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Your search found 23 Results

  1. 1
    341121
    Peer Reviewed

    The 'problem' of Asian women's sexuality: public discourses in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    Simon-Kumar R

    Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2009 Jan; 11(1):1-16.

    Public health research in New Zealand views Asian health - particularly, Asian women's sexual health issues - as a priority problem. In recent years, high rates of abortion and the growing incidence of unsafe sex among younger age Asian migrants have been publicized as a health concern. Public health research implicates migrant experiences and cultural factors as responsible for these trends. Loneliness and isolation among international students, inability to communicate effectively in English and lack of knowledge of available services are highlighted as reasons for the growing sexual ill-health in the Asian population in New Zealand. Extending from these, public health measures aim at improving culture-sensitive services, including targeted education. The present paper offers a critical commentary on these accepted public health perceptions that inform policy in New Zealand. It takes a Third World feminist approach to critique dominant public health discourses on Asian women's sexuality and questions the construction of knowledges about what are 'normal' and 'pathological' sexual practices. The paper revisits the data used to describe the 'problem' of Asian sexuality and argues that in order to understand sexual practices, it is important to query the cultural lenses that are used to describe and define them.
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  2. 2
    299470

    Female circumcision among immigrant Muslim communities: public debate in the Netherlands.

    Bartels E

    Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs. 2004 Oct; 24(2):393-399.

    Though the practice of female circumcision continues in several African countries it has remained unknown in most other societies. However, immigrants coming to Western Europe from countries in Africa where this practice persists sparked a public debate and social controversy at various levels. This paper focuses on the immigrant community in the Netherlands and reviews briefly what debates have taken place in that country on the practice of female circumcision. The paper then examines the relationship between religion, culture and ethnicity and the practice of female circumcision. Finally, the paper reviews the discussions during the first conference on female circumcision in Europe and examines why this is important, both for the fight against female circumcision and for the development of Islam in the Netherlands. (author's)
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  3. 3
    289341

    Family planning in Asia.

    Balfour MC

    Population Studies. 1961 Nov; 15(2):102-109.

    A marked awakening is taking place in Asia to the need and desirability of fertility control. One might even say that a revolution in the public and private attitudes toward family planning has occurred in Asia during the past decade. This paper will describe family planning in the Orient, the term "family planning" being interpreted in a broad sense. It will deal with government policies and with government action in this field, as well as the activities of private associations which are promoting fertility control by voluntary and private efforts. In the terms of this report, Asia includes the countries of Asia and South Asia that extend from Japan to Pakistan. Specific reference will be made only to countries that I have visited during the past six months, namely Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, the Colony of Hong Kong, the State of Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Visits have been made to this region more or less annually since World War II, and my contact with some of these countries dates back to 1939. Recent developments, in contrast to the earlier conditions, will be interpreted; obviously this report covers personal impressions and judgments, without facts and figures to support all the statements. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    187134

    Rising tide. Gender equality and cultural change around the world.

    Inglehart R; Norris P

    Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 2003. xiv, 226 p.

    During the late twentieth century, the issue of gender equality once again became a major issue on the global agenda. The UN Decade for Women, which indeed in 1985, initiated the integration of women into development, triggering the formation of thousands of women’s organizations and networking them across the world. The trend accelerated during the following decade. In 1993, the Vienna World Conference proclaimed that women’s rights were human rights; in 1994, the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development placed women’s empowerment and health at the center of sustainable development programs. Two years later, the Beijing Fourth World Conference of Women adopted a platform seeking to promote and protect the full enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all women. Although there has been sustainable progress toward gender equality in much of the world, great disparities persist, as systematic indicators demonstrate. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    182108

    [Midwives in the Andean communities: a form of female shamanism?] Hebammenwesen im Andenraum: eine form des weiblichen Schamanismus?

    Burgos Lingan MO

    Curare. 1997 Nov; (Spec No):303-312.

    Acquiring an understanding of Andean midwives and their functions under consideration of their cultural background is seen as a challenge. From the viewpoint of village inhabitants, midwives are regarded as recognized members of the community, and are honored and respected because of their healing function. For this reason they are also of interest to public health institutions, who attempt to integrate them as potential representatives of basic public health care services. However, these efforts have not remained unchallenged, and they present the basis for a cultural conflict, which has contributed to misunderstandings concerning the true dimension of their personality, role and function as a representative element and as a symbol of cultural life in the indigenous Andean community. (author's)
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  6. 6
    166431

    [Force-feeding] Gavage.

