hapugalle stressed the need for sterilization programs in rural areas and qualified physicians. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, as a nongovernment organization concentrates on information, education, and research in family planning, in cooperation with the government's clinical services. Its programs consist of clinical services for family planning and subfertile couples; information education services; community level programs; population education for youth; women's development activities; nutrition programs; training programs, environmental and population laws; and research. A. W. Abeysekera spoke of the role of the mass media in the diffusion of knowledge as well as the difference between development and growth. Growth relates to national income and can be defined as an increase in aggregate output. Development includes changes in social structure and allocation of resources. Deficiencies in the delivery of services were discussed by Neville Fernando. Family planning services should be given very high priority.
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