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Development in Practice. 2000 Feb; 10(1):19-30.As part of a human rights education campaign, the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee fixed 700,000 posters throughout Bangladesh. This met with opposition from the religious organizations. This paper investigates the nature and cause of the backlash and sets out strategies for how development organizations can achieve their objectives in the face of opposition. The opposition was found to be in response to interpretations of the posters based on the Holy Koran and Islamic practices, and a perceived intrusion into the professional territory of religious organizations, which affected the socioeconomic interests of these organizations' representatives. It was therefore concluded that development organizations should pre-empt such opposition by spelling out their objectives to potential critics, and formulating programs that do not provide scope for opponents to undermine their development activities. (author's)
Public communication campaigns in the destigmatization of leprosy: a comparative analysis of diffusion and participatory approaches. A case study in Gwalior, India.
JOURNAL OF HEALTH COMMUNICATION. 1998; 3(4):327-44.Findings are presented from a study conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of diffusion and participatory strategies in health campaigns and the effect of caste upon the dependent variables of knowledge, perception of risk, and behavioral involvement thought to contribute to the destigmatization of leprosy in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Multivariate analysis identified significant difference between the communication treatments upon the dependent variables. The discriminant analysis procedure used to locate the source of the difference identified cognitive-affective and behavior-affective dimensions as significant discriminant functions. Participatory treatment showed higher knowledge and lower perception of risk upon the cognitive-affective dimension, and higher behavioral treatment upon the behavior-affective dimension, but the diffusion treatment showed only lower self-perception of risk upon the behavior-affective dimension. This study found that participatory strategies which promote dialogue and interaction and incorporate people's knowledge and action component result in increased knowledge, lower perception of risk, greater behavioral involvement, and, therefore, destigmatization.
[Unpublished] 1955. Presented at the Third USAID HIV / AIDS Prevention Conference, Washington, D.C., August 7-9, 1995. 5 p.Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the mass media have influenced the public's response. The initial and sometimes continuing response of the public to the media's reporting was negative. In many countries, HIV/AIDS reporting tends to be misleading, misinformed, or nonexistent. In Zimbabwe and Costa Rica, the mass media often report HIV/AIDS to be a foreign disease or limited to marginalized groups. In Malawi, the media misreported the president to say that 10% of citizens had AIDS while he really said that 10% had HIV infection. Rapidly assimilated misconceptions make it difficult to educate the population. Flyers on HIV/AIDS distributed by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) may reach only 5000 people. This has a limited effect when compared to a radio station (10 million people) or a newspaper (100,000). The mass media have the power to raise public awareness and influence policy makers to respond to HIV/AIDS. In the US and elsewhere, the gay media informed homosexuals about HIV/AIDS and the need to use condoms. Many NGOs and governments have encouraged the media to report an HIV/AIDS-related event. Journalists need information about AIDS in forms that they can use and understand. The media can inform the public about HIV/AIDS through advertising, editorials, features, news items, education, and entertainment. The Panos Institute works in almost 20 developing countries to improve media understanding of HIV/AIDS and coverage. It works with partner organizations in the target country in setting up workshops and seminars to sensitize and inform journalists, editors, and sub-editors about HIV/AIDS. At least one HIV-infected person addresses each workshop. After the workshop, the participants continue to receive documentation designed for the media and a monthly feature service on AIDS. All participants become aware of their potential role in communicating information about HIV/AIDS.
[How to look at a problem of everyone. Vocabulary and prejudices. Contribution toward a critical analysis of messages about the AIDS epidemic. 2nd ed.] Como mirar un problema de todos. Vocabulario y prejuicios. Aportes para un analisis critico de los mensajes sobre la epidemia del SIDA. 2o edicion.