    Barrere B

    In: Enquete Demographique et de Sante, Mauritanie, 2000-2001, [compiled by] Mauritania. Office National de la Statistique, [and] ORC Macro. MEASURE DHS+. Nouakchott, Mauritania, Office National de la Statistique, 2001 Dec. 185-208.

    Force-feeding, a practice existing almost exclusively in Mauritania, involves forcing young girls to eat large amounts of food in order to become fat and, in keeping with Mauritanian society’s cultural values, pretty and ready to marry. Force-feeding occurs in response both to this society’s perception of beauty and the desire to manifest the social status of a woman’s family, since obesity is a sign of family wealth. Old Mauritanian society valued excessive obesity to such an extent that a social proverb argued women occupied a place in the heart equal to their volume. However, the Mauritanian government is now trying to organize population awareness campaigns upon the adverse effects upon women of force-feeding. Beyond affronting women’s rights, and in addition to the suffering induced by force-feeding itself, this practice has adverse consequences upon women’s entire lives, including eventual problems with mobility, social participation, and higher risks of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Results of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Mauritania during 2000-01, are presented upon the knowledge and practice of force- feeding, as well as related opinions and attitudes.
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  7. 7
    159278

    [Study of natural childbirth in Guinea and Morocco] Essai d'etude des naissances naturelles entre la Guinee et le Maroc.

    Cole C

    Rabat, Morocco, Institut de Formation aux Carrieres de Sante 2000. [15], 58, [26] p.

    Islam forbids sexual relations outside of marriage. In Morocco, pregnancy among unmarried women therefore holds adverse consequences for both women and their children. Unmarried, pregnant women automatically open themselves to ostracization from their families and social circles, subsequently finding themselves on the street attempting to get rid of their children. The abandonment of illegitimate children causes psychosocial, legal, and economic problems. The author describes the case of illegitimate children in Guinea and Morocco, with an eye to identifying ways to better protect them. Findings are based upon research of the pertinent literature and field research consisting of the analysis of data from two hospitals during 1999 on illegitimate births, interviews with one mother in Conakry and one Moroccan mother, surveys of the opinions of a range of individuals in both countries, and visits to abandoned child shelters. The author describes the contexts of Morocco and Guinea, filiation and the establishment of ties between children and parents, the status of single mothers in the two countries, research data, and conclusions. Recommendations for change and potential solutions are offered in the closing section of the report.
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  8. 8
    141321

    A new vision for adolescent sexual health.

    Wagoner J

    TRANSITIONS. 1999 Mar; 10(3):12-3.

    US adults are generally uncomfortable with the subject of adolescent sexuality. As such, they either pretend that teenagers do not have sex or try to control and limit the information which young people receive about sex and contraception. Sexual abstinence until marriage is the US Congressionally mandated message to students. In contrast, adults, and society in general, in the Netherlands, France, and Germany are comfortable with adolescent sexuality, and understand that teens have sex as a natural part of growing into sexually healthy adults. Perhaps paradoxically, adolescents in these 3 countries have first intercourse 1-2 years later than do US teens. The US also has a higher teen birth rate than the Netherlands, France, and Germany, as well as Morocco, Albania, Brazil, and more than 50 other developing countries. The teen birth rate in the Netherlands is almost 8 times lower than that of the US. Adolescent HIV and STD rates are also higher in the Netherlands, France, and Germany than in the US. At the heart of these 3 European countries' success in achieving low teen pregnancy and HIV/STD rates is a cultural openness and acceptance of adolescent sexuality which respects young people's rights and responsibilities as sexually maturing members of society. Rather than following the American model of trying to prevent young people from having sex, the Dutch, Germans, and French teach and empower their youths to behave responsibly when they decide to have sex. The US could learn from the Dutch, French, and German experiences with adolescent sexuality in developing and implementing a more balanced approach to adolescent sexuality.
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  9. 9
    133775

    Synopsis of the female circumcision research findings. Workshop.

    Nagar SE; Pitamber S; Nouh I

    [Unpublished] 1994. 44 p.

