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  1. 1

    Sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. Fact sheet.

    Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003 Jun. 4 p. (Facts. Fact Sheet)

    Each year, there are approximately fifteen million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the U.S., and this country has the highest rate of STD infection in the industrialized world. By age 24, at least one out of every four Americans is believed to have contracted an STD, and an estimated 65 million Americans are now living with an incurable STD. Research suggests that women are biologically more susceptible to STD exposure than men. While STDs, including HIV, affect every age group, people under 25 account for roughly two-thirds of all new STD infections: 42 percent occur among those aged 20-24 and 25 percent occur among 15-to-19-year-olds. CDC data also show higher reported rates of STDs among some racial and ethnic minority groups, compared with rates among whites – possibly reflecting overall health disparities as well as greater use of public health clinics by minority populations. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Evaluation of a prescription based record-linkage model for epidemiological studies of long-term adverse effects of drugs -- with special regard to combined oral contraceptives.

    Persson I; Adami HO; Norell SE; Westerholm B; Wiholm BE


    The Swedish Department of Drugs of the National Board of Health and Welfare undertook a study of the possibilities of post-marketing surveillance of combined oral contraceptives (COC) and epidemiological studies based on individual cancer, death and demographic registries. In Sweden, there are a Cancer Registry, a Cause of Death Registry, a hospital In-Patient Registry, and registries of prescription drugs purchased through the Swedish National Corporation of Pharmacies, all accessed by individual National Registration Numbers. An agency to link these data in an individual-based exposure register would require long-term staff continuity, and large central computer facilities for data processing. In addition, questionnaires would be needed to obtain exposure before the start of the project. A model employing 258,000 women in each 5-year group, with at least 100 cases in each group, would require up to 13 years for cardiovascular outcomes, or 28 years for cancer outcomes, to include induction time and observation time. Data would have to be gathered to prevent bias due to confounding, selective recall, and diagnostic bias. An important obstacle is public objection to intrusion into personal integrity. Advantages of the study included relative ease of linking data, compared to systems in place in other countries. Major impediments cited were long study periods, high costs, and uncertainty about policies of future COC prescriptions. The study concluded that such a project would not be cost-effective. There is a need to study current low-dose COC on a scale begun by the British Royal College of General Practitioners Study and the Oxford Family Planning Association Study. It is suggested that strategies be implemented to improve retrospective epidemiological studies, for example by validating drug exposure by independent sources.
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  3. 3

    The AIDS pandemic: a global emergency.

    Bolton R

    New York, New York/Montreux, Switzerland, Gordon and Breach, 1989. xi, 117 p.

    This is a collection of articles by different authors writing about the AIDS pandemic from an anthropological perspective. Chapters are included on metaphors of sex and deviance in the representation of disease; the social classification of AIDS in U.S. epidemiology; sexual behavior and the spread of AIDS in Mexico; surveys on the prevalence of HIV infection in central and eastern Africa; strategies for dealing with AIDS based on those used for hepatitis B; the role of a community-based health education program in the prevention of AIDS; preventing AIDS contagion among intravenous drug users; human rights and public health; the legal status of AIDS in the workplace in the United States; and the politics of AIDS at the microlevel, using the example of a gay rights ballot measure proposed in Houston, Texas, in 1985.
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