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Your search found 16 Results

  1. 1

    Emergency contraception in California. Findings from a 2003 Kaiser Family Foundation survey.

    Salganicoff A; Wentworth B; Ranji U

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004 Feb. 22 p.

    While women are the direct users of emergency contraception, men play an important role in reducing unintended pregnancies, making it important to understand their familiarity with and attitudes toward emergency contraception. This survey is one of the first that examines men’s knowledge and attitudes. This survey also provides insight into teenagers’ experiences with emergency contraception, which differ somewhat from those of their adult counterparts. This report has two major sections. Section I presents survey findings on knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception among Californians of reproductive age. Section II discusses the experiences of Californians in obtaining and using emergency contraceptives. The conclusion summarizes the key survey findings and identifies remaining challenges to increasing public awareness of emergency contraceptives in order to reduce unintended pregnancy. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Fighting to close the condom gap in Uganda.

    Bass E

    Lancet. 2005 Mar 26; 365:1127-1128.

    20 million condoms will soon be airlifted into Uganda, after an emergency order issued by the government in early March, with funding from international donors. The new supplies will help to ease a crisis that has gripped the country for more than 5 months, ever since doubts were raised about the quality of “Engabu” brand condoms, which are free and account for 80% of the condoms distributed in Uganda each year. NGOs and donor groups have welcomed the airlift as a long-awaited step towards resolving the country-wide condom shortage. After immediate supplies are restored, however, Ugandan health agencies will face further challenges, including what to do with at least 20 million Engabu condoms that have been quarantined, re-establishing long-term supplies into the country, and how to restore public faith in condoms. The latter task may be complicated by disagreements about various components of the Ugandan prevention policy—”ABC” or abstinence, being faithful, and using condoms—says Ugandan MP Elioda Tumwesige, who chairs the parliamentary committee on HIV/AIDS. “This has come at a time of debate over what we should emphasise more. It could not have come at a worse time for condom promotion.” (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    Peer Reviewed

    Vasectomy in the United States, 1991 and 1995.

    Magnani RJ; Haws JM; Morgan GT; Gargiullo PM; Pollack AE; Koonin LM

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 1999 Jan; 89(1):92-4.

    The prevalence of vasectomy increased in the US from protecting approximately 5% of contracepting married women to about 19% by the early 1990s. However, 2 studies published in 1993 noting a potential link between vasectomy and prostate cancer, publications refuting the association and the US National Institutes of Health's recommendation to not change vasectomy practice, subsequent debate in the professional literature, and negative publicity in the national media may have influenced the acceptance and practice of vasectomy in the US. The authors conducted national probability surveys of urology, general surgery, and family practices in 1992 and 1996 to assess the effect of the controversy upon the acceptance and practice of vasectomy in the US. 10.3 vasectomies per 1000 men aged 25-49 years were performed in 1991, compared to 9.9/1000 in 1995. Neither the estimated total number of vasectomies performed nor the population rate changed significantly between 1991 and 1995. 31% and 28% of all physician practices provided vasectomy in 1991 and 1995, respectively, a nonstatistically significant change over the 4 years.
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  4. 4

    Introducing more contraceptive methods in Jordan.

    Gallagher M

    AVSC NEWS. 1998 Spring; 36(1):3, 8.

    With the average woman in Jordan bearing 4-5 children during her reproductive lifetime, Jordan's population is growing rapidly. Many contraceptive methods are available through Jordan's well-developed health care system, but the public is aware of only a few, and misinformation is common. The government of Jordan launched a study, sponsored by AVSC and Family Health International (FHI), to determine the feasibility of introducing Norplant implants and Depo-Provera, in an effort to increase the choice, knowledge, availability, and use of contraceptive methods. More than 300 clients who received Norplant implant or Depo-Provera services at three health care facilities in Amman were followed. Many of the women chose either of these two methods because of their desire to delay pregnancy for a long time, often 5 years or more. Most cited length of protection, ease of use, dissatisfaction with previously used methods, and fewer perceived side effects than other methods as reasons for choosing either Norplant or Depo-Provera. The quality of counseling varied among the three facilities. At the end of 6 months follow-up, about 80% of the Norplant users and one-third of the Depo-Provera users reported being very satisfied with the method and planned to continue using it. However, although most clients experienced at least one side effect during the first 6 months of use, such effects were cited as the main reason for method discontinuation. Discontinuation of Depo-Provera was also influenced by popular attitudes and outside decision-makers such as health care providers, counselors, husbands, and other family members. Study results were presented at a workshop held in Amman in fall 1997.
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  5. 5

    Laguna's women lecture Lina on freedom of choice.