Buenos Aires, Argentina, Iglesia Evangelica Luterana Unida (Argentina), 1995 Jul. 11,  p.Principles that should be respected in speaking about AIDS are proposed, and a critical analysis is offered of the latent prejudices in messages concerning AIDS according to three different models, the medical, ethical-juridical, and liberating. All discussions about AIDS should respect social and cultural pluralism, personal autonomy, and intimacy and confidentiality. The medical model predominates in Argentina. Death, illness, and statistics are stressed along with detailed classifications of symptoms. The permanent association of AIDS and death serves several purposes, including justification of mediocre treatment and disregard of the most elemental human rights of AIDS patients. Educational programs in this model are authoritarian. The constant references to death, illness, and symptoms constitute use of terror as a means of prevention. Efforts at prevention are based on a vision of "others" as threats. Assistance to the ill is almost exclusively pharmaceutical. In the ethical-juridical model, AIDS is viewed as a punishment for unspeakable moral transgressions, and the ill are described as victims. The medical diagnosis of AIDS is transformed into a judgment of the moral character of the patient. Education in this model is intended to identify those affected so that they can be isolated and marginalized. Society is conceived as a dichotomy of healthy and good versus sick and bad. The seropositive are viewed as outsiders for whom no responsibility need be felt. The integrating or liberating model is based on life, hope, and solidarity. The focus is not on the number of ill but on the need to maintain health. Obsessive interest in the origin of the epidemic is replaced by concern about its future course. Education and prevention programs recognize that human beings are multifaceted. The model seeks to displace fear from educational messages. AIDS patients are viewed as total persons, and not as clusters of disembodied symptoms.
INTEGRATION. 1992 Jun; (32):41-3.The Center for Family Orientation (COF), a private family planning agency with clinics in 8 provinces of Bolivia, initiated a bold, scientifically planned, and successful mass media campaign in 1986. As late as 1978 the Bolivian government had been hostile to COF. The Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services helped COF determine that the Bolivian public and its leaders were open to more information about family planning. Bolivia, the poorest Latin American country, then had 7 million people, expected to double in 27 years. There are 2 distinct indigenous groups, the Aymara and the Quechua, and Spanish-speaking people, centered in the cities of La Paz, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz, respectively. Only 4% of couples use modern family planning methods. Initial surveys of 522 opinion leaders, 300 family planning users, focus groups of users, and a population survey of 1300 people in 8 provinces showed that 90% wanted modern family planning services. Radio was chosen to inform potential users about COF's services, to increase clinic attendance, and to involve men. To obtain support from public leaders, 10 conferences were held. The 1st series of radio messages focused on health benefits of family planning and responsible parenthood; the 2nd series gave specific benefits, information on child spacing, breast feeding, and optimal ages for childbearing. Besides 36,800 radio spots broadcast on 17 stations, booklets, posters, calendars, promotional items, and audiotapes to be played in public busses, were all designed, pretested, and revised. New acceptors increased 71% during the 11-month campaign. Success of the project influenced the start of the National Reproductive Health Project and new IEC efforts planned through cooperation of public and private institutions.
Impact of the 1988-89 national AIDS communications campaign on AIDS-related attitudes and behaviors in Jamaica.
[Unpublished] 1990 Jun. iii, 61,  p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-3051-Z-00-8043-00)1,124 questionnaires were completed in order to assess the impact of a national AIDS communications campaign upon knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to the prevention of HIV transmission and AIDS in Jamaica. Awareness of AIDS was high at baseline, and remains so after the campaign. Significantly more persons understand that AIDS is preventable, yet many still think that changes in personal behavioral will do little to protect them from infection. A high degree of negative public sentiment exists against those with AIDS, with none of the popular AIDS myths having been completed eradicated. As for condoms, they enjoy a positive image, and are widely known of in the country. Their use is comparatively high in Jamaica, slightly up from baseline levels, and chosen especially among youth and singles. Occasional condom use is high largely with primary partners, while regular use is high with secondary partners. Overall, more effective behavioral change has taken place since the baseline survey. An increased number of persons have sexual relations with only 1 faithful partner. The campaign was widely seen and memorable, albeit with retention of key preventive measures low to moderate among the campaign audience. Quantitatively, these measures seem to have gotten through to a larger audience than that reached in an earlier round of the campaign. Efforts should be made to further dispel popular myths, stress the importance and effect of behavioral changes, promote the consistent practice of correct behaviors, develop revised motivational messages, and consider the role of interpersonal communication in campaigns all with a fresh, new approach.
