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Lexington, Kentucky, University of Kentucky, Center for Developmental Change, 1985 Jun. vii, 141 p. (CDC Development Papers No. 21)An interdisciplinary study, which incorporates a community-based and multimethod approach in a rural, historically high fertility community of Southern Appalachia, was conducted to describe the current pattern of fertility regulation behavior among the study population and to discern the most significant factors associated with such regulation in this contemporary rural-mountain community. A 3-phase research design was used, combining an inventory of local public opinion about birth control and family planning services with a social survey and related ethnographic field studies on the fertility regulation behavior of individuals and specifically married couples living in the community. In addition, the research team conducted a county-wide survey consisting of interviews with 407 married women of childbearing age (15-45) in intact conjugal units and a follow-up study involving indepth interviews with 107 of the 407 women. The county community hospital and health department have played a major role in the provision and delivery of family planning services to community residents since at least the early to mid-1960s. There is general agreement among community leaders, health professionals, and survey respondents that family planning services are now widely available and accessible to individuals and families throughout the county. There is general community support for smaller families and the decision of young married couples to use birth control and to postpone childbearing for a period of time following their marriage. Also there is general community support for educational activities in secondary schools. Family has declined for several reasons since the 1970s, including a tendency to think of childbearing in terms of socioeconomic conditions and to consider the costs of raising and educating children. Active fertility management practices among married couples appear to be rooted primarily in biological, economic, and family considerations as well as increased knowledge of wives and husbands about birth control and greater availability and accessibility of modern contraceptive methods. 8 out of 10 couples with wives who are not currently pregnant are using a method of fertility management. About half of these couples have chosen sterilization. Almost 2/3 of the wives among couples who were sterilized were either pregnant or just had a baby when the couple first considered sterilization. It is concluded that the contemporary patterns of fertility regulation among married couples in the study community are strikingly similar to those found among most other American couples today.
Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)
London, England, Population Concern, 1984 May. 64 p.This publication highlights some of the major popular misconceptions of population. It is divided into 5 sections: 1) population growth; 2) United Kingdom 3) food; 4) family size; and 5) planned parenthood. Misconceptions of population growth include lack of concern about birth rates, and poverty. It is unreasonable to assume that social and economic development will automatically curb the high levels of population growth in less-developed countries. Population policy should be formulated and implemented as an integral part of socioeconomic planning. In discussing Britain's population misconceptions, chart is used to show the ratio of numbers of children and old people to the working age population. Population matters in Britain are often presented as if population and the national economy were Siamese twins. There is anxiety that if the population stops growing the nation will somehow stagnate. Charts present total food production in the UK and imports and exports. Food concerns include hunger and an unequal distribution of food. World food production is presented along with food losses, and available food divided by the population. Total food production figures are given for the US and Canada, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Africa, Latin America, the Near East, Far East, Asian centrally planned economics, USSR and Eastern Europe, less-developed countries, and more-developed countries. Concerns about family size include the relationship of poverty to large families, child labor, effects of family composition on reproductive behavior, and infant mortality. Many people believe that reduction of infant mortality automatically leads to reduction in family size. Certain groups feel that women do not want fertility control programs, and that unsafe methods of contraception are being pushed at them--chiefly by men. The monograph includes many photographs.
Urban Indian attitudinal response and behavior related to family planning: possible implications for the mass communication program.
Journal of Family Welfare. 1968; 14:31-38.In 1967 the Indian Institute of Public Opinion conducted a survey of 837 males and 163 females in 11 urban areas obtaining attitudes towards family planning and personal and national concerns. All in the sample were literate, with 72% having completed secondary school. 94% had heard of family planning and believed it was necessary for India. 58% know the location of a family planning clinic. Of those with 2 children, 94% said they did not want any more while 53% reported ever having practiced family planning. The average number of desired children was 2.9. The survey indicated that the family planning program has been successful in communicating awareness of family planning but that there needs to be greater emphasis on the communication of the relationship of controlling family size to individual and national fears regarding well-being, and for creating an awareness of the importance of reducting the family size norm to 2 children regardless of sex.