    Isla-Te M

    LINK. 1995 Sep; 4(3):6-8.

    The Governor of the province of Laguna in the Philippines has ordered that provincial family planning (FP) clinics provide only natural FP methods to their clients. This action has led to widespread debate and controversy. The president of the FP Organization of the Philippines (FPOP), who is a resident of Laguna, has promised that if things get worse, FPOP will stage protests. FPOP plans to continue to provide services, and its main concern is encountering a shortage of contraceptives because of increased demand. Several acceptors recounted their opposition to the Governor's order and indicated that his actions deny the realities of their lives and their rights to make individual choices about controlling their fertility.
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  6. 6

    Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    Nowicka W

    PLANNED PARENTHOOD IN EUROPE. 1993 Jun; 22(2):18-20.

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned Parenthood was established in 1992 and presently has 9 member organizations dedicated to reestablishing legal abortion and to helping women avoid unwanted pregnancies through sex education and contraception. Polls show that the new abortion law dose not reflect the favorable attitude of a majority of the Polish people toward legal abortion. It is unfortunate that Polish women will now have to fight for the rights that were once given to them.
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  7. 7

    Unholy struggle with Third-World genie [editorial]

    Lancet. 1993 Aug 21; 342(8869):447-8.

    In 1992, a group of gynecologists and midwives from developing countries, attending a workshop in Uppsala, Sweden, decided to organize a letter writing campaign to expose the harmful effects of certain religious attitudes to family planning. They asked people to write to the leader of any religion that is against contraception whenever they encountered a patient with a severe complication resulting from the unavailability of contraceptives where religious precepts were implicated. Letter writers were encouraged to send details of relevant cases to Dr. Douwe Verkuyl in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Verkuyl in an article discusses his objections to religious strangleholds on family planning. Controversy surrounds a forthcoming encyclical of the Roman Catholic Church, Veritatis Splendor. The forthcoming document is thought to confirm the line of its predecessor Humanae Vitae, which appeared 25 years ago, disregarding the feelings of many liberal Catholics. As a result of his visit to the US the Pope undoubtedly felt the strength of Catholic opposition to his views. Even before he set foot in Denver, Colorado, according to a USA Today/ICNN Gallup opinion pool, 73% of Catholics would sooner follow their own consciences than papal doctrine; according to another poll 83% of Catholic young adults (18-25 years) believe they can disagree with Church teaching yet remain good Catholics. 80% of western European and American Catholics have themselves rejected the teaching of Humanae Vitae. Since then the Clinton administration has released US funds for family planning projects in developing countries. The Church has failed to understand that women have always sought ways to end unwanted pregnancies. Women the world over hold similar views about family planning, but poverty of those in the developing world deprives them of freedom of choice when artificial contraception is discouraged by government.
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  8. 8

    Contraceptives and minors: the emperor has no clothes.

    Radosh A


    The rate of teenage pregnancy in the US is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. Studies have shown the teenagers in other countries are not more sexually active. The biggest difference between US and the rest of the industrialized world is the US failure to make contraceptives easily available to teenagers. There are only 2 ways to prevent teenage pregnancy: 1) get them to shop having sex, or 2) get them to use contraceptives. When forming policy it is important to know which method will be more successful. Policymakers, educators, and health professionals are all guilty of rationalizing why option 1 will work better than option 2, even though their is little or no research or anecdotal evidence to support their claim. The facts are clear: in other industrialized countries the more freely available contraceptives are to teenagers, the lower the pregnancy rate. In New York City, 840 condoms were distributed in just 4 months upon request to participants in a male responsibility discussion group. Nationwide 2000 teenage boys were sent a coupon for free condoms by mail and 6% returned their coupons (the normal rate of return would be 3%). A 1988 study revealed that condom usage between 1979-88 among 17-19 year old males in metropolitan areas doubled. A 1987 Harris poll found that 60% of all adults favored condom advertising on television. A 1989 follow-up study revealed that 89% of parents of adolescents favored condom advertising on television. The most common reason given for not increasing access to contraceptives is that teenagers will receive the wrong message. Another fear is that parents will complain, yet in the 2000 condom coupon example, less than 1/3 of 1% of the parents complained. Is the rest of the industrialized world giving their teenagers the wrong message by making contraceptives easily available? Clearly, US policy against contraceptive access for teenagers is giving the worst message and the high teenage pregnancy rate is the best evidence.
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  9. 9

    The Futures Group. GSMP products Consumer Intercept Study. Final report.