    Although the Government of Sudan has established a National Committee for Eradication of Female Circumcision, this practice remains a deeply rooted cultural tradition. A survey of female circumcision-related attitudes and practices in Khartoum, Sudan, revealed a shift from Pharaonic circumcision to less extreme forms, a growing trend to receive circumcision from a trained professional rather than a midwife, and a tendency among more educated, professional parents to reject circumcision for their daughters. 59.7% of respondents believed the practice should be eradicated; opposition was stronger among fathers and older sisters than mothers and grandmothers. There was high overall awareness of the physical and psychological sequelae of female circumcision. Respondents had observed that girls who are not circumcised do not face threatened problems such as uncontrollable sexual desire, unmarriageability, or a bad reputation. In fact, 60.8% of male respondents indicated a willingness to marry a woman who was not circumcised. 83.2% had been exposed to at least one discussion about the eradication campaign; however, only 23.2% of respondents believed that legislation would be able to halt this practice.
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  10. 10
    253513

    [The immigration debate: sociology and utopia] Innvandringsdebatten: sosiologi og utopi.

    Skirbekk S

    TIDSSKRIFT FOR SAMFUNNSFORSKNING. 1996; 37(4):534-53.

    The author examines the contemporary Norwegian media debate on immigration and presents several examples illustrating the difference between an analytical and utopian approach to the issues. "Examples of analytical antagonism, not acceptable to utopians, are the contradiction between the idea of a `multicultural society' and specific cultural conditions for a common community, between claiming full integration of immigrants and at the same time full respect for an alien culture, and certain assumptions about immigrant culture as harmonious expression of the interests of all immigrants. When the program for full integration fails, this is often explained as an effect of assumed racist attitudes in the population. Contemporary radical mass mobilization against racism and fascism may possibly disguise public attention to more real totalitarian challenges to our civilization." (EXCERPT) (SUMMARY IN ENG)
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  11. 11
    126640

    Democracy and gender: a practical guide to USAID programs.

    Hirschmann D

    Washington, D.C., Futures Group, Gender in Economic and Social Systems Project [GENESYS], 1993 Feb. [5], 56 p. (GENESYS Special Study No. 9; USAID Contract No. PDC-0100-Z-00-9044-00)

    This reference manual, while considered to be of wider interest, was intended primarily to facilitate incorporation of a gender analysis into the design, implementation, or evaluation of any of the policy, programs, or projects of the US Agency for International Development's (USAID) Democracy Initiative (DI). The introductory portion of the manual contains general information on USAID's DI, the 1991 policy paper that launched the DI, and how the DI has been interpreted by USAID Bureaus. Part 1 describes aspects of the use of this guide, its purpose, sources, underlying logic, and likely adaptations. Part 2 considers key preliminary issues such as why gender analysis is crucial; the importance of gaining an understanding of local culture and religion; integration versus segregation of gender components; the necessity of including gender analysis in all essential steps of the DI; and the necessity of including women and women's groups in the choice of appropriate, representative individuals and institutions for DI consultations and negotiations. The third part of the manual considers ways to incorporate gender concerns with the following components of the DI: administration of justice/legal reform, strengthening civil society, civil-military relations, the country political/democratic assessment, democratic values, decentralization of government, elections, governance, human and civil rights, leadership training, the mass media, political party support, private sector development, public opinion polling, representative institutions, and trade unions. Part 4 looks at the issue of which democracy indicators USAID should choose to measure progress and the necessity of including gender concerns in the analysis of impact and performance indicators.
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  12. 12
    105528

    The abortionist: a woman against the law.

    Solinger R

    New York, New York, Free Press, Macmillan, 1994. xi, 253 p.

    This book traces the career of a woman who performed 40,000 abortions between 1918 and 1968 on a professional, though illicit, basis to illustrate the ways in which anti-abortion laws put women at risk. The abortionist, Ruth Barnett, functioned without interference until anti-abortion fervor was fueled by politicians and other public officials eager to make a name for themselves during the post-World War II era. Despite being imprisoned, Barnett continued to perform abortions as long as she was physically able out of compassion for the women who were desperate to end their pregnancies. Barnett never lost a client. In the course of telling this tale, the workings of a West Coast abortion syndicate are revealed, details of the procedure followed by Barnett are provided, court cases and decisions are related, and the vagaries of public opinion are followed.
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  13. 13
    096020

    An analysis of public opinion toward undocumented immigration.

    Espenshade TJ; Calhoun CA

    POPULATION RESEARCH AND POLICY REVIEW. 1993; 12:189-224.

