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Ottawa, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1973. 30 p. (IDRC-009e)This paper evaluates the progress of a Latin American population through stages in family planning adoption. The focus is on changes in knowledge of contraception, attitudes, and practices which occurred over 5 years (1964-69) of widespread public discussion concerning family planning and of program activity in Bogota, Colombia. Data from 2 surveys, 1 in 1964 and the other in 1969, permit the 1st temporal analysis of family planning adoption for a major metropolitan city in Latin America. Additional data on rural and small urban areas of Colombia from the 2nd survey permit a limited assessment of diffusion of family planning from the city to the nation as a whole. The 1st survey in Bogota revealed moderate to high levels of knowledge of contraceptive methods and generally favorable attitudes to birth limitation. However, at this time many women had never spoken to their husbands about the number of children they wanted, nor tried a contraceptive method at any time. The 2nd survey showed substantial changes in this picture. The proportion of currently mated women who had spoken to their husbands about family size preference changed from 43 to 62% for an increase of 71%. Fertility fell appreciably over this period, especially among younger women. Family planning program services had a significant direct contribution to the adoption process, since 36% of mated women had been to a clinic by 1969. The most modern methods of birth control -- the anovulatory pill and the intrauterine device -- which were scarcely known in 1964 were widely known in 1969, and contributed most to the observed increase in current contraceptive practice. However, among the previously known methods, the simplest method of all, withdrawal (coitus interruptus), showed the greatest increase in current practice and remained the most commonly used method. These findings suggest that favorable attitudes and knowledge tend to become rather widespread before levels of husband-wife discussion of family size preferences and levels of contraceptive trial increase appreciably. The results also indicate that contraceptive knowledge and favorable family planning attitudes are spreading rapidly outward from the cities into the rural areas, but that contraceptive practice is still predominantly restricted to urban populations. (author's)
Journal of Communication. 1985 Spring; 35(2):69-81.Diaspora Jewry is being diminished in numbers by intermarriage, assimilation, and a low birth rate. In Israel, the establishment has strongly pronatalist convictions and tends to see family planning as synonymous with promotion of the use of contraception to limit births. In 1978 and 1979, a series of programs entitled "It's Not A Children's Game" was broadcast on Israel's state-owned radio broadcasting system. The motto of the series was "to help families have as many children as they want, when they want them." Its goals were to give the public basic information about services and about various means of contraception or of fertility improvement. The letters to the radio station in response to these programs are analyzed in this study. Based on the form and content of the letters, one is able to derive information about the marital status, sex, residence, and religious observance of the letter writers and to classify them as primarily help-seekers or opinion-givers. Help-seeking letters were usually very clear and direct in their requests for help. The opinion-giving letters ranged from strongly negative to strongly positive about the program and the theme of family planning. These letters can provide insights about the specific group of people who sought information or help outside of their immediate surroundings. Thus, an analysis of the written responses to a radio series on family planning suggests that radio can offer a nonthreatening way to disseminate information on sensitive and controversial social issues, and that it is possible to tentatively identify subgroups with special needs.
In: Hsia YE, Hirschhorn K, et. al., ed. Counseling in genetics. New York, Alan R. Liss, 1979. 189-222.American contraceptive patterns have shown consistent acceptance and progressive improvement in its usage. Efficacious methods which offer maximum contraceptive protection are highly favored by all strata of the American population. The 4 methods which the writer examines from a clinical and psychological viewpoint are sterilization, artificial insemination, abortion and selective sex predetermination processes. The increased popularity of sterilization by males and females is accounted for by its development into a simpler surgical procedure, few unpleasant side effects, shifts in smaller family size planning, and easing of medical and legal age restrictions. Vasectomy and tubal ligation are reviewed in terms of positive and negative reactions to the procedures with particular emphasis about psychological adjustment common to both procedures. Artificial insemination with a donor's semen is used primarily when the husband is infertile or when the husband or both parents are carriers of genetic defects. This method is preferred when parents are dissatisfied with adoption procedures, selection process in terms of infant conception is desired, knowledge of pregnancy 1st hand is wanted and when faith in the donor is strong. Abortion and prenatal diagnosis are seen as means of selective reproduction and biological control in family planning decisions. Legal change about abortion has accompanied a decline of public opposition as seen in tables which chart America's public opinion from 1962 to 1975. Psychological aspects of selecting abortion and prenatal diagnosis include the concern parents have over health of the child, security of the family , fairness to the unborn child, to the living children and to themselves. The writer establishes the need for counseling and emotional support when stress, depression and self doubts associated with each procedure is apparent. Technology involved in sex determination is seen by the author as having a future radical impact on sex ratios of developing nations where a greater cultural emphasis is on having sons. From a psychological point of view, sex determination will alleviate the disappointment some parents feel about the sex of the child as well as encourage fertility.