NETWORK. 1991 Sep; 12(2):3.While family planning programs in Africa may pay great attention to motivating women to accept contraception, research indicated that more attention should be focused upon encouraging the continuation of contraceptive use. 2 studies partially funded by Family Health International (FHI) have revealed insufficient counseling about potential side effects of contraceptive methods to be a key reason for contraception discontinuation. A 1st study of 650 women acceptors in the Niger found 70% continuation after 7 months, with the most common reason for discontinuation among those terminating contraception being side effects and fear of side effects. Acceptors who felt that they were poorly counseled were twice as likely to end use. A study of 570 acceptors in the Gambia found a 72% continuation rate after 7 months, with discontinuation 3-4 times more likely where poor counseling was perceived. A 3rd study is planned for Senegal. The provision of improved acceptor counseling may both improve service delivery and reduce program costs. FHI report recommendations have prompted the Niger to emphasize counseling about side effects in its midwife training curriculum, and to pursue a public information campaign against rumors of contraceptive method side effects.
AIDS WATCH. 1991; (13):3-7.India's response to AIDS has ranged from a 3-phase official surveillance program begun by the India Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in 1985, to legislation criticized as "bigoted and superficial", to conflicting messages, panic and confusion. The ICMR has determined that HIV is transmitted mainly by heterosexual contacts in India. In the media the Director-General of the ICMR was cited as recommending that sex with foreign visitors be banned, as a way to contain the HIV epidemic. Media also reported that defective ELISA screening kits were imported into India that infection control in some hospitals is sub-optimal, that the blood and blood products supply is grossly contaminated with HIV and that certain commercial blood donors were infected from giving blood. All foreign students currently must be HIV-negative to get a visa. It is a major problem to plan an AIDS education campaign with India's large illiterate population and dozens of languages. An AIDS network is emerging incorporating ICMR, the All India Institute of Medical Science, the Central Health Education Bureau, Mother Teresa's order, and a newly formed gay awareness group with the newsletter "Bombay Dost."
[Educational information on family planning, sex education and related subjects for a telephone "hot line"] Informacoes educativas sobre planejamento familiar, orientacao sexual e temas correlatos por telefone-"hot line".
[Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the II Congreso Latino-Americano de Planificacion Familiar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 20-24, 1989.  p.In 1982 the idea of setting up a telephone hotline to provide family planning and contraceptive information was conceived at the pilot clinic of BEMFAM (Civil Society of Family Welfare in Brazil) in Porto Alegre, and a secretarial telephone was utilized. A 1979 law prohibited the dissemination of messages or information on contraceptive methods, but BEMFAM launched an effort to alter this prohibition. There was an announcement in the newspaper Zero Hora about this service functioning 24 hours a day every day including holidays. A national debate with newspaper headlines about the deleterious effect of inculcating contraceptive education in youths followed the commencement of the hotline, but the positive reaction outweighed the negative comments, and as a result even the penal restriction was modified. During the first weeks of the line's operation, volume exceeded 10 calls/hour. As expansion was necessitated, a new line about the pill was introduced followed by lines on tubal ligation, vasectomy, and sexually transmitted diseases. Information was also provided for a few hours a day on the abstinence method, on diaphragms, condoms, and spermicides, on adolescent contraception, on marital infertility, on frigidity, on menopause, on the prevention of gynecological cancer, on AIDS on pregnancy, and on other topics. The local telephone company also listed these hotline numbers in the telephone directory. Later on, updated telephone equipment with display allowed accurate data collection for statistical purposes. During the 7 years of its functioning the hotline accomplished its stated goals by disseminating information about family planning, cancer prevention, venereal diseases, and other aspects and issues of public health.