    After an introduction, a brief review of the history of attitudes toward immigration in the US, and comments on the continuing importance of undocumented migration, this paper reformulates extant research hypotheses from diverse literatures connecting US public opinion to immigration. The hypotheses considered include 1) that immigrants take jobs from citizens, 2) that cultural and ethnic ties to immigrants promote proimmigration attitudes, 3) that education plays a role in shaping attitudes towards immigration, 4) that fears about the economic costs to society of new immigrants engender negative attitudes, and 5) that public opinion arises from a commitment to enduring values about what it means to be an American (the symbolic politics theory). These hypotheses are tested using data from a June 1983 survey of public attitudes toward undocumented immigration conducted in the six urban counties of southern California, the region of the US with the largest number of illegal migrants. These data were submitted to ordered-probit regression analysis of responses to two general questions about the problem and effect of illegal migration. Respondents' attitudes were modeled toward the general implications of undocumented migration as a function of their own demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and their opinions about a series of more specific issues. Explanatory variables were introduced sequentially in groups, and all explanatory variables were also encoded as dummies. The findings were summarized in a table which includes all of the socioeconomic and demographic background variables and in a table illustrating a fully populated model. These data provide only weak support for the labor market competition hypothesis, greater support for cultural affinity, strong associations with educational attainment (more education equals more favorable attitudes), evidence that cost-benefit considerations influence attitudes, and evidence that illegal immigration elicits normative cultural attachments. Respondents over age 35 were also more pessimistic as were females. These findings have important implications for US immigration and immigrant policy and imply that more effort should be devoted to the economic and social integration of migrants who are resident in the US. By raising the level of education in the general public, the US can engender more liberal attitudes towards immigration.
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  14. 14
    093349

    State political cultures and public opinion about abortion.

    Cook EA; Jelen TG; Wilcox C

    POLITICAL RESEARCH QUARTERLY. 1993 Dec; 46(4):771-81.

    States will be allowed greater discretion to regulate access to abortion should the Supreme Court overturn or severely restrict Roe v. Wade. The distinctiveness of state political cultures and state public opinion is therefore especially relevant to the politics of abortion. The authors examine state differences in attitudes toward abortion, comparing the levels of support for legal abortion and for restrictions upon the availability of abortion in different states. They determine if state differences can be explained by demographic variables, political variables, and/or religious variables, or if state political cultures exert influence on abortion attitudes beyond those which individual-level variables would predict. Data for the study come from a series of surveys by the CBS News/New York Times in 1989 in which an identical set of questions was posed to a national sample of 1347 individuals and to state samples in the following large states with gubernatorial elections in 1990: California, Florida, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas. Modest differences are found in the level of support for legal abortion and for additional restrictions upon abortion, but the differences are insignificant after controlling for the demographic characteristics, religion, and ideology of each state's citizens. Results suggest that the abortion debate is a national debate and that state differences in abortion attitudes can be explained by differences in the characteristics and other attitudes of the states' citizenry.
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  15. 15
    077753

    Report of the ESCAP/UNDP Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development: 13-18 May 1991, Jomtien, Thailand.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    Bangkok, Thailand, United Nations, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP], 1991. iv, 41 p. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 106)

    The 1991 meeting of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific considered the following topics: the interrelationships between population and natural resources, between population and the environment and poverty, and between population growth and consumption patterns, technological changes and sustainable development; the social aspects of the population-environment nexus (the effect of social norms and cultural practices); public awareness and community participation in population and environmental issues; and integration of population, environment, and development policies. The organization of the meeting is indicated. Recommendations were made. The papers on land, water, and air were devoted to a potential analytical model and the nature of the interlocking relationship between population, environment, and development. Dynamic balance was critical. 1 paper was presented on population growth and distribution, agricultural production and rural poverty; the practice of a simpler life style was the future challenge of the world. Several papers focused on urbanization trends and distribution and urban management policies. Only 1 paper discussed rural-urban income and consumption inequality and the consequences; some evidence suggests that increased income and equity is associated with improved resource management. Carrying capacity was an issue. The technological change paper reported that current technology contributed to overproduction and overconsumption and was environmentally unfriendly. The social norms paper referred to economic conditions that turned people away from sound environmental, cultural norms and practices. A concept paper emphasized women's contribution to humanism which goes beyond feminism; another presented an analytical summary of problems. 2 papers on public awareness pointed out the failures and the Indonesian experience with media. 1 paper provided a perspective on policy and 2 on the methodology of integration. The recommendations provided broad goals and specific objectives, a holistic and conceptual framework for research, information support, policies, resources for integration, and implementation arrangements. All activities must be guided by 1) unity of mankind, 2) harmony between population and natural resources, and 3) improvement in the human condition.
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  16. 16
    068255

    New reproductive technologies in India: a print media analysis.