    Marketing and Social Research Institute

    Accra, Ghana, Marketing and Social Research Institute, 1990 Jul. [5], 58 p.

    Consumers of Ghana Social Marketing Program (GSMP) products were questioned to determine their socioeconomic, demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral characteristics, measure GSMP product advertising awareness levels among them, and determine the impact of GSMP promotional efforts on their adoption of these products. Products include the Panther condom, Kamal vaginal foam, Norminest oral pill, and oral rehydration solution (ORS). Study findings are summarized per product for user profile, product knowledge, attitudes, usage, distribution, availability, quality, image, and price, purchasing pattern, brand loyalty, and advertising awareness. The Panther condom has met with great success as the major condom product on the market. It does, however, suffer the reputation of tearing among some users. Kamal's market share is growing at the expense of a government-sponsored competitor and the pill, while Norminest users demonstrated inadequate product knowledge of compliance issues and contraindications. ORS is also successful, but with much potential to expand its market share. Recommendations targeted to each product are provided.
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  10. 10

    The Africa syndrome. India confronts the spectre of a massive epidemic.

    McDonald H

    FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW. 1992 Feb 20; 28-9.

    As the AIDS epidemic and HIV transmission in India increasingly resembles that observed in sub-Saharan Africa, Indian society's arrogant perception of invulnerability to the pandemic is proving to be considerably ill-conceived. The dimensions of the epidemic have multiplied greatly since AIDS was 1st identified among prostitutes in Madras, with the trends observed in Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu being especially ominous. AIDS has forced Indian society and research professionals to acknowledge the existence of domestic prostitution, homosexuals, and drug users. While only 103 AIDS cases and 6,400 HIV infections have been officially identified, it is clear that these cases represent only a tiny fraction of the true extent of the epidemic in India. The government will therefore spend up to US$7.75 million on an anti-AIDS program aimed at ensuring secure blood supplies, and checking heterosexual transmission through education and the promotion of condoms. The program also targets IV-drug users and truck drivers for education and behavioral change. India is the 2nd country after Zaire to accept foreign loans for such a purpose. It will receive US$85 million over 5 years from the World Bank in addition to supplemental funds from the WHO and the U.S. Weak attempts, however, have been made to test blood supplies, with only 15% being tested in Tamil Nadu. A large gap also remains between health educators and needy target groups. Finally, while some top officials realize the need for immediate action against AIDS, broad public awareness and coping will come only after AIDS mortality begins to mount in the population.
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  11. 11
    Peer Reviewed

    AIDS update. Condom availability in New York City schools.

    Kerr DL

    JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH. 1991 Aug; 61(6):279-80.

    Despite strong protests from a minority group of critics, the New York City Board of Education adopted a measure February 27, 1991, approving universal availability of condoms in city high schools to students without the need for parental consent. This expanded HIV education program allows the system's 261,000 students in 120 public high schools to procure condoms from any of 17 clinics and any teacher or staff member volunteering for the program. While a few, small U.S. school districts have implemented such programs in efforts to curb the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases infections, and unwanted pregnancies, this move by New York city's enormous school district could set the trend for similar action by other large school systems. The Centers for Disease Control document 691 cases of AIDS in youths aged 13-19, and 7,303 among those aged 20-24. More than 20% of U.S. AIDS cases are among those aged 20-29. Given the long incubation period for HIV, many if not most of these case probably stem from HIV infection during the teenage years. New York City accounts for 20% of all reported AIDS cases among youths aged 13-21, placing New York teens at disproportionate risk for infection. The number of infected adolescents doubles every 14 months. More than adults, these youths are likely to have contracted HIV through heterosexual contact instead of through IV-drug use or homosexual intercourse. Making condoms readily and confidentially available to adolescents, youths vulnerable to HIV infection will no longer fail to procure them due to embarrassment, fear of resistance from store clerks, and cost. The Youth News Service reveals youths to have been most supportive of the new program for several months, and anxious for its implementation. A random poll of adults found support for condom distribution in high schools and junior high schools to be 64% and 47%, respectively.
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  12. 12

    The use of private sector marketing research techniques in CSM projects in the developing world.