[Unpublished] . 23,  p.A review of 2 AIDS public education campaigns conducted in the UK in 1986-88 points to the importance of national surveys in tracking public opinion and aiding in the reformulation of AIDS prevention messages. The 1st campaign, from March 1986-February 1987, utilized a mix of media--national press and youth magazine advertising, street posters in 1500 urban centers, radio and television commercials, and mass distribution of a leaflet entitled "AIDS: Don't Die of Ignorance"--to educate the general public about AIDS, offer advice and reassurance, and modify high-risk behaviors. 4 surveys conducted during the 1st year of the campaign, each involving 700 interviews, indicated the highest awareness figures for any social persuasion campaign ever conducted in the UK. 82% of respondents were able to describe the content of the publicity campaign in sufficient detail to be certain they had seen it. Television was the most effective medium (91%), followed by newspapers (67%), and posters (65%). Despite this high awareness and significant improvements in public knowledge about transmission of the AIDS virus, there was little evidence of behavioral change among heterosexuals (e.g., negative attitudes toward condoms were unaffected) and an actual strengthening of negative attitudes toward risk groups such as homosexuals and intravenous drug abusers. A 2nd media campaign was thus conducted in February-June 1988 to convince heterosexuals, especially those 16-30 years of age, to adopt safer sex practices. 2 60-second television advertisements under the slogan, "AIDS. You know the risk. THe decision is yours" were the center of this campaign. The 2nd campaign was found to increase the quality and depth of understanding of AIDS imparted in the 1st campaign and condom use among survey respondents rose from 34% in December 1987 to 53% in December 1988.
CLINICAL NURSE SPECIALIST. 1989 Spring; 3(1):46-7.The need for public education on methods of preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is universally accepted. Less widely accepted is the use of advertisements in the media for condoms. Opponents of condom advertising argue that a message of sexual permissiveness is conveyed and the rights of parents to directly educate their children is infringed upon. Clinical nurse specialists are influenced by this debate in as much as they provide health education and health care for many at risk of HIV infection. Although State Nurses' Association position papers on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have not commented on this issue, clinical nurse specialists are urged to actively support the mass media in a t least airing public service announcements about condom use. It is possible for such announcements to provide a clear portrayal of the health promotion aspects of condom use with out condoning extramarital sexual activity. In addition, clinical nurse specialists are encouraged to make themselves available by phone for those who hear the public service announcements or advertisements and have questions. A further recommendation is for clinical nurse specialists to visit colleges, high schools, and middle schools to discuss the material on AIDS prevention presented in the mass media with young people.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):37-42.The potential for the Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) can only be realized, and a significant reduction in the infant mortality achieved, if all forces are mobilized worldwide. In industrialized countries, it is essential that the general public become aware of the recent breakthroughs in social development, and that the potential only now exists to reduce infant mortality and to improve child development on the basis of a combination of new knowledge and communication capacities that now exist in developing countries. National Committees for UNICEF, meeting in Rome in October 1984, developed lines of action for disseminating the CDSR message to the public in their respective countries and in mobilizing public opinion, NGOs and governments. A 3-point action plan was drawn up, to include awareness-raising through the diffusion of the CSDR message to target groups (media, opinion leaders); through an assessment in each of their countries of immunization levels, breastfeeding, and growth monitoring practices and advocacy with NGOs working on behalf of children in developing countries so that the measures recommended by UNICEF are included in their projects.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Division . 64 p.The Ministry of Plan Implementation organized a series of seminars for leaders of public opinion as a prelude to the International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development which was held in Sri Lanka from Aug. 28 to Sept. 1, 1979. The objectives of these seminars were to raise public awareness and concern on the linkages between population and development and to forumlate basic guidelines for the briefing of the Ceylon Parliamentary delegation to the International Conference. These seminars consisted of reports on: population and development medical personnel; population and development nongovernment organizations; seminar report on population development-ayurvedic physicians; population and development government agents and senior government officials; population and development mass media personnel and population and development parliamentarians. The series of seminars, deliberations and discussions surfaced the problems confronted in the organization of population and family planning activities in Sri Lanka. Dennis Hapugalle stressed the need for sterilization programs in rural areas and qualified physicians. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, as a nongovernment organization concentrates on information, education, and research in family planning, in cooperation with the government's clinical services. Its programs consist of clinical services for family planning and subfertile couples; information education services; community level programs; population education for youth; women's development activities; nutrition programs; training programs, environmental and population laws; and research. A. W. Abeysekera spoke of the role of the mass media in the diffusion of knowledge as well as the difference between development and growth. Growth relates to national income and can be defined as an increase in aggregate output. Development includes changes in social structure and allocation of resources. Deficiencies in the delivery of services were discussed by Neville Fernando. Family planning services should be given very high priority.
