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New Delhi, India, Indian Institute of Mass Communication, 1993.  p.This study examined the family welfare program, Mahila Swasthya Sangh (MSS), which was fully implemented in Karnataka and Gujarat states; Uttar Pradesh (UP) and West Bengal with low implementation; Assam with targeted implementation in villages with over 1000 persons; and Punjab with implementation in every village. Interviews were conducted during 1991. Most respondents were aware of the family welfare programs. The main sources of information were the radio and posters. Most were aware of MSS in their villages, with the exception of UP. Just over 50% made visits to MSS members about their health problems. Almost 33% of MSS members made weekly or monthly visits to residents. Most respondents were familiar with oral rehydration solution and immunization, with the exception of those in UP. Except in UP, most favored a stop to childbearing. The most frequently used methods were the pill, Copper T IUD, and tubectomy. Almost 50% knew the legal age of marriage for men and women. Lower levels of knowledge about marriage age occurred in UP, West Bengal, Assam, and Karnataka. Almost 75% favored marriage for women over age 18 and men over age 21. UP and West Bengal had lower levels of approval at these ages. Most knew that MSS provided maternal and child health care, immunization, and diarrheal and seasonal diseases. Most were unaware of the song, drama, and cultural shows, and 50% knew about the wall paintings. Over 75% were not aware of well-baby shows. 24% knew about school child health programs. Over 66% approved of contraceptive and medicine distribution.
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Washington, D.C., August 5-7, 1991. 32 p.Brazil's National Survey of Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning, conducted in 1986 as part of the international program of Demographic and Health Surveys, consolidated and extended the findings of 9 previous state-level surveys. This work outlines the impact of survey data on Brazil's private sector family planning organizations, donor agencies, the press and opinion leaders, and the federal government and legislators. The finding of the survey that the rate of contraceptive usage among women aged 15-44 married or in union was much higher than expected at 65.4%, initially suggested that the family planning organizations and donors had completed their tasks, but more careful scrutiny pointed up serious problems. Family planning problems identified in the survey included low levels of knowledge and use of contraception in the impoverished northeast and among groups with low levels of income and education; a very high proportion of users (80%) of just 2 methods, oral contraceptives (OCs) and female sterilization; low rates of use of other effective and reversible methods; a large number of unnecessary caesareans performed only to give the woman access to sterilization services, with fully 72% of sterilized women undergoing the procedure during a cesarean delivery; low average age (31.4 years) of sterilization acceptors and low parity of a substantial proportion; use of pharmacies to obtain supplies by over 93% of OC users and OC use at inappropriate ages; low male participation in family planning; and lack of family planning services for adolescents. The survey demonstrated the reality of family planning in Brazil and prompted a rethinking of the aims and goals of family planning programs. Many aspects of maternal-child health and sexual and reproductive health in addition to provision of contraceptives should be included in a high quality family planning program. The survey findings did not completely resolve all the polemics and controversies that have beset the family planning program in Brazil, but they helped dispel some charges against the program. For the most part, only the most strongly ideological opponents have remained unmoved.
Management and Labour Studies. 1980; 6(2):69-84.Beginning with a brief history of the family planning program in India since its inception in the early 1950s, the author shows that by the end of the 1960s the program was ready for rapid expansion. However, 2 independent occurrences in the 1970s--mass vasectomy camps and the political "emergency"--caused a setback as the rapid and substantial gains during this period were negated by subsequent unfavorable public reaction. These conclusions are reached on the basis of in-depth analysis of program performance in the 1970s, using states as units of analysis and number of sterilizations as index of performance. The author concludes that for effective management, the family planning program must emphasize education and voluntarism. (author's modified)