    Tipping S

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the IIDSS Conference, August 18-20, 1989. [15] p.

    The author explains the operations of and rationale behind the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project of the Futures Group. Using indigenous private sector company commercial channels in developing countries, SOMARC helps develop advertising campaigns and other marketing approaches to sell branded condoms, oral contraceptives, vaginal foaming tablets, and sometimes IUDs. Commercial marketing research techniques are employed in these exercises, and include developing and evaluating advertising and marketing strategies, designing and testing advertising messages, and selecting and improving product names and packaging for their contraceptive products. Although technical assistance is generally required in most countries, local companies are nonetheless depended upon to develop and manage the projects overall. The importance of brand image research in reaching target markets is discussed, followed by examples of testing and evaluating marketing strategies, product names, package testing, and advertising messages.
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  13. 13

    A baseline survey on AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases in Jamaica. A SOMARC special study.

    Stover J; Smith S

    [Unpublished] 1989 Jan. ii, 60, [16] p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3028-C-00-4079-00)

    Results and recommendations are presented from an island-wide survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS in Jamaica. In addition to providing broad baseline data for future studies of changes in KAP related to STDs and AIDS, the survey was conducted to examine the effect of earlier communication programs upon KAP, and family planning attitudes and practice. Researchers were specifically interested in the extent to which the image of the condom was affected as a family planning method and prophylactic. 1,200 interviews were completed for the survey. Findings are presented on the demographic and social characteristics of the sample; knowledge and awareness of STDs, AIDS, AIDS symptoms, and AIDS tests; impressions about AIDS cures; attitudes toward a person with AIDS; AIDS information sources; knowledge of measures to prevent or reduce the rick of contracting AIDS; perceptions of personal risk; changes in AIDS-related behavior; and the knowledge, image, use, and availability of condoms. Recommendations address the development of new revised media messages, education for the prevention of HIV infection, and the need to ensure the public of the safety of blood supplies in Jamaica. Interventions should be targeted to a broad audience, and efforts made to discourage fatalistic views on contracting HIV.
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  14. 14

    Looking at abortion and contraception.

    Khomassuridze AG

    INTEGRATION. 1991 Sep; (29):8-15.

    This article describes the urgent need for modern family planning (FP) services and supplies in the Soviet Union, and presents the nation's high induced abortion rate as one of its most serious medical and social problems. With more than 6 million legal abortions per year, and another estimated 6 million performed illegally, the problem of induced abortion is placed on par with heart disease and cancer in the Soviet Union. Induced abortion is the primary method of birth control, responsible for terminating 2 out of 3 pregnancies. Many abortion seekers, especially those employing illegal services, suffer complications resulting in loss of ability to work or even death. The maternal mortality rate for 1988 was 43.0/10,000. Efforts to decrease the level of abortion have increased during reconstruction, and have been witness to a decline in the number of abortions by 866,000 over the period 1985-1988. Contributory factors behind this decline, as well as the decrease of the abortion ratio, are an increased contraceptive prevalence level totalling 13.7% of reproductive-age women, stabilization of the birth rate at a low level, a smaller proportion of reproductive-age women in the population, and rate reporting changes. Nonetheless, inadequate family planning services prevail in the Soviet Union. Instead of focusing upon abortion and contraception, services focus upon diagnosing and treating infertility, and offer neither FP information nor services for premarital youths. Moreover, contraceptive supplies suffer serious, ongoing shortages. Research is needed on the social, demographic, medical, and biological aspects of reproductive behavior in the Soviet Union. Regional differences, abortion law, public opinion on illegitimate pregnancy, abortion methods, health personnel training, and maternal and child health are also discussed.
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  15. 15

    Revolution in reproduction: family planning in an Appalachian community.