[Unpublished] 1978. Paper presented at National Workshop on Innovative Projects in Family Planning and Rural Institutions in Bangladesh, Dacca, Bangladesh, Feb. 1-4, 1978. 9 p.The concept of integration of family planning with other development programs has led to the innovation of a multisectoral approach to population control and family planning in Bangladesh. Population education through rural cooperatives is 1 such pilot project currently under implementation. Primary cooperatives are 1 of the few widespread, tangible, and viable rural institutions operating within the village. This paper summarizes the activities undertaken so far to create an awareness of the population problem among rural cooperative and other village leaders and to enlish their support in spreading the message of family planning. The Project has passed through the following stages: 1) The establishment of a viable working infrastructure; 2) The preparation for field activities by raising and formalizing support from locally relevant authorities. The Project team initiated a series of regular contacts through personal visits and correspondence; 3) The development and execution of a 4-month training module for the leaders (based on weekly classes) to achieve acceptability and committment by the leaders; to ascertain attitudes, values, and beliefs in order to gauge what motivational stimuli villagers will respond to; to discover links between previous experiences of change in response to the felt needs of communities and that of contemporary problems; to test various educational practices, materials and motivational approaches; and to help the cooperative manager to motivate his fellow members and counter arguments against family planning likely to be thrown at him. A description of the training sessions is provided. Phase 4 will consist of follow-up and Phase 5 will entail evaluation. The paper concludes with a detailed list of preliminary findings.
In: Report of the seminar on Regional Consultation on Updating the Motivation Strategy, 1st to 4th October 1979. Colombo, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Indian Ocean Regional Office, 1979? 133-54.This overview of the family welfare program in India begins with a discussion of the imbalance between birth and death rates brought about by improved control of communicable diseases which has led to rapid population growth in most of the developing world. The evolution of India's population policy is briefly outlined, and changes in policy in the various 5-year plans are indicated. The salient features of the present population policy are listed. The organization of the family welfare program at the national headquarters and the state and union territory level is described. Family planning activities at the postpartum centers, the role of voluntary organizations, and research and training activities are discussed. The motivational strategy attempts to resolve ambivalence concerning the use of family limitation measures. A climate favoring family limitation is developing, aided by the use of mass media to restore credibility to the program following the recent setbacks. Strategies to desensitize the topic of birth control in the public mind are listed. Efforts to reach the people directly will be stressed. The organization and aims of orientation camps for village leaders are described. Some successful strategies tested in Bangalore are discussed. The aims, methods, and results of existing evaluation studies are indicated.
In: Report of the seminar on Regional Consultation on Updating the Motivation Strategy, 1st to 4th October 1979. Colombo, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Indian Ocean Regional Office, 1979? 95-114.The national family planning program of Nepal provided contraceptive services to 6.5% of the target couples by 1978. Information and awareness of family planning must be communicated to the population before couples can be motivated to practice it. A combination of modern and traditional media are used for spreading information about family planning. Personal communication by local leaders is a suitable means of enhancing family planning acceptance in Nepal. Radio, newspapers, film, information leaflets, booklets, and posters, indigenous folk media and exhibitions are also used by the Family Planning Association of Nepal, which is responsible for most communication efforts. Separate motivation projects of the FPA involve spreading the message of family planning through indigenous folk media, orienting students serving in the National Development Service, cooperation with development agencies, and orientation and training of special groups to gain the support of opinion leaders and elites for family planning. The FPA also administers the Rural Family Welfare Center which provides motivational services, contraceptive supplies and simple drugs for 30 panchayats, and the Boudha Bahunpati Family Welfare Project, which provides comprehensive family planning and basic health services in the Sindhupalchok district while encouraging a wide range of development activities. The experience of the 2 projects indicates that the contraceptive acceptance rate reflects the intensity of family planning program efforts.