    Lingam L

    ISSUES IN REPRODUCTIVE AND GENETIC ENGINEERING. 1990; 3(1):13-21.

    Examining newspaper and magazine articles, the author compares the media treatment of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with sex determination tests in India. Analysis found general media support and glorification of IVF and related technologies, but only mixed opinions regarding sex- determination testing. Mixed support for the latter form of new reproductive technologies is attributed to the debate and campaigning of women's groups, health activists, and some political leaders against amniocentesis. While public opinion regarding IVF from the feminist's perspective is just gaining ground, the author points to the classic, racist, eugenic, and patriarchal nature of both types of new reproductive technology. Anti-women in nature, they reinforce fertility as an important indicator of women's status, and will be used in population control in the future.
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  17. 17
    065282

    Towards a population policy in Madagascar.

    Ramandraiarisoa JL

    PEOPLE. 1991; 18(1):16-7.

    This report on the turnaround in Madagascar population policy notes the importance of the educational experience provided at the 1984 Mexican World Population Conference. The author describes his experiences in developing and implementing a population policy. When people were informed that past food was exported and now imported (265,000 tons in 1985), increasing land usage was not seen as a solution to population growth. The National Environmental Action Plan now in effect helps to underscore the importance of population distribution so that land is not needlessly cultivated. The public response was disinterest initially, but education has been successful in convincing people. The dominant Catholic religion has recognized the population problem and there is only disagreement on the means ( Catholics prefer natural means). Cultural attitudes are changing at all levels due to the economic crises and greater number of people being unable to feed their children. In 1989, the Population Unit of the Ministry of Economy and Planning provided detailed studies of the consequences of population growth, thus forming the basis of the present policy. The plan targets a reduction of population growth from 3.1% to 2% for the year 2000, increasing life expectancy from 55 to 60, and reducing infant mortality from 120 per 1000 live births to 70 and the number of children per family from 6 to 4. Although the policy has been accepted and people ready to use family planning, services to urban centers as well as rural areas is yet unavailable.
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  18. 18
    060681

    AIDS in Africa.

    Mokhobo D

    NURSING RSA. 1989 Mar; 4(3):20-2.

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.
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  19. 19
    041906

    Television tackles a taboo.

    Gorney C

    WASHINGTON POST. 1987 Feb 3; E1, E8.

    This newspaper feature story documents how the major U.S. television networks are breaking their self censorship of mentioning contraception and sexual responsibility in programs and advertisements. The first direct screening of word "condom" occurred on the series "Cagney and Lacey" in January 1988, followed by screening an image of a condom package on "Valerie" in February. At the same time, some stations are broadcasting tasteful 15-second ads for condoms. Phrases used in these ads included "for all the right reasons," and "I'll do a lot for love...but I'm not ready to die for it." It is likely that the threat of AIDS has prompted the revolutionary airing of the forbidden word during family viewing hours. The public response, particularly that of educators, has been largely favorable, although a Catholic spokesman complained that the ads encourage illicit sex purely to enlarge market share of condom markers. Five references to the value of sexual responsibility were cited on prime time shows in recent months. The vice president of CBS said that the network was trying to do anything that would help prevent AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. They have permitted no reference to practice of contraception in programming so far, even though characters are frequently shown in sexually explicit situations.
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  20. 20
    042071

    A cross-cultural history of abortion.

    Shain RN

    CLINICS IN OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY. 1986 Mar; 13(1):1-17.