    Hochstrasser DL; Gariola GA; Garkovich LE; Marshall PA; Rosenstiel CR

    Lexington, Kentucky, University of Kentucky, Center for Developmental Change, 1985 Jun. vii, 141 p. (CDC Development Papers No. 21)

    An interdisciplinary study, which incorporates a community-based and multimethod approach in a rural, historically high fertility community of Southern Appalachia, was conducted to describe the current pattern of fertility regulation behavior among the study population and to discern the most significant factors associated with such regulation in this contemporary rural-mountain community. A 3-phase research design was used, combining an inventory of local public opinion about birth control and family planning services with a social survey and related ethnographic field studies on the fertility regulation behavior of individuals and specifically married couples living in the community. In addition, the research team conducted a county-wide survey consisting of interviews with 407 married women of childbearing age (15-45) in intact conjugal units and a follow-up study involving indepth interviews with 107 of the 407 women. The county community hospital and health department have played a major role in the provision and delivery of family planning services to community residents since at least the early to mid-1960s. There is general agreement among community leaders, health professionals, and survey respondents that family planning services are now widely available and accessible to individuals and families throughout the county. There is general community support for smaller families and the decision of young married couples to use birth control and to postpone childbearing for a period of time following their marriage. Also there is general community support for educational activities in secondary schools. Family has declined for several reasons since the 1970s, including a tendency to think of childbearing in terms of socioeconomic conditions and to consider the costs of raising and educating children. Active fertility management practices among married couples appear to be rooted primarily in biological, economic, and family considerations as well as increased knowledge of wives and husbands about birth control and greater availability and accessibility of modern contraceptive methods. 8 out of 10 couples with wives who are not currently pregnant are using a method of fertility management. About half of these couples have chosen sterilization. Almost 2/3 of the wives among couples who were sterilized were either pregnant or just had a baby when the couple first considered sterilization. It is concluded that the contemporary patterns of fertility regulation among married couples in the study community are strikingly similar to those found among most other American couples today.
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  16. 16

    American physicians and birth control, 1936-1947.

    Ray JM; Gosling FG

    Journal of Social History. 1985 Spring; 18(3):399-411.

    The transition from resistance to acceptance of birth control in the US can be characterized as a 3 stage process, with each period facing its own issues and choices. The 1st stage -- the fight over birth control in the early 20th century -- has been documented by historians like James Reed, Linda Gordon, and David Kennedy. A 2nd stage, approximately the years from 1936-60, has not been fully explored although the period was crucial in shaping the current system of contraceptive health care. This discussion focuses on this transitional period, particularly its 1st decade, 1936-47. Physicians' attitudes, as revealed through American Medical Association (AMA) policy and a national survey conducted in 1947, are considered in relation to reported data on clinic and private practice. This evidence reveals that despite the liberalization of laws and public opinion in the mid-1930s, contraception did not become widely available until after 1960 -- the beginning of the 3rd stage in the history of American contraception -- and that the restriction of birth control information during the period was traceble in large part to the medical profession. Analysis of the 1936-47 decade, particularly with regard to the concerns of doctors, provides a framework for understanding the forces that affected contraceptive health care in the mid 20th century and suggests conditions that continue to shape the politics of birth control. In 1936, when the AMA's committee on contraception submitted its 1st report, it was clear that legal and public opinion had moved decisively toward more liberal attitudes concerning birth control. In 1937 the AMA passed a qualified endorsement of birth control, indicating that the organized medical profession as represented by the AMA held views on birth control at the beginning of the 2nd stage that were more conservative than those of most middle-class Americans. Its conservatism was challenged by lay groups who threatened to circumvent standard office practice if physicians failed to modify their views. Public opinion and behavior thus had a demonstrable effect on medical attitudes. 10 years after the AMA resolution a suvey found that more than 2/3 of physicians approved of contraception for any married women who requested it. The 1937-47 period witnessed 2 important changes in medical attitudes toward contraception: the profession's public, though cautious, endorsement of birth control; and the apparent adoption of liberalized standards for the prescription of contraceptive materials. The period also was a time of tremendous growth for the new birth control clinics that offered services to women who could not afford private care. Available evidence suggests that physicians' attitudes toward contraception, and particularly toward birth control clinics, were more important than either laws or public opinion in limiting the availability of those contraceptives considered most efficient (and most compatible with sexual pleasure) between 1936-60.
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