Lahore, Family Planning Association of Pakistan, 1978. 28 p.Sukhi Ghar (Happy Home) was first published in 1969 as a family-oriented journal to publicize family planning among all age groups. The first 1000 copies were sent free to selected members of the Family Planning Association of Pakistan, District family planning boards, and welfare organizations. By 1974 circulation reached 35,000, of which 25,000 are on a direct mailing list basis. Most readers are rural or peri-urban based, and urban readers are in lower income groups. The present study reports the results of a survey of reader opinion and knowledge of Sukhi Ghar conducted by means of a prepaid questionnaire enclosed in the May 1976 and March 1977 issues. 4215 questionnaires were returned by June 1977, of which 4200 were usable. 79.4% of respondents reported they do not read any other magazine about family planning. 93.7% of respondents said they receive information about family planning from the magazine. Survey results indicate that most respondents found the presentation and composition of the magazine suitable or adequate. Suggestions for other features to be added were mainly for articles on other topics, such as religion or general information, but 1125 readers requested more information on family plnning, mother and child care, and sex, which may indicate a lifting of traditional taboos on discussion of family planning in the home. About 72% of respondents were between ages 15 and 30, 72.5% were married, 21% had 1 child, 20.3% had 2 children, 15.5% had 3 children, 10.1% had 5 or more children, and 7.3% had no children.
[Unpublished] 1982. Presented at the Conference on Vasectomy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 4-7, 1982. 13 p.There are 2 general types of barriers to vasectomy acceptance, cultural and individual. Cultural barriers include: 1) the idea that contraception should be the woman's responsibility, 2) that vasectomy represents a tampering with the natural processes of reproduction and this conflicts with many religions, 3) there is confusion over the legal status of vasectomy even though very few countries actually prohibit it, 4) the idea that men, due to their higher status in many societies, should not be exposed to unnecessary risks, 5) the idea that men who are not capable of reproducing have no worth in society, and 6) that men may need to be able to reproduce at a future date since in many societies only men are permitted to remarry. Research on psychological barriers to vasectomy is based on followup studies of vasectomized men and shows that negative male attitudes toward vasectomy stem from negative perceptions about the nature of consequences of the operation. Some men feel that vasectomy is like castration, that it is painful, has demasculinizing effects, causes a loss of vitality, and is irreversible. The population must be educated in order to overcome these barriers. Any communication program must include: 1) identifying existing sources of motivation for vasectomy, 2) increasing awareness of vasectomy through mass media and interpersonal channels, 3) increasing awareness through wider availability of the operation, and 4) improving the public attitude by publicizing client satisfaction with the operation. Men should be encouraged to seek vasectomy for the intrinsic benefits of the operation.
Bangkok, Ministry of Public Health, National Family Planning Programme, Thai Population Clearing-House-Documentation Centre, 1983 Jan. 101 p. (ASEAN/Australian Project No. 3: Developing/Strengthening National Population Information Ststems and Networks in ASEAN Countries)To study the flow of population information from the producers to the users in Thailand and to evaluate the use of population information by the user groups, users were divided into 3 groups--policy makers and acamedicians, program implementors, and the general public. Data were collected by mail questionnaire. Among the policy makers and the academicians, basic demographic data were the most utilized. Academicians indicated that data on population and family planning were consistent with their needs. Considering usefulness of the data for their work, data on family planning policy and birth control were the most useful for makers while basic demographic data were the most useful for academicians. Data on urbanization, law, and population policy of other countries seemed to be the least utilized and the least useful. The policy makers did not receive enough information on: population and social and economic development, production and consumption of agricultural products, population education, and law and population policy of Thailand. The academicians did not receive enough information on almost all 13 topics except information about population policy and birth control, services, and administration. Both groups indicated that the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) was the major source of the data they received. The policy implementors dealt with documents and printing materials in family planning and indicated that the "Journal of Family Health", format was suitable. Regarding the programmed manual or lessons in family planning, the implementors indicated that they were interesting and consistent with their needs. Regarding the kit, the folder, sampling of contraceptive devices, and the model of the uterus were the most utilized materials. The implementors indicated that folders on 6 types of contraceptive methods were useful and adequate for their work. The study directed to the general public dealt with information in family planning disseminated through radio and posters. 2 types of programs were transmitted the radio: song supplemented with information on family planning and drama supplemented with information. The public indicated that the 1st type was a good and interesting program. The respondents evaluated the drama program as good. The majority of the respondents had seen the posters about family planning and indicated a fair amount of interest in them.