    Attention is directed to preindustrial and transitional societies to illustrate the great variety of techniques and conditions under which abortion is practiced. The discussion covers changes in abortion status and attitudes through time as well as past and current attitudes in the US. Abortion traditionally has been performed under 2 primary sets of circumstances: the mother (or couple) does not want the pregnancy; or, for a variety of reasons, the pregnancy is deemed unacceptable by the given society, extended family, or a specific family member, usually the husband. Most accounts of abortion deal with its voluntary practice, revealing often the lengths to which women will go to control their fertility in the absence of contraception. Yet, examples exist from both preindustrial and modern societies where the decision to have an abortion is not made by the woman alone but is influenced either wholly or in part by political or cultural factors. Women who want an abortion either have performed the procedures themselves or have sought help from community practitioners, friends, or relative. Abortion techniques are highly varied and include abortifacients, magic, mechanical methods (such as instrumentation, constriction, and insertion of foreign objects into the uterus), heat applied externally, strenuous physical activity, jolts to the body, and starvation. Although abortion is extensively and rather openly practiced in many primitive societies, few groups give it unqualified approval. Cross-culturally, the most prevalent conditions for either approving of or imposing abortion include unmarried status of the mother, adultery, ambiguous paternity, mother's poor health, lactation of the mother, consent of the father, death of the father, rape, incest, and other varieties of illegal union. In Western civilization attitdues vary and have been changing in most cases. As of mid-1982, 10% of the world's population lived in countries where abortion was prohibited under all circumstances and 18% in countries where it was permitted only to save the mother's life. Close to 2/3 of the countries in Latin America, most countries in Africa, most Muslim Countries in Asia, and the 5 European countries of Belgium, Ireland, Malta, Portugal, and Spain belong in these 2 categories. An additional 8% lived in countries that permitted abortion under broad medical grounds. The remaining 64% of the world's population were governed by statutes that either allowed abortion on broad social grounds, such as unmarried status of the mother and financial problems, or permitted it on demand (usually within the 1st trimester). Recent estimates of the number of abortions have ranged up to 55 million, corresponding to an abortion rate of 70/1000 women of reproductive age and to an abortion ratio of 300/1000 known pregnancies. The US liberalized its abortion policy and then subsequently added restrictions at federal, state or local levels. Abortion is 1 of the most divisive issues in the US. Opinions range from disapproval under all circumstances, even to save the mother's life, to approval for any reason, i.e., on demand.
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  21. 21
    224914

    Community population size and social heterogeneity: an empirical test.

    Wilson TC

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SOCIOLOGY. 1986 Mar; 91(5):1,154-69.

    The author uses 1980 survey data for the United States to test the hypothesis that "community size leads to heterogeneity in values and attitudes that compose the sets of cultural elements of a subculture....An independent size-heterogeneity relationship is found for political and sexual attitudes....It is concluded that community size does increase social heterogeneity, but, consistent with subcultural theory, the relationship is restricted to subcultural elements." (EXCERPT)
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  22. 22
    015124

    Overcoming cultural and psychological barriers to vasectomy.

    Bertrand JT

    [Unpublished] 1982. Presented at the Conference on Vasectomy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 4-7, 1982. 13 p.

    There are 2 general types of barriers to vasectomy acceptance, cultural and individual. Cultural barriers include: 1) the idea that contraception should be the woman's responsibility, 2) that vasectomy represents a tampering with the natural processes of reproduction and this conflicts with many religions, 3) there is confusion over the legal status of vasectomy even though very few countries actually prohibit it, 4) the idea that men, due to their higher status in many societies, should not be exposed to unnecessary risks, 5) the idea that men who are not capable of reproducing have no worth in society, and 6) that men may need to be able to reproduce at a future date since in many societies only men are permitted to remarry. Research on psychological barriers to vasectomy is based on followup studies of vasectomized men and shows that negative male attitudes toward vasectomy stem from negative perceptions about the nature of consequences of the operation. Some men feel that vasectomy is like castration, that it is painful, has demasculinizing effects, causes a loss of vitality, and is irreversible. The population must be educated in order to overcome these barriers. Any communication program must include: 1) identifying existing sources of motivation for vasectomy, 2) increasing awareness of vasectomy through mass media and interpersonal channels, 3) increasing awareness through wider availability of the operation, and 4) improving the public attitude by publicizing client satisfaction with the operation. Men should be encouraged to seek vasectomy for the intrinsic benefits of the operation.
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  23. 23
    205864
    Peer Reviewed

    Anglo-Australian attitudes toward immigrants: a review of survey evidence.

    Callan VJ

    International Migration Review. 1983 Spring; 17(1):120-37.

    Examines results of surveys of Anglo-Australian attitudes toward immigrants to Australia. Such attitudes are examined with reference to the various government policies that have existed since the Second World War. (author's)
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